Hungary

of these articles treats the State of Hungary. To the people of the same name see Magyaren.
Magyar Köztársaság
Republic of Hungary
Flagge Ungarns Wappen Ungarns
(detail) (detail)
office language Hungarian
capital Budapest
system of government Republic of
head of state László Sólyom
Prime Minister Ferenc Gyurcsány
surface 93,030 km ² (of it 690km ² waters)
number of inhabitants 10.085.000 1 (2005)
population density of 108.5 inhabitants per km ²
independence to 31. October 1918
currency Forint
time belt UTC +1
national anthem Himnusz
Kfz characteristic H
internet TLD .hu
preselection +36

(1) source: Statistic central office Hungary

Lage Ungarns in Europa
Karte

those Republic of Hungary (Hungarian official Magyar Köztársaság Tondokument ? / License, generally usually Magyarország) is a state in Central Europe, whose majority takes the Pannoni basin. It borders on Austria, the Slowakei, the Ukraine, Romania, Serbia, Croatia and Slovenia.

The today's State of (European Union - member since 2004) formed the double monarchy Austria Hungary until 1918 with Austria. To the Hungarian realm half the Slowakei, a majority of Romania, Croatia and small parts of Serbia, Poland belongedand the Ukraine.

Table of contents

state and national name

the self designation that Hungary deviates strongly from the foreign names for Hungary. Thus dips magyar (discussion/madjar/of ung. magyar [ˈmɒɟɒr]); in former times magyeri) already in 9. and 10. Century in Islamic sources up. It is probably a Komposit out magy (< ugrisch *mańćε = „humans, man, sex “) and it (i) (likewise „humans, man, sex “). However it is to be noted that the word at firstonly of seven nomadischen trunks designated, in 9. and 10 beginning. Century predatory ideas in Europe, particularly in Grossmähren, undertook. These trunks were called Megyer (Magyar), Tarján, Jenő, Kér, Keszi, shorten Gyarmat and Nyék. Toward end 10. Century is it the trunk of the Magyaren - D. h. the descendant Árpáds - successfully to combine the remaining trunks under its upper rule. From then on can of Magyaren (although not yet inethnical sense) to be spoken.

The name „Hungary “arrived from Slawi into the European languages. The slawische word can be attributed to the bulgarotürkische master designation onogur ( on = „ten “ + ogur = „trunk “), which resulted from the fact that the ancestorsthat Hungary in 5. and 6. Century in close connection with the realm of the Onoguren lived, whose prominent master federation was called „Onoguren “. „The h “in latin hungarus (and thus also in some other languages) resulted from the fact that the name erroneous-proved alsothe Hunnen (Hunni) one equated.

origin theories

the Wissenschafter around Luigi Luca Cavalli Sforza point out that at the most 10% of humans today living in Hungary descend from the landtaking magyarischen kinships, which permits the conclusion that itto a large cultural fusion with the original inhabitants (supposed Slawen, Awaren, Hunnen, Teuton, novels etc.) of the Karpatenbeckens came. This would mean again that descending legends and distorting shank statements (z. B. hold a true core with the Hunnen).

ThisOpinions are extremely questionable (because speculatively), although also in the course of the circulations during (quite late) „the people migrations “in this area (Karpatenbecken) mixtures were quite possible and/or. actually occurred. Scientific durable vouchers for any distorting shanks (supports also) There are not numbers. Ethnologen try to point linkages out with reference to thing in common in the people art and language. To consider anyhow the population trend is during the Turkish crew time (nevertheless approx. 150 years long) and during the new settlement due to that moving robe run gene (south movementslowakischer farmers, north movement of Serbian farmers and the new settlement of German families).

See also: Magyaren

Geografie

NASA satellite photograph of Hungary in December 2002

national borders

lowlandses

the Danube and Theiss divide Hungary into the western Transdanubien with that Small Hungarian lowlandses (Hungarian Kisalföld) and the large Hungarian lowlandses (Hungarian Alföld).

The fruitful small one Hungarian lowlandses in the northwest of Hungary consists mainly of the basin of Győr. The varied landscape certainly by easily wavy, small hillsand cut plates. By fruitful loess and due to the mild climate intensive agriculture can be operated.

The large Hungarian lowlandses take almost half of the entire national territory of Hungary. It is a very even, spacious surface and is alsoin before-historical time aufegschütteten Geröllen and Sanden cover. The Alföld is along the Theiss pulled through interspersed by Auenlandschaften and with individual forest islands. The dewatering of the Auen and the Rodung of the forests led to the increasing salting of the soils. Thus developedthe typical Puszta with Ziehbrunnen, single farmsteads and extensive pastoral industry. Due to aufwändiger irrigation measures developed fruitful soils, which make the cultivation of tobacco , corn and sunflowers possible. The Naitonalpark Hortobágy developed in order to protect the original Puszta landscape.

See also: National park in Hungary.

mountains

the Hungarian low mountain ranges run from the bending mountains in the northeast up to the Bakonywald in the west. Nearly all low mountain ranges in Hungary carry close hardwood forest in higher situations. The slopes and basins are with fruitful soilscovered, so that field, fruit and viticulture are made possible. Is called sources, which arise at the edges of the low mountain ranges, are certifications of a past and lively volcanism. Also the volcanic rocks of the Bakonywaldes and the Mátragebirges in the north confirm this.Except for these exceptions the other low mountain ranges consist in Hungary of dolomite and limestone. The wooded Mecsekgebirge in the southwest of Hungary rises island-like and is high up to 682 m. In the northeast of Hungary the Mátragebirge lies. There standsalso the collection of Hungary, the Kékes highest with 1014 m.

cities

the city in Hungary, largest with distance, is the capital Budapest with approximately 1.9 million inhabitants. Thus well 17% of the population in the capital concentrate. Those in the following five largestCities are Debrecen and bad scour with a population of approximately 200,000, Szeged and Pécs (approx. 165,000 inhabitants) as well as Győr (130,000 inhabitants).

All larger places are listed under list of the cities and places in Hungary.

waters

  • The largest seas of Hungary are:
    • Balaton (German: Disk lake) in the gebirgigen west Hungary
    • Velencei tó (German: Velencer lake)
    • Fertő tó (German: New settler lake; ¾ in Austria).

climate

Klimadiagramm Budapest
climatic diagram Budapest

Because of the Binnenlage and the shielding effect of the mountains Hungary has a relatively dry continental climate with cold winters and warm summers. The middle temperatures are appropriate for -3 in January between -1 °C and °C as well as in July between 21 °C and23 °C. In the early summer the most productive precipitation is to be registered. The middle amount of precipitation amounts to in the west due to the prevailing, rain west hoist bringing approximately 800 millimeters, while in the eastern regions in dry years 500 millimeters can be fallen below. ThoseHeight of the precipitation remove altogether from the west eastward.

population

population trend of Hungary

the population of Hungary consists by the majority of Hungary (89%, also: Magyaren). Besides there is Roma (5%), German (Danube swabia) (2.6%), Romanian (2%), Serb (1%), Slowaken (1%) Ruthenen (0.9%), Jeni (0.5%). Further live in the west of the country approx. 10,000 castle land Croats. For 2001 a population growth of - 0.32% became estimated. A cause is the low birth rate (approximately 10Births on 1000 inhabitants). Before the Second World War the minority of the Roma was more strongly represented, in addition and in the country approximately 800,000 Jews lived. Today approximately 80,000 Jews live, usually in the capital in Hungary.

religions andDenominations

see also: Baptisten in Hungary

history

major item: History of Hungary

ninth to 15. Century

the Magyarenmoved, aforementioned from the large prince Árpád end 9. Century into the Karpatenbecken and raids led Europe through completely. They were successfully resumed also by Árpáds successors, to 955 Otto I.the attacks that Hungary by a destroying victoryon the Lechfeld to limit could. The Kingdom of Hungary became 1000 of Stephan I. based, which arranged the country (against the embittered resistance of the old aristocracy) after karolingischem model (reason to Comitatswesens existing today).

In „the Mongol storm “, several attacks that Golden horde/hurdle of the Mongols under the army leader Batu Khan in the years 1241 and 1242 devastates and durably depopulated (50% of the population of Hungary died thereby). King Béla IV.German settlers (Swabia) called in the country for the new settlement,in the future magyarisierten themselves.

In the year 1301 Andreas's III. died., the last ruler of the house Árpád. 1370-1386 and 1440-1444 were governed Hungary under the Anjou and Jagiellonen in personnel union with Poland.

In the future Hungary hadonly a Hungarian king, Matthias Corvinus, which governed the country 1458-1490. Under highly educated Matthias ascended Hungary to the political great power and to a center of the Renaissance culture as well as the human. As a Renaissance prince it took scholars and artists offItaly to its yard, created the university in press castle, (Pozsony, today Bratislava) and the Corvina in furnace (Budapest); its large realm disintegrated after its death.

1490-1526 governed the Polish litauischen Jagiellonen Hungary and Böhmen in personnel union.

Of 16. up to 19. Century

the end of the independence of Hungary came around the center 16. Century at the same time with osmanischen conquests. To 29. August 1526 defeated Sultan Süleyman II. with Mohács (a memorial place is there since 1976). King Ludwig II. of Böhmen and Hungary, which drowned on the escape. The largest part of Hungary came under Turkish rule, the parts not conquered yet came either under habsburgische rule (like the west of upper Hungary) or from Hungary was separatedand as Principality of filter defiency guarantee posed under osmanische sovereignty.

After 145 years of Turkish occupation of Hungary Buda fell in the year 1686, and Hungary was back-conquered by the having citizens. The Hungary disapproved however the hard rule of the having citizens, so that it of 1703 until 1711 to the Kuruzenaufstand under prince Franz II. Rákóczi came, an aristocrat from filter defiency guarantees. Since the tensions between the Hungarian aristocracy and the Viennese yard could not be eliminated, they unloaded themselves (after unblutigen apparently concerted negotiations and concessions of theEmperor opposite the Hungary) in the revolution of 1848/1849, which was bloodily struck down with the help of Russia (with appointment to „the holy alliance “), and the climate in the monarchy durably worsened.

After continuous unrests in the country Hungary became throughthe Austrian-Hungarian reconciliation of 1867 equal (more autonomous) part of the total realm Austria Hungary. The realm was finally combined in the person of the emperor (the personnel union, de jure justified by the pragmatic sanction, becomes in fact the material union). Prominently at success of theReconciliation for the Hungarian side Ferenc Deák and count Gyula Andrássy were involved. However this many people state withstood internal unrests (also due to nationality conflicts in the course of the Magyarisierungspolitik) not for a long time and disintegrated after the lost First World War intoits national components.

from 1918 to 1945

Hungary explained to 31. October 1918 the withdrawal from the Austrian-Hungarian monarchy. A reconstruction of the monarchy was forbidden in the course of the negotiations in Versailles (contract of Trianon). Alreadyshortly thereafter, to 16. November 1918, was proclaimed a democratic republic. First president became count Mihály Károlyi. The social bad states in consequence of the lost war continued however. The government was fallen by communists under guidance Béla Kunsand a soviet republic based, which should not have however long existence. Under approval of the Entente - states marched Czechoslovakian, Serbian and Romanian troops into the country and fell the soviet republic already after 4 months reign.

In January 1920 Miklós Horthy becamefrom the national assembly to realm Weser selected. The government recognized thereupon the peace treaty from Trianon , after whose conditions Hungary of two thirds of its national territory transfer had. Hungary approached due to economic crises and revisionistic propaganda politically ever more National Socialist Germanyon. From this also the war entrance followed to 27. June 1941 on sides of the Axis powers. When Hungary was occupied starting from in the middle of March 1944 of German troops and a Kollaborationsregierung was used under cathedrals Sztójay, the Deportation of the Jewish population began. Over200.000 on the national territory of 1937 living Jews died in concentration and extermination camps. Further ones over 200.000 victims originated from the areas, which Hungary had occupied after the Viennese arbitral awards. After the fall Horthys 1944 became the war participationunder the fascist movement of the Pfeilkreuzler of Ferenc Szálasi continued. For Hungary the fighting of the Second World War ended with the invasion of the Red Army to 4. April 1945.

Eastern Bloc, Hungary rebellion, turn and European Union

Hungary came under SovietInfluence, and to 20. August 1949 was decided a condition after Russian model. Until 1953 Hungary under Mátyás Rákosi pursued a stalinistischen course. To 23. October 1956 came it to a rising of the people, into its process Imre Nagy, thatalready from 1953 to 1955 Prime Minister was, again the Prime Minister was appointed. It educated a multi-party government, demanded the parliamentary democracy and the neutrality of Hungary. The rebellion was struck down however by the Soviet army bloodily and many Hungary left after thatfailed rising of the people the country and emigrierten to Western Europe and North America. Nagy was executed, János Kádár, up to then deputy Prime Minister, became Secretary-General of the Hungarian socialist labour party and Prime Minister and remained until 1988 in this position.

Under its government took placeRestaurant economics. 1988 formed, those for groups of oppositions the peaceful system change advanced and the legitimacy of the Soviet (actually Russian) supremacy in question placed (Imre Pozsgay, which contradicted the doctrine of „the countering revolution of 1956 in the office of a Minister of State publicly “) was mentioned.Also in the communist USAP were there oppositionals voices, which demanded free elections and the departure of the Soviet troops. This introduced the border opening to Austria and thus cutting the iron curtain . Together with the minister of foreign affairs of Hungary, Gyula horn, Alois Mock ( minister of foreign affairs of Austria) split to 27. June 1989 in a symbolic action the Stacheldraht at the border between Austria and Hungary.

Hungary had crucial portion of the political turn of 1989 in the former Eastern Bloc countries and concomitantlyat the peaceful revolution in the GDR, which smoothed the way to the entry of the GDR to the area of application of the Basic Law of the Federal Republic of Germany.

Since the collapse of the USSR Hungary (seen political) became part of the western state system (entry to NATO 1999 and entry to the European union at the 1. May 2004 in the course of the European Union extension to the East). The entry to the European union was carried out with the agreement of a clear majority of the population. The initial enthusiasm is in view of itself (economically) the worseningSituation of numerous humans (in particular old humans) of a disillusionment yielded. The result are resignation and political lack of interest (so one knows the election turnout of the referendum to the European Union entry (12. April 2005) interpret: 84% were correct for the entry, but only 45.6%the eight million voters went to the tuning.).

See also: List of the Hungarian rulers, list of the Hungarian presidents

politics

after the case of the iron curtain 1989/90 was renewed also the Hungarian commonwealth. To 23. October 1989 steppeda modified condition into force, whose model was among other things the German Basic Law. The government is responsible to the parliament, for the government activity carries the Prime Minister Verantwortung. In order to ensure the greatest possible stability of the government, the institution of the constructional becameVote of no confidence production.

Die Sitzverteilung im ungarischen Parlament nach den Wahlen am 27. Mai 2002
The allocation of seats in the Hungarian parliament after the elections to 27. May 2002

the parliament selects the president of the republic, the Prime Minister, the members of the constitutional court, the Ombudsmann of the minorities, the presidents of the highest court and thatProsecutor general. The a chamber parliament has 386 delegates, who are selected on four years. In Hungary there is a mixed switching system, similarly as in Germany. Since August 2000 the non-party Ferenc Mádl was as a president, who is selected for 5 years,in the office; for a re-election in the year 2005 he did not stand as a candidate however any longer, so that itself the MSzP, which united current government party, on Katalin Szili as a presidency candidate. Szili found however with the choice, to 6. and 7. June, no support took place by the smaller coalition partner, the liberal SzDSz (federation suitor democrat); it cannot embody the non-partisanness of a president as a party politician. The SzDSz did not participate in the choice. Thus László Sólyom won the choice, formerPresident of the Hungarian constitutional court, who is supported by the opposition.

The Hungarian policy is coined/shaped since the introduction of free and secret elections 1990 of constant majority changes. Until 2006 it created, longer no government than a legislative period in the officeto remain.

Peter Boross was the successor of József Antall as an Prime Minister of the Republic of Hungary of December 1993 to June 1994. He was before Minister of the Interior. With the logging-off of Boross 1994 the government responsibility of the Hungarian democratic forum ended. Boross was in the reign of Viktor Orbán (Fidesz) 1998-2002 as its advisors actively, dissociated itself however later from Orbán.

Like that is since the parliamentary elections of 27. May 2002 again the MSzP (a Hungarian socialist party) together with the SzDSz within the government responsibility.The current Prime Minister Ferenc Gyurcsány, since that the 29. September 2004 officiated, is successor of Péter Medgyessy, which had withdrawn after attempts of the government restructuring. Minister of foreign affairs is Ferenc Somogyi, to 2. November 2004 the follow-up of László Kovács, which new Hungarian European Union commissioner, had begun.

To 9. and 23. April 2006 again parliamentary elections took place. An acting government was red-elect for the first time. See in addition: Parliamentary elections in Hungary 2006

military

MiG-29 der ungarischen Luftwaffe der MH.59 in Kecskemét mit der Nummer 04 bei der Landung
MiG-29 of the HungarianAir Force of the MH.59 in Kecskemét with the number 04 with the landing

major item: A standing

army from career soldiers has Hungarian armed forces Hungary, in former times with a general Wehrplicht of 18. Lebensjahr at and with an active service of 18 months. ThoseTotal strength amounts to (contrary to in the peace treaty of 1947 specified 65,000 the men for the army and 5,000 for the Air Force) today 91,000 men. These distribute themselves as follows:

  • 68,000 men in the army (including Danube flotilla)
  • 23,000 men at the Air Force

In addition 15,000 men safety and border troops and a Arbeitsmiliz of 60.000 men comes.

The supreme command is with the Secretary of Defense.

Starting from March 2006 in Hungary the new Saab JAS-39 Gripen from Sweden will be in use and starting from 2009 active to thatNATO exercises participate. With the testing of the airplanes in December 2005 one began.

Also a small number of Hungarian soldiers is in the Iraq, who play however no large role there. It is well-known that the reserve basis of the Hungarian Air Forcein Kaposvár before the Iraq war by the US Air Force one rented. However one speculates whether perhaps also US secret service coworkers were prepared or trained on the basis mentioned for the war in the Iraq.

See also: Hungarian military airfields [

work on] administrative arrangement

would list

Hungaryis divided in 19 Komitate and 24 cities with Komitatsrecht (under it the capital Budapest). 1999 were divided the country in seven regions to also fulfill in order the editions of the European union. The Komitate again is divided into „small areas “, into GROOVE - „LAU1 “correspond to system of the European Union of the level.

Cities with Komitatsrecht
(since)
Komitate
regions Komitate in the region
  • Nyugat Dunántúl
    (Westtransdanubien)

  • Közép Dunántúl
    (Mitteltransdanubien)

  • Dél Dunántúl
    (Südtransdanubien)

  • Észak Magyarország
    (north Hungary)

  • Közép Magyarország
    (central Hungary)
  • Észak Alföld
    (northern large lowlandses)

  • Dél Alföld
    (southern large lowlandses)

  • Győr Moson Sopron
    Vas
    Zala
  • Fejér
    Komárom Esztergom
    Veszprém (Komitat)
  • Baranya
    Somogy
    Tolna
  • Borsod Abaúj Zemplén
    Heves
    Nógrád
  • Budapest (capital)
    plague (Komitat)
  • Hajdú Bihar
    Jász Nagykun Szolnok
    Szabolcs Szatmár Bereg
  • Bács Kiskun
    Békés
    Csongrád (Komitat)

see also: List of the cities and places in Hungary, list of the Komitate Hungary
Web left: Political map of Hungary, divided in Komitate

infrastructure

traffic

traffic

thoseTraffic infrastructure is relatively well developed. Altogether there is four motorways, nummeriert with M1 (Budapest - Győr - state border Austria A4 east motorway), M3 (Budapest - Gyöngyös - M30 (bad scour) - M35 (Debrecen) - Nyíregyháza - state border Ukraine; partly in building), M5 (Budapest - Kecskemét - Szeged - state border Serbia), M7 (Budapest - Siófok - Nagykanizsa - M70 (state border Slovenia) - state border Croatia; partly still in building) and the M0, than by-pass around Budapest. The motorway net had 2006a length of 677 km.

Viele weitere Autobahnen und Schnellstraßen sind in Planung, teilweise schon in Bau oder schon halbseitig fertig gestellt, beispielsweise die M2 (Budapest – Vác – Grenze SK/Šahy), M4 (Budapest – Szolnok – Berettyóújfalu – Grenze RO/Oradea), M6 (Budapest - Dunaújváros - Szekszárd - Mohács - border HR/Osijek), M8 (border A/Graz - Körmend - Vasvár - Veszprém - Dunaújváros - Kecskemét - Szolnok), M9 (border A/Wiener new city - Sopron - Zalaegerszeg - Kaposvár - Szekszárd - Szeged).All motorways as well as many other fast and main streets approach star shaped on Budapest. The motorways flow into the M0, which is to be developed until 2015 to a complete ring around Budapest.

rail and air traffic

the railway linesapproach, like the motorways also, star shaped on the capital lain central. Operator companies are the Hungarian MÁV (Magyar Államvasutak blank.) and in west Hungary the Austrian-Hungarian GySEV /ROeEE (Győr Sopron Ebenfurthi Vasút blank. /Raab Ödenburg Ebenfurther railway AG).

International airport is Budapest Ferihegy southeast from Budapest(Terminal 1,2a, 2b). It is also the seat of the largest Hungarian airline Malév. In addition there are regional airfields, z. B. the airport Balaton.

See also: Hungarian airports [

work on] power supply

would been based mainly list

the power supply on thermal power stations, in which from coal and to a large extent imported oil and natural gas river is produced. Furthermore the nuclear energy with a portion of 38% of greater importance (atomic power plant in Paks ) is.

Contrary to other Danube neighboring states as for example Austria or the Slowakei, does not possess Hungary hydro-electric power plants on the Danube. This is above all because of the fact that the building of the Danube hydro-electric power plant encountered Gabčíkovo Nagymaros as well as the Slowakei large resistance on the part of the Hungarian population. Afterwards plans for further becameHydro-electric power plants in Hungary rejected.

water management

water supply

due to its basin-like structure orders Hungary compared with other states of Central Europe over relatively large water resources, with approx. 120 billion m 3 fresh water in the year lie. Of itbeen allotted however 90% to rivers, those outside of the state borders rise (Danube, Drau, Theiss). That means that the water quality of these rivers is to be affected only in limited extent by national measures. Beyond that Hungary has nationalProblems, which result particularly from the neglect of many years of the waste water treatment.

In Hungary 90% of the drinking water originate from groundwater resources. Altogether the annual taking out water quantity amounts to about 5500 millions m 3, about which about 85% Oberflächenwasser and 15%Groundwaters are. The average total taking out water per head lies in Hungary with approximately 550 m 3 in the year or 1500 litres per day, which corresponds approximately the double values of Poland, Romania or Tschechien and easily over German consumption(500 m 3 /Jahr/Person) lies. From this quantity are allotted to the public water supply approx. 13% (195 l/Tag/Person), on the industrie and energy production approx. 78% and on the agriculture approx. 9 %. Before the system turn was the water consumption stillimportantly more highly. The clear decrease is under the quiet putting by bauxite - and coal mines, the declining need of the industry and the constant rise of the water prices, since 1990 of the municipalities to be specified and by the dismantling of subsidiessubstantially rose. In Budapest z. B. the fees for fresh water amounted to 0.56 /m 3 and €the waste water fees 0.73 /m 3 in €the year 2004 (exchange rate of 12. May 2004). Many municipalities use in the meantime in addition a progressive water tariff, the highWater consumption punishes.

Of the 10.2 million Hungary meanwhile 98% are to the public potable water supply attached. However the quality of drinking water does not correspond to the minimum requirements of the European union yet in all areas of the country. Straight ones in rural areas exist often substantial,partial regional-specific difficulties the supply. A large problem is thereby partially also geotowards conditioned load of the drinking water with arsenic and nitrate and/or. Nitrites and other materials such as asbestos, iron, manganese, antimony, boron, Fluorides and iodides. Another problem are the numerous wild garbage depots, which lie in drinking water areas and contaminate because of sealing lacking the groundwater.

waste water disposal

the portion of the households, which are attached to the public duct system, is attachedabout 51% and concern approx. 60% of the population. The ratio of the households attached to the duct system varies however depending upon size of the city. In the capital Budapest is attached it with approximately 90%, in other large cities of Hungary75 %. In medium sized cities the connection ratio reaches 45 to 50%, and in villages it is only about 35%. The connection to the duct system means however still few over the following dressing of the water. Only about a third thatPopulation is so far also attached to purification plants, by which three quarters is equipped both with a primary and secondary cleaning stage. One finds a tertiary treatment stage, in the phosphorus and nitrogen to be removed, only in the few plants. The waste waterthose households, which are not attached to a public duct system, for instance to a third, predominantly in small sewage treatment plants, mostly multi-chamber setting off pits are decentralized treated. About 3200 municipalities in Hungary have at all no sewage system and no purification plant. On the other hand industrial waste waters become moreas 90% duly treats.

Fall annually in Hungary by local waste water over 100.000 t clarify-dredge in dry weight on, which are filled to the majority on dumps, in addition, are used in the agriculture as fertilizers or to be kompostiert.

economics

Hungary gains a gross domestic product (GROS DOMESTIC PRODUCT) of 20.414 billion Forint (2004, about 81 billion Euro), which corresponds to round 8,000 euro per head. 3.8% of the gross domestic product developed in the agriculture, 31.2% in the industryund 65 % im Dienstleistungssektor. With an export quota (goods export in per cent GROS DOMESTIC PRODUCT) of 65% the economy is very open. Approximately a third of export about 8% follow to Austria and about in each case 6% to Germany, Italy, France and Great Britain. Over half of export are allotted to goods of mechanical engineering and the vehicle industry. A high part of export is transacted by enterprises in foreign possession. Important industrial sites are v. A. the area Budapest andthe border region to Austria. The largest Hungarian enterprise is the mineral oil company MOL, in second place follows those AUDI Hungary Kft, which moved some for the Hungarian infrastructure, in particular around Győr.

An important role as source of income playsthe tourism in Budapest, in the Puszta and at the disk lake (Balaton).

economic parameterses

  • gross domestic product (GROS DOMESTIC PRODUCT) (2004): 80.9 billion € (1)
  • Gross domestic product per head (2004): 7.997 € (1)
  • economic growth (2004): 4.6% (2)
  • monthly gross income (2004): 580 € (2)
  • import (2004): 46,907 millions € (1)
  • Export (2004): 44.516 millions € (1)
  • Inflation rate (2004): 6.8% (2)
  • unemployment ratio (2004): 5.9% (1)
  • public expenditures
  • occupation distribution (2004) (2)

(1) source: Statistic central office Hungary (2) source: Federal Statistical Office Germany

public expenditures

between 1992 and 2000 was appropriate the portion for thatEconomic development

  • 2004/2005 the growth
  • of the Hungarian economy
  • 2004 on scarcely 4.6%
accelerated itself public expenditures for

the health service with

6% the training system with 9% the military with 2% [work on]. Thereby than the average remained weakerIncrease in production into Eastern European European Union entry countries, which tightened to approximately 5%. The economic growth in the past 15 European Union member states (2.3%) was however clearly exceeded. Main drive strength for growth in Hungary were 2004 beside the clearly higher exports the investments. Thatprivate consumption did not rise any longer as strongly as in the previous year. 2005 might be reduced the economic growth in Hungary - as in the other entry countries and into the EU-15-Staaten - in the course of an international decline in economic activity somewhat.

The rise of the consumer prices accelerateditself 2004 on 6,8%. The inflation speed was clearly higher thereby than in the whole of the entry countries (+ 4%). Background for the more rapid price rise than in the previous year were partially only „a mark effects “, which causes by the entry to the European Unionwere, in addition, - like everywhere - risen Rohstoffpreise. In addition nationally adjusted prices were raised as well as increased turnover and consumption taxes. Thus reached the 1. January 2004 three value added tax of sentences imported. The general control item amounts to further 25%, while the reducedSentence (for example for newspapers, books and food) was raised on 15% and a further control item for the tax-exempt medicines was introduced of 5%. 2005 might rise the prices therefore only around approximately 3 ½ %. To the 1. January2006 were lowered the main clause of the value added tax of 25% on 20%, in order to achieve the European means from 20% to. This happened also before the background of the efforts of Hungary to keep the Maastricht criteria.

The unemployment ratio could in Hungary to2001 scarcely under 6% to be pressed. It holds itself since that time with small fluctuations on this level. Apart from Slovenia no other eastCentral European European Union entry country proves a similarly low unemployment ratio. The average unemployment ratio in the European Union entry countries was attached 2004 in contrast to thisapproximately 14%, the unemployment ratio into the EU-15-Staaten were also higher with approximately 8%. Because of different methods with the determination of the number of unemployed the national unemployment ratios are internationally however only reduced comparable.

Weak points of the Hungarian economy are the high deficitsin the national budget and in the externaleconomical balance of payments on current account. Since the imported goods rose 2004 again clearly more strongly than the exports, the deficit in the balance of payments on current account with approximately 9% of the gross domestic product held itself on very high level.

The budgetary deficit could of 2002until 2004 of well 9% of the gross domestic product on scarcely 5% to be halved. Also 2005 could be presumably further pressed it. It might however with approximately 4% of the gross domestic product still clearly over the reference value of 3%GROS DOMESTIC PRODUCT are appropriate, which the Maastricht contract for a qualification for the participation in the European monetary union requires.

Arguments over the budget reorganization are located in the center of the Hungarian economic policy. They were a reason for the resignation from Prime Minister Péter Medgyessy in the autumn2004 and are also part of the controversies between the Hungarian government and the central bank.

The new Prime Minister Ferenc Gyurcsány called the assumption of the Euros in his inaugural speech in the parliament as his politico-economic goal up to the year 2010. But becomes in view ofthe high budget deficit a consistent austerity policy to be pursued must. Politico-economic topics become also with the next parliamentary elections, to 09. April 2006 take place, a large role play.

culture

catering trade

major item: Hungarian kitchen

the HungarianMeals apply compared with other European meals than relatively „heavy food “. A popular court that Hungary (frequently tituliert as national court) is pörkölt (not to confound with gulyás). Pörkölt does not only become in the German-speaking countries falsely also as Gulasch designates. In Hungary there is this both and disznó pörkölt (with Schweinefleisch) and as marhapörkölt (with beef). Pörkölni designates the procedure of the meat preparation (scorch in bulbs, Paprika and fat). The supplements to this court are variable and from regionto region differently.

The Gulyás cooked in Hungary is contrary to pörkölt a soup. The German designation „Gulaschsuppe “is thus correct (Hungarian gulyásleves). Traditionally the soup in the boiler (bogrács) is prepared. Cooking in this equipmentdecreases/goes back to the Nomadenzeit and is related to the Chinese version of the boiler: the Wok. The meat is pörkölt scorched first as , up-poured however after sufficient time with water. In addition one gives pieces of potato and Kümmel in addition (not so with pörkölt). For this court traditionally only beef is used. The fact that this like that is results from the word gulyás. The word gulya meant „cattle herd “, gulyás is the Rinderhirte (as it were the Hungarian cowboy).

Is world-famous beside the Paprika, which also husbands is particularly used as spice in the Hungarian and meanwhile also in foreign kitchens, the Tokajer (ung. Tokaji), a sweet the ore wine from the Tokajer wine area (ung. tokaji borvidék). For this wine only latematuring becomeRebsorten used, so that the Weintrauben are enough not only from the dry, hot summers, but also of, warm and fog-rich Herbsten profit.

architecture

the black church in Braşov

some the most important received buildings of Hungary are in the lateRoman style builds. They are strongly coined/shaped by Western European influences (Rhine country Cologne), z. B. the churches in Zsámbék and Ják from that 13. Century. In the gothic particularly two and dreischiffige resounding churches are characteristic (z. B. those Black church in crowning city (Braşov, ung. Brassó, today Romania) from that 15. Century). Under king Sigismund (ung. Zsigmond) developed in Buda a prince seat, the king Matthias Corvinus in florentinischem style to develop left. One the most importantWorks of this epoch is the lock of the prince Esterházy, whose model was the lock in Versailles. Mihály pole lacquer, one the main's building master of the classicism in Hungary, came native from Vienna. Miklós Ybl, which built primarily in the Renaissance style, leftthis epoch in Hungary again revive (z. B. with the opera house in Budapest).

Imre Steindl established that to parliament building (1885-1902) in Budapest in the again-gothical style, whereby this came into Hungary again briefly into mode. Into the 1930er years builds oneseveral sample settlements in the building house style. After the Second World War Hungarian architects predominantly built in socialist realism, whereby also some disk's buildings developed. The influence of international currents continued to increase later always, since it was permitted now to open private architect's officesand the country economically increasingly opened.Imre Makovecz and Dezső Ekler built into the 1980er year in an organic, anthroposophischen architecture. Other architects turned international trends or looked for the connection to the architecture of the Vorkriegszeit.

Work on []

Painting

selfhaven-guesses/advises 15 from Gyula

Benczúr the most well-known Hungarian painter . Century was Michele Ongaro (also Pannonio). He worked on the yard of Ferrara in Italy. The Hungarian painters 17. and 18. Century worked likewise mainly abroad.In 19. Century came the national history painting on (with well-known painters such as Gyula Benczúr, Bertalan Székely, Mór Than). Miklós Barabás, a haven guessingists, succeeded it as first Hungarian painter to find in the own country acknowledgment. The picturesfrom Mihály Zichy and from Géza Mészöly are particularly coined/shaped of the romance. Mihály Munkácsy connected preparing free light painting to the Impressionismus in most diverse compositions from the rural people life with realistic elements. Similarly arranged are also the works of PálSzinyei Merse.

Over the artist colony Nagybánya, which were led by Károly Ferenczy , as well as some other groups of meaning attained the turn of the century, mainly than artists of a realistically colored or romantisierenden „nature painting “. The socialist-realistic category and history painting were into the 1950er and 1960er years particularly likes. Afterwards different international currents came into the play, mainly however the media art and the abstract and realistic painting (for example Imre Bak or Dóra bricklayer). With Victor Vasarely, Zsigmond Kemény and László Moholy Nagy come somethe prominent, abroad working artists 20. Century from Hungary. Nowadays well-known painters from Hungary are István Szőnyi, Jenő Barcsay, László Lakner and Aurél Bernáth.

literature

major item: Hungarian literature

from the time, inthat the Magyaren were not yet christianisiert (to approx. 950-1000), is only some inscriptions in Hungarian runes received. Since the Christianisierung by Stephan I. (Szent István) only latin alphabet was used. The literature language was likewise latin. The oldestcompletely received sakrale text in Hungarian language is „the grave speech “(halotti beszéd) and an added prayer, which developed around 1200. In 13. and 14. Century dominated latin historiography. Here above all the Gesta Hungarorum from that is 13. Centuryto call. The author called itself „anonyms “. Who it was real, is today disputed until. After the bloom the Christian Hymnendichtung arrived to the historiography into the foreground. The first completely received poem in Hungarian language is „the oldHungarian Marienklage “(Ómagyar Máriasiralom), it was discovered only 1922.

With the Renaissance king Matthias Corvinus (1458-1490) began in Hungary a cultural upswing, and for the Bibliotheca Corviniana developed numerous Prachtcodices with Hungarian passages. Important ones Latin writing Hungary were Janus Pannonius (1434-1472) and Bálint Balassi (1554-1594). The most important representative of the Gegenreformation was Péter Pázmány (1570-1637), it was exemplary for the Hungarian Prosa. His Hauptwerk, „the leader to the göttlichen truth “(1613) was an important step with the development of a Hungarian philosophy language. Onlyin this time the Hungarian became generally accepted as writing language finally.Miklós Zrínyi (1620-1664) wrote that to national pos „the FE storage of Sziget “(Szigeti veszedelem, 1645/46), which appeared 1821 on German and which was first Epos at all in Hungarian language.

beside Sándor Baróczi (1735-1809) and Ábrahám Barcsay (1742-1806) were it above all György Bessenyei (approx. 1747-1811), which placed themselves in the clearing-up and the romance into the foreground and which to the general European development found connection. Plaguebecame the literary center of Hungary. The Viennese yard remained however not dormant and developed a network of censors, branched out far.Mihály Csokonai Vitéz (1773-1805) was a large poet, who used and introduced rare lyric forms, about that to Hungaryfirst jambische poem. It wrote the first Hungarian ironical Epos „to Dorothea “(Dorottya, 1795), in which it karikiert the noble way of life.

The time between 1823-1848 was a gloss time of the Hungarian literature. With Mihály Vörösmarty (1800-1855), János Arany (1817-1882) and Sándor Petőfi (1823-1859) gave it a number of important writers. The poem Szózat (1838) of Mihály Vörösmarty, which served 1848 during the March revolution as Hungarian national anthem, was one of the most important works of this time. Mór Jókai (1825-1904) was likewise a representative thatRomance.Ferenc Kölcsey wrote the national anthem Himnusz to 1823.

Endre Adys (1877-1919) important work are „the new poems “from the year 1906. It was the outstanding shape at the beginning 20. Century in the Hungarian literature. Mihály Babits (1883-1941) translated Dantes Göttliche comedy and wrote novels, lyric poetry and essay. Dezső Kosztolányi (1885-1936) translated contemporary works of the world literature into “modern trend poet” (1913). Ferenc Molnár (1878-1952) is the most important Hungarian dramatist, most well-known is its play “Liliom” (1909). 1937 it had inExile into the USA.Sándor Márai (1900-1989) lived long time partly (voluntarily) abroad, partly in the exile.

After the communist seizure of power numerous Hungarian writers grew silent, or they emigrierten. The pattern of socialist realism not all writers bent themselves. Criticism alsotheir works expressed Péter Nádas, Tibor Déry and Magda Szabó.

Imre Kertész (* 1929) processed the experience, which he had experienced as a survivor of the KZ Auschwitz Birkenau, in the novel fate lots (Sorstalanság, 1975). It received for it 2002the Nobelpreis for literature. Other authors are Ferenc Juhász and György Konrad, Lyriker are for example László Nagy, Sándor Weöres and János Pilinszky. István Eörsi and László Krasznahorkai sat down after the end of the communist regimein Hungary with the exercise of power in totalitarian systems apart. As the most well-known author born after the war is considered Péter Esterházy (* 1950) with its “Harmonia Caelestis” and the “improved expenditure” the same.

media

Hungarian daily papers

The most well-known daily papers are

  • Magyar Hírlap (liberal)
  • Magyar Nemzet (civil conservative)
  • Népszabadság (social-democratic)
  • Népszava (social-democratic)

German-language media

in Hungary a German-language independent newspaper, the 1854 created Pester Lloyd appears; since 1994 it is published again in Budapestand informs weekly about economics, politics and culture from Hungary and east Central Europe. In addition there is the new newspaper and the Budapester newspaper on German. For tourists interesting the German-language monthly newspaper Balaton newspaper is main. Also it gives since 2003a two-monthly magazine, the PEP magazine, which concerns itself with current developments of the Hungarian youth culture and „Lifestyle “. Worth reading also the magazine is three Raben, which are published in co-operation with the Goethe Institute in Budapest. German-language television broadcasts with Hungarian sub-titles becomeregularly of the public transmitter MTV (Magyar Televízió) radiated.

television and broadcast

the public television channel are called MTV (Magyar Televízió). Except this channel there are still numerous private stations (ATV, RTL club, TV2, mini max, a ungarischsprachiger child channel) and a message channel named Hír TV in Hungarian language. Duna TV is also abroad well-known, because this satellite channel addresses also the Hungary living outside of the today's national borders.

holidays

Date designation Hungarian name Note
1. January New Year's Day Újév
15. March national holiday Nemzeti ünnep March revolution 1848
- Ostersonntag Húsvétvasárnap
- Ostermontag Húsvéthétfő
1. May day of the work Munka ünnepe
- Whitsuntide Pünkösd Sunday, 50 days after Easter
20. August national holiday Szent István ünnepe Day of the Hl. Stephan, celebration of the state State of
23. October national holiday Nemzeti ünnep rising of the people 1956
1. November all-holy Mindenszentek
25. December & </br> 26. December Christmas Karácsony

education and research

educational system

the Hungarian educational system,in the first half 20. Century still many similarities with the educational system in Austria exhibited, took over after the Second World War many elements of the Soviet educational system. Thus a system with twelve class stages was created, contrary to the SovietTotal educational system into a eight-year old primary school and was arranged into a four years old resuming school, and the note system from 1 to 5 imported, with which the unity is the worst and the five the best note. This note system applies until today.

EverythingChildren had starting from the 5. Class in Russian instruction participate. Many language teachers were retrained into the 1950er years to Russian teachers, one told still that they were ahead the pupils often only some lessons. After the turn in the year 1989 becameRussian as compulsory subject from the curriculum painted, and instead other languages could be selected, which drew again re-education programs; this time Russian teacher, which feared for their places, had to let himself be retrained to German or English teachers.

The educational system was liberalisiert: At presentthere is beside four years old ever more the six and/or. eight-year old High Schools. „The upper stage “(the classes 5-8) of the eight-year old primary school becomes ever more the hauptschule in the German-speaking countries similarly. Beside the High Schools there are „specialized middle schools “ (szakközépiskola), in those besidethe acquisition of the university-level graduation still another occupation to be learned can. This training form often supplemented around an additional year, in which the expertise is deepened, these mechanisms calls one technical school. There are also professional training schools without university-level graduation, which one visits,if one makes teachings. The number of bilingualen middle schools constantly grows. It is interesting that there are many bilingual High Schools in otherwise much the Hungary centered on Budapest in the country. There are also schools for minorities, a positive example is the Gandhi - High School in Pécs, which talentierten Roma - children the possibility offers of taking the maturity examination.

The examinations for the acquisition of the university-level graduation are centralized held generally speaking country uniformly and. Since 2005 there is the possibility, a kind „Leistungsmatura “inunite to put down subjects, which is considered at the same time as entrance examination to the university. The acquisition of the university-level graduation makes a study possible at universities and professional schools. To many branches of study restrictions of entrance, it apply give entrance examinations, and also the achievements in the middle school and/or. the Sprachkenntnissecan be crucial with the admission. However there are also courses of studies, which can be occupied without entrance examination, if the considerable cost themselves are borne.

The most well-known university in Hungary is the Loránd Eötvös university, it has a philosophical as well as a legalYou are subordinated to faculty, the educational universities. The roll pointing university is a world-wide well-known human-medical university. The number of private and konfessionellen universities constantly grows. The private universities require high study fees, and also a secondary study or a PhD - program at a publicUniversity or university must be partly financed by the studying.

literature

  • Steven W. Sowards: Modern history of the Balkans. The Balkans in the age of the nationalism. BoD 2004, ISBN 3-8334-0977-0
  • Matthias Eickhoff: Hungary. DuMont traveling bag book, Ostfildern 2005, ISBN 3-7701-3149-5

further topics

Web on the left of

Wiktionary: Hungary - word origin, synonyms and translations
Commons: Hungary - pictures, videos and/orAudio files
Wikiquote: Hungarian proverbs - quotations


coordinates: 47° 29 ′ 53 " N, 19° 2 ′ 24 " O

 

  > German to English > de.wikipedia.org (Machine translated into English)