United Artists

United Artists (UA) (aka United Artists corporation, United Artists Pictures, United Artists of film) are an US-American film enterprise and a subsidiary company of the Metro Goldwyn Mayer, which are attached again Sony Pictures Entertainment.

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United Artists (UA) (aka United Artists corporation (name of the company after their stock exchange course 1957), United Artists Pictures, United Artists of film) is one to 5. February 1919 of Charles Chaplin, Douglas fair bank sen., Mary Pickford and D. W. Griffith created US-American film company.

First only as selling for independent film productions meant (therefore it also the company name), the United Artists produced independently since the 50's of the last century also films. For the change of the Geschäftspolitik the new owners of the United Artists are responsible: They are stated by Arthur Krim and Robert Benjamin.

Until 1967 the United Artists was an enterprise under the guidance of different managers and a changing possession structure, independent in itself. 1957 took place a stock exchange course and ten years later acquired the Transamerica corporation the film company. 1981 were sold to United Artists to Kirk Kerkorian Metro Goldwyn Mayer. Since then the United Artists was controlled as a subsidiary company of the MGM over these of different owners. This struck itself in very different fimenpolitischen adjustments of the United Artists again.

2005 acquired from Sony corporation OF America (and in its Sony Pictures Entertainment integrated) led a consortium Metro Goldwyn Mayer and concomitantly its subsidiary company United Artists.

establishment of the rental business enterprise

Douglas Fairbanks Sr., Mary Pickford, Charlotte Smith und Charlie Chaplin, 1918
Douglas fair bank SR., Mary Pickford, Charlotte Smith and Charlie Chaplin, 1918

the United Artists became to 15. Fair bank sen together to January 1919 of Charlie Chaplin, Mary Pickford, Douglas. and David Griffith based. Due to contracts for many years with production companies, at which these had a saying, the three actors made themselves independent and the director - with the goal economically, but above all artistically control of their own motion picture films to have.

The founders agreed that all future films of the quartet are lent by United Artists. Before the company owners could bring their own productions out over the United Artists, however earlier obligations had to be fulfilled in relation to other film enterprises. The first contract planned from each partner of the enterprise to produce five new motion picture films. By the increase of the expenditure and the costs of a film production this venture was however illusory. Hiram Abrams was a first president of the enterprise.

1924 left David Griffith the United Artists and sold his portion to the three remaining partners. The fixed costs of a film rental business are high and the United Artists had a low output at productions. With the obligation of the experienced producer Joseph Schenck as a president of the enterprise in the year 1925 contracts with independent film producers became such as Samuel Goldwyn, Howard Hughes, roll Disney, Alexander Korda , walter Wanger and Darryl F. Zanuck over the rental business of those films over the United Artists finally. In addition Schencks family connections - in addition, counted his Mrs. Norma Talmadge, whose sisters Constance Talmadge and Natalie Talmadge and their married man Buster Keaton - should help the annual film outputs to increase.

United Artists received a fee for the rental business from films. This was lower than at the other film companies in Hollywood. Contrary to the United Artists were these also usually in the possession of Kinotheatern. Schenck convinced the company owners over the necessity for own cinemas and created the independent United Artists Theatre. . Joseph Schenck based together with Darryl F. Zanuck 1930 the 20th Century Productions. Their films were lent up to the fusion with the Fox film corporation to the 20th Century Fox in the year 1935 over the United Artists.

Between the three remaining remained founders differences developed over the adjustment of the company in and the 30's 20's. By the introduction of the Tonfilms fair bank and Pickfords careers ended. Chaplin worked only sporadically on films.

transformation phase

into the 1940ziger years left many independent producers the rental business enterprise. Thus the number of lent films and the United Artists sank brought in losses.

In February 1951 transferred two managers - Arthur Krim and Robert Benjamin - the rudder of the film company. Both agreed upon with the remaining owners that they lead the business of the United Artists for five years. If is profitable for the end of this time the rental business enterprise, Krim and Benjamin received the possibility the United Artists to acquire. From the original founder formation participated only Pickford and Chaplin. The actress did not have to lose anything and agreed with this contractual agreement. Chaplin sold its portions to the United Artists only, after he had problems with the US-American immigration authority and for its possession and fortune had to be afraid.

A reorientation of the enterprise brought a rising annual output at films and increasing economic and artistic relations with producer (walter Mirisch; Alberto Grimaldi; Michael Todd; Harold Hecht), directors (Stanley shopkeeper; Billy of savages; Stanley Kubrick; John Frankenheimer; Norman Jewison; Joseph L. Mankiewicz; Sergio Leone, John Huston) and actors (Burt Lancaster; Steve McQueen; Gregory Peck) with itself.

1957 went to United Artists to the stock exchange. The enterprise firmiert now as United Artists corporation. The funds taken by the stock exchange course into the structure of the music division United Artists record and the TV-division United Artists Television was put.

With one first on six films laid out distribution contract with the producers Albert R. Broccoli and Harry Saltzman and their production company Eon Productions Ltd. the symbiosis between United Artists and James bond began. Further film series have likewise in this decade its origin: the Pink Panther - films (the first two parts by the Mirisch corporation were produced and lent only by United Artists).

With establishments of subsidiary companies in France (Les Productions Artistes Associés) and Italy (Produzioni Europee Associati (PEA)), which dedicated themselves to the production of local motion picture films at the same time and the selling of these and other films took over (for the United Artists of distribution contracts had locked), grew the market power of the enterprise also on the European continent.

owner change

in the year 1967 acquired the company Transamerica corporation United Artists of the owners. The goal of the purchase were on the one hand the creation of a mixing company, its subsidiary companies different creation of value chains exhibit and stand in the competition not with one another and on the other hand should the glamoröse image of the film enterprise on the parent company radiate.

1973 changed the selling boss of the United Artists Eric Pleskow on the posts of the president of the film company. Mike Medavoy became a production boss of the enterprise. Medavoy replaced David picker . This was responsible as an independent producer at the motion picture films Lenny , of loud nice girls and 18 hours up to the eternity for the United Artists.

The managers of the film company United Artists gave its autonomy up since the assumption. The management of the film company regretted the sales to the Transamerica corporation much. Was tried several times to convince the management of the nut/mother company from a separation to. This did not succeed and after to 16. January 1978 an article over the failure of the separation negotiations and the co-operation of the two companies in the magazine Fortune appeared , withdrew the family of five Führungsriege of the United Artists with one another few days later. Together with Warner Bros. immediately the establishment of the Orion Pictures corporation admits given.

In the time of 1951 up to the year of the door from the enterprise, United Artists of Arthur Krim as a chairman of the board sitting was led.

The following management set very strongly on co-operation with director Michael Cimino (through hell go to its last film those with several Oscars one recompenced) with the production of the film Heaven's gate. The drawing turning work did not increase the budget of the Westerns and the new crew on board the United Artists intervened in the autonomy of the film producer . This had serious consequences for the future of the enterprise.

During the 70ziger the United Artists could place years in three sequential years the winner of the Oscars in the category best film:

for this film output was still the old United Artists regime under Arthur Krim, Robert Benjamin, Eric Pleskow, Mike Medavoy and Bill amber responsible.

assumption by the lion

1980 was sold the company after the economic flop of the film Heaven's gate and a back meditation of the firm owner Transamerica corporation on its core fields insurance and financial transactions at Metro Goldwyn Mayer. United Artists had to be international sales network give up, there Metro Goldwyn Mayer a selling contract for the not-American foreign country with the Cinema internationally corporation (CIC) had already locked. Also the production activities in Europe were stopped. Metro Goldwyn Mayer and United Artists firmieren now as MGM/UA.

The Cinema internationally corporation is renamed 1981 in United internationally Pictures and worries about the Kinoerleih of the films of the Metro Goldwyn Mayer and their subsidiary companies United Artists, that universal Pictures and the Paramount Pictures. The three partners are equal shareholders. United internationally Pictures possessed a market power opposite the Kinotheatern. The European community wanted to prevent this and the two contractors UIP and EEC agreed on a special arrangement for the film rental business.

The business relations with Metro Goldwyn Mayer began in the year 1973. United Artists locked on ten years a contract put on in this year over the selling of the MGM films in the North American cinemas. The Fiasko with Heaven´s gate and the attempt on the part of the Transamerica corporation, of their film company zutrennen themselves, came for Metro Goldwyn Mayer in due time. One could possess again a rental business apparatus and participate thus at the possible economic success of the coming film relay.

Captain Kirk to tax

by purchases and sales of the company Metro Goldwyn Mayer was controlled also United Artists by different owners.

Kirk Kerkorian sold MGM/UA 1986 at Ted Turner and acquires it a little later again back. All 1986 ago of MGM produced titles remaining with Turner. The film library of the United Artists does not belong to however. 1990 sell Kerkorian MGM/UA again - this mark to the Italian Giancarlo Parretti and its to Pathé. In the following years the company is a shade of its. Since Parretti did not follow its financial obligations opposite the French bank Credit Lyonnais, 1992 took over Geldinstitut control of MGM and thus also over United Artists.

The president of the United Artists John Calley officiating since 1993 leaves 1996 the subsidiary company of the Metro Goldwyn Mayer. Calley helped its term of office over several years the shut down film enterprise in the years again to the life to arousing. The motion picture films Rob Roy, GoldenEye and The Birdcage developed - a Paradies for shrill birds. After Kirk Kerkorian as well as the Australian Seven acquired network Metro Goldwyn Mayer 1996 of Credit Lyonnais and concomitantly the United Artists, Calley changed to Sony Pictures Entertainment and becomes a boss of the Columbia Pictures. As reason low bonus payments at Calley are indicated during the assumption. As 1999 Kevin McClory as well as Columbia Pictures competition a James bond - film announces, submits Metro Goldwyn Mayer complaint. One point of the Klageschrift refers to Calleys during its United Artists time acquired Insiderwissen over the legal situation of the film series.

Successor of John Calley becomes 1996 Lindsay Doran. As president and CEO von United Artists it supervises during its term of office among other things the production of the two James of bond films of the mornings never dies and the world is not enough, the man in the iron mask and Ronin. 1999 withdraw Lohan from its post and concentrate on the independent produce from motion picture films. Its production company Three strand Angels Inc. possessed for it an exclusive contract with Metro Goldwyn Mayer and United Artists. From this economic co-operation no works developed.

Until 1999 produces United Artists beside Metro Goldwyn Mayer motion picture films, which differ neither artistically nor financially greatly. From this year on United Artists is to worry on economical film productions and the buying up of fremdsprachiger films. Thus United Artists steps in direct competition to the enterprises Lions gate of film, Sony Pictures Classics (Independentlabel of Sony Pictures Entertainment), Warner Independent Pictures (Independentlabel of Warner Bros.), Fox Searchlight Pictures (Independentlabel of 20th Century Fox), Paramount Classics (Independentlabel of Paramount Pictures), Miramax of film and dimension of film (Independentlabel of The roll Disney company) and focus feature (2002 from the union from the USA of film and Good Machine developed and is the Independetlabel of universal Pictures).

Contrary to the adjustment of United Artists sets Metro Goldwyn Mayer on costlier productions for the mass taste. The James of bond films appears since the world is not enough also under the Logo of the Metro Goldwyn Mayer.

Starting from that 1. September 2001 was Bingham Ray as a president of the United Artists responsibly for their Geschäftspolitik. The company headquarters was shifted to New York. Thus the enterprise the artists at the east coast of the United States wanted to be spatially closer. In this time the United Artists can exhibit some successes. In addition success to the US-American Kinokasse with Jeepers Creepers the favorably acquired Bowling for Columbine and the OSCAR gains for this and NO Man's country. The Comicverfilmung Ghost World achieved some honors on Filmfestivals. But productions town center OF Ghosts and Nicolas Nickelby at the Kinokassen floppten. In the year 2004 Ray left the film enterprise, after he could not agree with the managing directors of the Metro Goldwyn Mayer Alex Yemenidjian and Chris McGurk on the further adjustment.

In the year 2000 United Artists' nut/mother company Metro Goldwyn Mayer terminates its partnership in the rental business enterprise United internationally Pictures. For the coming years 20th Century Fox arises as international rental business of the products of the Metro Goldwyn Mayer and United Artists both in the cinema selling, and for the Home of Entertainment products.

future?

With the conclusion of the purchase of the nut/mother company Metro Goldwyn Mayer by Sony in the year 2005 the future of United Artists is again several labels under the roof Sony Pictures Entertainment ( Columbia Pictures, tri star Pictures, screen Gems, Sony Pictures Classics and now also Metro Goldwyn Mayer , Orion Pictures corporation and United Artists) once unclearly, there is.

The films Capote, Romance & Cigarettes, kind School Confidential and The Woods produced before the sales together with Sony Pictures Classics into the North American cinemas are brought.

economical ones and artistic relations of United Artists

Eon Productions Ltd.

The producer Harry Saltzman acquired the film rights at the novels of Ian Fleming, however Albert R. needed for the financing of the business. Broccoli. Both created the company Eon Productions Ltd. for the production of the first film and negotiated both with United Artists, and with Columbia Pictures about a Distributionsdeal. After the success of the first filmings the company became Danjaq, S.A. of both producers (this is now Eon Productions Ltd.s nut/mother company and became later in Danjaq, LLC. renamed) from the baptism elevated. This holds all analysis rights by the James bond - for filmings. Their name consists of parts of the names of the wives of the producers: Dan A Broccoli and C q ueline Saltzman.

The contract between Eon Productions Ltd., locked first. and United Artists was appropriate for six films. On the producers with the increasing interest in James bond and the filmings of the espionage novels had side to do - United Artists profited as selling likewise from the high spectator numbers. On the other side it came between both increased to diversities of opinion - reason for it was above all the commitment of Saltzman with other film projects (air battle around England, Harry Palmer - films). Due to financial problems Harry Saltzman 1975 sold its 50%igen portion of Danjaq S.A. (and thus also at Eon Productions Ltd.) at United Artists. Thus the past selling became also joint owner of the right company and the production company and divides since then also the copyright of the produced films.

After the death of the producer Albert R. Broccoli 1996 took over its daughter Barbara Broccoli and its stepson Michael G. Wilson the business of Danjaq, LLC and Eon Productions Ltd. Both cooperated already in earlier bond films and are awake strictly over each applicable creative decision, while respective Studios - only United Artists, then Metro Goldwyn Mayer and now Sony - primarily the budget of respective productions to place.

James bond belongs as mark to the most well-known and most valuable Unterhaltungsindustrie. The film series changed United Artists by its economic success much. A subordinate position developed. Above all then, if other film productions did not find their public, itself United Artists could on its MI-6 - agents leave.

The morning dies never was the last film, which appeared under the Logo of the United Artists. The two films the world is not enough and die on another day with the lion of the Metro Goldwyn Mayer were presented. United Artists emerges only as with Copyrightinhaber.

Mirisch corporation

the US-American production company Mirisch corporation created of walter Mirisch as well as its brothers Harold and Marvin produced since the end of the 50 years motion picture films for the United Artists.

Before the establishment of their independent production company in August 1957 the Mirisch of brothers for the company Allied Artists was active. From this time originates the relations with famous directors, who should along-justify their late success. At the production of the following films they were involved on behalf the Allied Artists: Moulin Rouge, Moby thick, Ariane - love in the afternoon and luring temptation.

As a result of the permission of large artistic liberties and the participation in the bringing in result of its films corporation long-continuous relations with the directors Billy of savage, Blake Edward, John Sturges and Robert meadow arose for the Mirisch.

The 1957 contract between United Artists and the Mirisch corporation signed consisted of 12 motion picture films. 1959 were increased these to 20. Altogether the Mirisch of brothers produced 68 motion picture films for the United Artists. 1974 changed it with their production company too universal for Pictures.

For altogether 79 Oscars of the Mirisch produced films were nominated corporation. 23 times the golden statue was won.

European film producers

with the following film producers connected United Artists a constructional co-operation: François Truffaut, Federico Fellini, Bernardo Bertolucci and Ingmar Bergman.

American Zoetrope

the US-American production company American Zoetrope created by Francis Ford Coppola end of the 60's has an eventful co-operation with United Artists behind itself.

United Artists acquired the North American rights at the war film Apocalypse Now for a fixed price from Coppolas production company and secured the production of the film by the assignment of credits at American Zoetrope . The several years continuing production (Pre Production; Turning work; Post office Production) led to conflicts between both participants. In the feature year also the American Zoetrope was brought to 1979 - production the black Hengst of United Artists into the cinemas.

1999 were locked a contract between American Zoetrope and United Artists over production and the rental business by 10 titles. About the financing of these works Coppolas company and United Artists worried arose as North American rental business. The following titles come of to this co-operation:

NO look for thing 2001 CQ 2001 Jeepers Creepers 2001 town center OF Ghosts 2002 Pumpkin 2002 Assassination Tango 2002 Jeepers Creepers 2 2003

roll Disney

roll Disney was limited at the beginning of his career on the production of Zeichentrickfilmen and left the selling of these works others. But it used among other things the rental business apparatus of the United Artists. Into the 30's of the last century this was responsible for the selling, but these business relations due to the underestimation of the necessity for these on the part of Disney was adjusted. RKO Pictures was now active as selling of the Disney films.

Saul Zaentz

producer Saul Zaentz given United Artists with the drama of one flew a large commercial and artistic success over the Kuckucksnest. In addition it produced Three Wariors and the Zeichentrickfilm the master of the rings for the selling by the United Artists. The rights to distribute are now when undertaking Warner Bros..

The cinematic rights at the literary work J. R. R. Tolkiens are in the possession of the film-creative Zaentz. Together with United Artists was planned since end of the 60's a filming the master of the rings - novels. Only end of the 90's became this possible and the developed three motion picture films developed likewise to a large commercial and artistic success - now however for the company new LINE Cinema.

With a possible filming of the book the small main header bits a dilemma arises: New LINE Cinema may produce this work, but United Artists and derren nut/mother company still possesses by the long putting back business relations with Saul Zaentz the rights to distribute.

golden

since 1944

the Hollywood Foreign assigns

film prices [ work on] to Globe Award presses Association this film price. From United Artists produced and/or. lent film titles, which to one golden Globe Award in the category best film (both in the category drama, and comedy) received, are:

Rain one 1988 Yentl 1983 Rocky 1977 one flew 1976 Anatevka 1971 the maturity examination 1967 the Russians
over the Kuckucksnest comes! The Russians come! 1966 Tom Jones - between bed and Galgen 1963 in the heat of the night 1967
escape in chains 1958 in 80 days around the world 1956

international film festivals Berlin (Berlinale)

the Berlinale assigns the golden bears in accordance with decision of a jury. With this highest honor this Filmfestivals the following United Artists became - films recompences:

The 12 jurors 1957 Buffalo Bill and the Indians 1976 Rain one 1988

Academy Awards

the Academy OF Motion Picture kind and Sciences is the organizer of the annually taking place award of the prize. United Artists - films, which a OSCAR in the category best film received, are:

Rain one 1988 the Stadtneurotiker 1978 Rocky 1977 one flew broken blooms (
Broken of bare COM or The Yellow one and the Girl ) over the Kuckucksnest 1976 Midnight cowboy 1969 in the heat of the night
1967 Tom Jones - between bed and Galgen 1963 west simmer story 1961
the apartment 1960 in

80 days around the world 1956 Marty 1955

Rebecca 1940 [

work on]

  • milestones of film history from the house United Artists [work on] 1910er years 1919 -

1920er years

  • 1920 - the indication of the Zorro (The Mark of OF Zorro)
  • 1920 - two orphans in the Strum (Orphans OF the Storm)
  • 1920 - far in the east (Way down east)
  • 1923 - The nights of a beautiful Mrs. (A Woman OF Paris)
  • 1924 - the thief of Bagdad (The Thief OF Bagdad)
  • 1925 - gold fever (gold Rush)
  • 1927 - the general (The general)|
  • 1927 - The sample pupil (college)
  • 1928 - the circus (The Circus)
  • 1928 - Steamboat Bill junior (Steamboat Bill, Jr.)
  • 1929 - The iron mask (The Iron MASK)

1930er years

1940er years

1950er years

1960er years

1970er years

1980er years

1990er years

since the year 2000

film archives of the United Artists

the value of the film libraries controlled by medium enterprises rose in the last years exponentially. Only few film companies possessed this foresight and were involved not only in production and the rental business of a motion picture film, but likewise the right owner of this product.

The United Artists was created 1919 as pure distributing organization. Independent film producers financed and manufactured their cinematic products and let these over the rental business apparatus of the United Artists to the Kinotheater drive out. But this received a part of the incomes and could thus its marketing and administratives expense cover. The rights to drove out products lay usually at the producers or their production companies.

  • The rights at the Charlie Chaplin motion picture films and Kurzfilmen in the rental business of the United Artists were kept later to inheriting only by the artist and of by its controlled Roy export company establishment.
  • Mary Pickford held likewise the rights at its motion picture films. After its retreat from the film business 1933 should be destroyed all works. Pickford feared that future generations could make themselves merry over her. Fortunately it could be convinced by the artistic and historical value of its films and be become in the today's time the rights held at their films of the Pickford Foundation.
  • The rights of the Selznick internationally Pictures and later film productions of David the O. Selznick are in the possession of the American Broadcasting company, today some of The roll Disney company.
  • Between 1933 and 1935 United Artists lent productions of Twentieth Century Pictures. The rights at these films are held today by the successor company 20th Century Fox.
  • The rights to films lent by Samuel Goldwyn produced and by United Artists to the Kinotheater lie today with Metro Goldyn Mayer, the later parent company of United Artists and that now Sony Pictures Entertainment attached enterprises.

After Arthur Krim and Robert Benjamin the business of the United Artists 1951 took over, the Geschäftspolitik changed only slowly. United Artists lent the films manufactured by independent producers and the rights lay usually further with these.

With that spreading of the television became the selling of films to the new medium a new source of income. United Artists saw this potential as one of the first film enterprises and regarded the television not as competition, but as the further paragraph channel.

1958 were bought up the Associated Artists Productions (AAP). This acquired 1956 the rights at all of Warner Bros. before 1948 films produced. In the same year AAP acquired the rights that black-and-white Popeye Kurzfilme and 1957 also those the colored from Paramount Pictures. In addition the rights at productions of the RKO Pictures were bought up. Thus United Artists increased at one blow its film library and obtained by the sales of the radiant emittance rights to the television incomes. 1957 were created for it United Artists Television. This was also purely legally the owner of the products of the bought up AAP Filmbibliothek. The subsidiary company produced also even television films and TV serials and sold also derren broadcasting rights and those the film library of the United Artists. The rights of the earlier AAP Filmbibliothek and a part of the television production of the United Artists were taken over 1986 by Ted Turners Turner Entertainment and become today from Warner Bros. evaluated, even if they are purely legally still controlled by Turner Entertainment.

  • The rights at the motion picture film in 80 days around the world of the producer Michael Todd lie today with Warner Bros.
  • The rights of the Beatles - films are held by derren enterprises, Apple Corps. The rights of exploitation at Yellow submarine are still with United Artists and derren to parent company. The rights of exploitation at A hard Day's Night are controlled since end of the 1990er years by Miramax of film. These the licensed evaluation of the music film for the German-speaking countries at cinema world media AG and are controlled today by derren successor enterprises.
  • Of the Mirisch corporation of manufactured films and series are held today by United Artists nut/mother company Metro Goldwyn Mayer.
  • The rights of the Saul Zaentz productions are today with Warner Bros.

The United Artists Filmbibliothek consists today of most after 1951 or foreignproduced motion picture films and TV serials. These rights become from Metro Goldwyn Mayer, since 2005 Sony Pictures Entertainment attached, when United Artists uses parent company.

recommendable literature

  • Tino Balio: United Artists: The company Built by the of star. University OF Wisconsin press, Madison, Wisconsin 1976, ISBN 0-299-06940-0
  • Tino Balio: United Artists: The company That Changed the film Industry. University OF Wisconsin press, Madison, Wisconsin 1987, ISBN 0-299-11440-6
  • Steven brook: Finally CUT: kind, money, and ego into the making OF Heaven's gate, the film that sank United Artists. Newmarket press, New York 1999, ISBN 1-557-04374-4
  • Mike Walsh: Option for American Foreign distribution: United Artists in Europe, 1919-1930. In: Andrew Higson and smelling pool of broadcasting corporations Maltby (Hrsg.): Film Europe and film America. University OF Exeter press, Exeter 1999, pp.132-156 ISBN 0-85989-546-7

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