University of

universities (of latin word universitas, whole) are universities, which represent the sciences in research , teachings , study and training completely, as well as in systematic order teach education contents and professional qualifications with the highest in each case requirements of its area of application their Students to mediate are.

Mathematics lecture
Großer Lesesaal der Universitätsbibliothek Innsbruck
large read hall of the university library Innsbruck

table of contents

characteristics and tasks

of Lomonossow university, Moscow

for the term of the university are coining/shapingsince the European Middle Ages

  • the community of instruction and learning (universitas magistrorum et scholarium),
  • the right for autonomy with the possibility of the independent production and execution of study plans and research project (academic liberty) as well as
  • the privilege thatAward of publicly recognized academic degrees (for example diploma or doctor degree).

The universities in the German linguistic area offer training programmes after ISCED, to the UNESCO - system for the classification of instruction systems, in the Leveln 5 and 6. They belong to the tertiary education range.

The first universities in Europe developed in the high Middle Ages (see history). With the arising of the universities the knowledge monopoly of the monasteries was broken through. The universitäre teachings nevertheless remained particularly in central and Northern Europe still to over the beginning thatModern times outside of the religious medals and the Klerus dominate.

Monument William of Humboldts before the Humboldt university in Berlin

since the mechanism of the citizens of Berlin university in the year 1810 (Humboldt university calls itself since 1949) sat down also internationally that Humboldt model of the unit of research and teachings through, which means that the instructors are to operate research additionally to their training activity also, so that the high level of the teachings remains and to the students scientific qualifications to be better mediated to be able.

InThe universities are characterised contrast to other universities by a broad fan canon. Typical are the classical, already faculties for philosophy ( Geisteswissenschaften, today also the philological and historical fan), medicine, theology and jurisprudence, introduced to the Middle Ages.In addition come the natural sciences - into the Renaissance as a subsection of philosophy were taught, just as mathematics - as well as the restaurant and social sciences and further spheres of activity.

Other universities, which do not lead the designation „university “, are limitedon the other hand on topic areas such as technology and art or only on individual fan such as medicine and veterinary medicine.

  • singular in Germany is the principle of the correspondence university Hagen, which offers a study in writing by training aid set to the residence of the students. This offer is usually used by students, those, the family or children already completed a study to have or already in the working life. Also convicts can study in such a way at the correspondence university.
  • There is two universities of the German Federal Armed Forces (UniBw), one in Munich and one in Germany in Hamburg. ThatMajority of all officer candidates of the German Federal Armed Forces studies at one of these universities, which can almost cover the entire range of the courses of studies needed with the German Federal Armed Forces. Those are above all technical, in addition, economics and organization-scientific technical as well as Pädagogik. At these universities can also specialized university conclusions to be acquired. The officer candidates, who study medicine, dental medicine, veterinary medicine or pharmacy, visit regular civilian universities. (see also history of the former officer university of the GDR)
  • for Germany again the concept of the donation university is, to time (conditions 2005) onat least three universities in Lower Saxony (Goettingen, Lueneburg, Hildesheim) is partly converted. Basic idea is about to put to the university a donation capital at the disposal financed from its yields itself the university. That is to release the universities from national obligations and more flexibly inmake for their decisions. Traditionally this model in the United States of America exists. There the well-known universities have a very large donation capital, which results particularly from Wirtschaftserträgen and inheritances as well as private donations.
  • Become in addition, increasingin Germany private universities based. Smaller donation and private universities, how they exist traditionally in the anglo American area, have to fight frequently with the problem, not financially in to strong dependence from a certain sponsor to to turn out. Besides a further Finanzierungsquelle is study feesin substantial height, which can lead to a financial selection under the study-interested.
  • Citizen universities and child universities are temporally limited meetings, which are to be added to the public work of a university. They are to make the university enterprise for children and/or non--university graduate transparency and for thoseRequests of the universities recruit.
  • Professional schools obtain training on scientific basis with a pronounced purchase as vocational practice. The professional schools offer above all technical and economiceconomics courses of studies. They have in principle no graduation right.

Historically also medieval educational facilities in non-European countries (in Africa and Asia, particularly in the Islamic area) are called universities, which fulfill not all characteristics of a European university (see also: Madrasa). Is forwardsto regard everything the award of academic degrees as particularly European invention.

Educational facilities of the antique ones, so for example in antique Egypt, Greece or in the Roman realm are not called usually universities.


in Germany most universities are organized today as public bodies and are subordinate to the supervision of the Lands of the Federal Republic. The appropriate Ministry and/or the senator for science and art is responsible. For general screen end schools is usually inother Ministry responsibly.

The university rectors conference (HRK) is the freiwillige union almost all German universities and universities and represents the universities in relation to politics and public.

The university rectors conference became to 21. April 1949 as West German rector conference (WRK) based and represented at first onlythe universities and so-called scientific universities (those are called with graduation right) of the earlier Federal Republic and West Berlin. Since 1974 also different universities and professional schools were taken up. After the reunification also the universities from the former GDR were added. Therefore took placealso in the year 1990 renaming. The HRK has at present 262 member universities, at which about 98 per cent of all students in Germany are registered. On the level of the Lands of the Federal Republic the respective national rector conferences work.

In Switzerland the cantons are carriersthe universities and universities. Only exceptions are the Swiss federal technical university Zurich and the École polytechnique fédérale de Lausanne, who are carried by Swiss Federal Government.

One calls the learning at a university student or today increasingly (falsely)as studying. The different kinds of instruction are summarized under the generic term lecturer. Teachings and research are solely responsible led at a university by the professors of the appropriate subject.

Refectory buiilding of the University of Kiel

at the point of a university stands a rector (traditional address: Magnifizenz) or president, who is usually even a university professor. The director/conductor of the administration is usually called chancellors. A chancellor of a university is usually an administrative specialist and no scientist. As the most importantDecision-making body functions the senate, in whom professors have, scientific and not-scientific coworkers as well as partly also student their seat.

Universities were divided into individual faculties, specialist areas or Departemente, those from a Dekan (traditional address: Spektabilität) to be led(see also: Medical faculty, theological faculty). The position of the Dekans regular changes between the professors of the faculty (see also: Faculty development). Faculties have their own seal right and the right to remove academic examinations as well as thereupon the appropriateto lend academic degrees. The academic degrees, in particular the doctor degree are therefore also always faculty specific. This self-sufficiency of the faculties decreases/goes back up to the Middle Ages, when the universities grew together only slowly from independent units.

The faculties were arranged againin the individual institutes or seminars, at which the respective fan are informed. These mechanisms are led by one of the professors teaching there (for example with the title director of institute).

to each universitybelong also central, faculty-spreading mechanisms.

  • An example is the student council, which worries about the social interests of the students. Thus student councils provide for a regular inexpensive midday table, the refectory in such a way specified (lat. for table), and student hostels operate.
  • The student secretariat is responsible in a university for the administration of the students. Here and exmatrikulieren themselves the students register. Due to the documents led here the secretariat is also able to issue certificates of study for the most different purposes.
  • The academic international exchange(AAA) the partner is in all questions concerning a study stay abroad, relevant scholarships and the acknowledgment of performance records. Academic international exchanges examine also for the respective university the university access authorization of international students and advise them with their study inGermany.
Das Universitätsklinikum Aachen ist das größte Krankenhausgebäude Europas
The university clinic Aachen is the largest hospital building of Europe
  • The sports center of a university is not responsible usually only for the research and teachings in the field of the sport sciences, but offers also for students of all faculties training possibilities inthe most diverse disciplines in the context of the university sport on. At some universities there are university sport Universities of (USC).
  • All universities with medical faculty have an university clinic, which represents a larger post in the budget of the respective university. The Chefärzte of the individual specialized clinics are usually university professors.
  • The university computing centre is a central mechanism, which information-technical (IT) infrastructure ready (central computer, server etc.) holds and IT-services furnishes. Due to the increasing use of on-line media in teachings and research these mechanisms continue to gain significance.

Many universities and universities place today their scientific-technicalResearch capacities also commercial clients - main industrial enterprises - against fee for the order (third central research). Improves the financial situation of the universities and thus the educational facilities of the students. On the other side the enterprises can by the project-related assignment ofResearch contracts lower their fixed costs of research and development.

expiration of the academic training

see also: List of academic degrees (Germany)

the way to the exam

the study begins for the student with the inscription and ends alsothe Exmatrikulation. The academic year is partitioned in Germany in all rule into two terms (winter and summer semesters), between them lies term holidays (official: “Lecture-free time”). At some special universities the organization is usual into three trimesters. With some subjects (biology, medicine,Pharmacy, psychology, veterinary medicine and dental medicine) exist restrictions of permission (number clausus) by the central office for the assignment of study places (ZVS).

When most important training meetings of the universities apply (at least theoretically) the lectures, in those a lecturer with academic training power (Venia legendi) Subjects from its field of activity, if possible from its Forschungsgebiet, speaks. That professors, in addition, private lecturers can do its - a condition is, which the lecturer possesses venia legendi. Instructional contents continue to become in seminars or exercises so mentioned in line with standard usagedeepened. These training meetings are often led by assistants or other trainingassigned. Here also the cooperation of the students is demanded. In scientific courses of studies for example laboratory work is accomplished, in the spirit-scientific subjects takes part the students with papers.

After half of theStudy an intermediate test is usually taken, which often carries a faculty-specific designation. Thus the medical profession placing after half of its regular study their Physikum , before they began with the clinical center.

After the main study, the second half of the regularStudy time, puts the student its exam down, also again the faculty and course of studies-specifically after the academic degree which can be attained is designated (“Magisterprüfung”, “diploma examination”, “state examination” etc.).

For the permission to the exam become performance records, which requires lights so mentioned. These becomemostly not in the lectures, but in exercises and seminars acquired. To the exam usually written and verbal examinations must be submitted put down as well as often a written work, which is to prove that the student is able, thatTo show state of research of the science studied by it. Differently than with the thesis it is not expected that the candidate obtains a scientific progress.

With examinations, which prepare for the government service (jurisprudence, teaching profession etc.) or are subject to a special national supervision(Medicine, pharmacy, food chemistry etc.), a state examination is put down.

Theologians are qualified for the church career by a church examination.

After the successful exam the student gets a faculty-specific academic degree (diploma, Magister etc.) lent, thatis occupation-qualifying. The state examination for leading a betimmten degree, is justified not accepted however in all rule as starting point for a graduation.

In the context in the year 1999 of the Bologna process this structure of the academic study becomes begun up to the year2010 in principle change. Already today the courses of studies are changed over in Germany gradually to the reaching of the new masters - and Bachelor - conclusions, which are European-wide harmonized and to be comparable to be supposed. Europeanspreading 45 countries this process followed, inis often connected to practice with enormous problems and internally sharp criticism is suspended, which is hardly noticed however by the public.

the way to the doctor degree

of graduation document of the University of Prague of 1905

after the exam can in Graduation study to be begun, after whose conclusion the graduate student acquires the doctor degree, which is expected in some faculties for the professional qualification and in each case as the proof of “scientific capability” applies. The “doctor” is the highest academic degree. These are forwardseverything the spirit and natural sciences as well as the medicine. The graduation is attained by the collecting main of a thesis, its own research work, as well as by the existence one radical around, a scientific Disputation, in their process the graduate student usually itsWork scientifically argumentatively to defend must. Kind and expiration of this “verbal procedure” are partially very different from subject to subject and from university to university.

the way to the professor title

after the graduation can itself the doctor -usually in the position of a “scientific coworker” (usually after IIa ASKED recompensed) or “assistant” (this position was abolished in the course of the reform of the lecturer paying de iure, there it the paying stage c1 any longer does not give) - on those Habilitation prepare, after whose conclusion it receives the Venia legendi. This is permission for holding at a University of lectures. It knows these lectures, if it took still no professor place, when hold private lecturer. However the income of one is aimed atPosition as a professor, which takes place in a certain appointment procedure. A professor place is traditionally an official position and with an attitude into the government service on lifetime connected in Germany. The past procedure is in connection with the reform of the instruction systemsin paging.

Recently there is also the mechanism of the junior professor, a position, which can be achieved also without Habilitation. This serves the harmonization of the academic careers in Europe, since most countries do not know Habilitation outside of the German-speaking countries.The junior professor is only limited adjusted and must try to attain after at the latest 6 years a firm employment.

In some artistically oriented specialist areas (for example art, Design, architecture) a Habilitation does not become as a compelling condition for oneProfessor place regards. Partly even a graduation is not necessary. Here also that chair owner can become, who instead of a graduation graduation-same achievements so mentioned prove; for this also an extensive publication list counts.

Hitting the academic career is in Germany with highRisks connected. After the graduation - depending upon subject usually between that 26. and 33. Lebensjahr - one must take usually further 5 or 6 years into account up to the Habilitation. There one after the reform of the university framework law actually onlybusy to be this knows, means still 12 years long limited at a university that one has a firm employment (therefore usually a Professur) with beginning of forty either - or and now another employment failed to look for each othermust, which does not succeed naturally often any longer. Nearly the entire “academic central tract” suffers in Germany therefore from an enormous competition pressure and a substantial fear of life - a circumstance, which is conscious hardly to a student.



In not-written cultures training of the mental elite of a people, thus the occupational groups, finds those for retaining and application of the joint knowledgeare responsible, in form of personal training of the father or Mentor on the son, and/or. Pupil instead of. The growing up is prepared by a training on the job for its future task.

That also still was at the beginning of the development ofWriting cultures, for example in Egypt during the old person of realm the case. When this realm dissolved by political dissolution features and decentralization tendencies slowly and finally broke thus, the writing elite of the country shifted into a long-continuous shock condition, in thatDevelopment of a special literature kind struck down, which itself with dissolution and fall scenarios busy. During the reestablishment of a new central realm, the middle one in such a way specified realm measures were met not to let such centrifugal forces develop.

The training of the administrative elite of the country, thatWriter, was centralized and professionalisiert. In the life houses the administrative new generation was trained central according to strictly specified rules by occupation teachers. The training took place using fixed texts, which should place the administration employees into the service of the king and the central realm.A goal was a standardized quality of the training and loyalty to the ruler.

In the European antique one a such national steering element and Zentralsierung were unknown. Training functioned here usually on private initiative individual scholar, which was not always gladly seen in addition. SoSokrates had to be accused to be able that he take money for the instruction of the sons of distinguished Athener citizens, which was at that time obviously socially not yet established. But we find large and famous institutions, the pupils from the whole already little laterMittelmeeraum tightened: Of Ptolemäos the Philadelphos around 280 v. Chr. created Museion to Alexandria, the philosopher school to Athens, anstaltlich writes in particular by emperors Hadrian and Herodes Atticus (130 n.Chr.), and the Athenäen formed after these samples to Rome (135), Lugdunum (Lyon), Nemausus (Nîmes), Konstantinopel (424).

During the people migration time became the antique knowledge particularly at the mesopotamischen academies Edessa, Harran (of Christians) and Pumbadita and Sura (ofJew) further-carried.

To it the Arab Medressen tied , under which in the earlier Middle Ages enjoyed the call high to Córdoba , Toledo , Syrakus , Bagdad, Damascus and everything in front the Azhar in Cairo.

monastery schools

of direct closedthe first universities itself to the old monastery - and cathedral schools on, under those already in 8. and 9. Century particular, as for example route, pc. Gallen, Fulda, Lüttich, Paris as scholae publicae pupils numerous from outwardactually had pulled.

To end of the 11. Century teach to often provide the Magister exclusively on behalf a cathedral chapter or a Kollegiatstifts, with church Pfründen. In 12. However ever more moving Magister and Scholaren arise to century and many Kathedralschulenand remote monastery schools cannot keep up with regional concentration any longer. In addition step since that 11. Century according to becoming church doubts against the training activity of monks. The training of the Diözesanklerus holds it alive, the level remains howeverto elementary training limits.

in the year 1155 issues emperors Friedrich I. the Authentica „Habita “, which protects itself the moving and in Korporationen uniting pupil and teacher and them court choice under bishop or Magister secures. Particularly for financial administrationand right natures need aristocracy like also the papal Kurie trained Scholaren, so that since 1200 clarifying their legal status in favor of of bischöflichem Jurisdiktionsprimat particularly over the training power autonomous research and teachings.

Increasingly over their sake and no morefor the church training operated science makes possible only in 13. Century from the connection of the Magister with the Kathedralschulen however university new developed as organization form. This development remains first regionally limited, seized for instance the German Reich very late andthus the university remains partly up to 15. Century within the church framework.

medieval Universities of

Laurentius de Voltolina: Rather ethicorum the Henricus de Alemannia, Einzelblatt, Szene: Henricus de Alemannia before its pupils, 14. Jh.

The first Universities of, thoseafter today's linguistic usage however only individual faculties were, find we in the 11. Century in Italy; were the right schools to Ravenna, Bologna and Padua and the medical school of Salerno.

As the oldest university of Europe thereby those is considered University of Bologna, whose Gründungsdatum is indicated as the year 1088. An exact date could not actual be called, since it concerned slow growing together of smaller right schools here. In Bologna the interests of the emperor were important forthe development of effective training of lawyers. As lay counterweight to the Pope it was dependent not to only employ monks and clergyman as writing-well-informed in its administration. In the right schools administrative specialists were trained, who were independent of the Pope. ThoseDevelopment of the universities, particularly the jurisprudential training represented here a Emanzipierungsprozess of the education formation of the church.

Completely in contrast to it the emergence of the University of Paris ran. Although the training from small beginnings increased also here slowly, is considered as establishment actthe exhibition of the papal bull Parens scientiarium by Pope Innozenz III. in the year 1231. Innozenz wanted to make Paris the highest school of the Christianity. By the centralization in only one school the training of the higher theologians should supervise betterits. The theological teachings became thereby in 14. Century inside stabilizes.

The members of the Sorbonne, professors been subordinate such as students, the Pope and the church jurisdiction. This was confirmed also by the French king. The jurisdiction became from the chancellorthe university exercised, which was not a member of the university, but when representatives of the bishop of Notre Dame acted. It was awake over the purity of the teachings and assigned the academic degrees.

The university to Paris became starting point and sample for nearlyall abendländischen universities, particularly the English, under those Oxford by an emigration from Paris under the queen Blancha of Kastilien (1226 - 36), the wife Ludwig IX. at least only at higher meaning arrived, and the Germans.

When the meaning of these bodies for the mental life of the peoples grew, the Popes and emperor took the protectorate up over the new institutes. Due to the special decentralized political structure of the European Middle Ages otherwise powers would have local - smallerPrince or the cities - influence on the universities to win know. Thus also the principle of the academic jurisdiction developed. It permitted a certain self-sufficiency opposite local powers and ruling powers and at the same time a loyalty to the universities opposite emperor and/or Pope.This principle was maintained also in the Refomationszeit, when the Protestant princes created their own national universities, which were often settled in smaller provincial towns. The academic jurisdiction covered not only the professors and students, but also all employees of the university. Onespoke also of civitas academica (German: “Academic citizenry”), thus of the university as political unit.

nations and faculties

the internal organization of the universities oriented itself starting from 1249 at the different nationalities, whereby the smaller followed one the larger. Thus of Paris developed the organization into four Nationes so mentioned into: Gallikaner or Gallier (toothose also counted Italians, Spaniards, Greeks and morning countries), Picarden, Normannen and Englishmen (also the Germans and further north and Central Europeans contained). This organization applied both to the university pupils and - for teachers.

Monument for the establishment of the first universityin the holy Roman realm of German nation by emperors Karl IV. in Prague

each nation had their special statutes, special officials and a chief (power of attorney gate). Power of attorney gates selected the rector of the university. Pope Honorius III. ordered 1219,that only those scholars would be selectable to teachers, who would have received the license from the bishop or from the Scholastikus of the responsible pin in addition.

Gradually however guild-like federations among the teachers (magic stringer, masters) developed for theology, the jurisprudence and the medicine, those as closed Kollegien first 1231 of Gregor IX. in Paris and ordines or facultates, was recognized was called faculties. This organization replaced gradually those of the nations. Also the Kollegium of the kindists, i.e. that took somewhat laterTeachers “sieve free arts “, which condition of a fourth faculty on, which had the task however into the later modern times first only to prepare for the study of one of the higher specialized sciences. Accordingly their teachers were frequently also Scholarenin one of the upper faculties.

Privilege of the faculties was soon the award of academic degrees. In Paris this three main degrees were, those the Bakkalarien (Bakkalaureen), Lizentiaten and Magister (master). The Bakkalarien was appointed of the individual magic star; the degree oneLizentiaten was given after an examination by the faculty masters on the part of the chancellors or bishops, who gave however last only their confirmation.

Only the Magister had the unrestricted right to appear as teachers of its faculty. They were called also often doctors. In Germany the designation doctor applied usually to the three old or upper faculties, while the faculties of the free arts appointed Magister. The appointment as the doctor was called graduation. These mostly took place under festive ceremonies, asIndication was presented the doctor hat.


third Institut important for the medieval condition of the university were the Kollegien or Kollegiaturen; originally church institutes, in those (predominantly male) students free maintenance, teachings and supervisionfound. One the first Universitätskollegien were the famous Paris Sorbonne. Particularly in Germany additionally as private, similar mechanisms the Bursen appeared to the Kolleg; in England and France however the Kollegien spread more strongly, in those later alsoinstruction took place.

Additionally to Kollegs or Bursenangehörigen there were the driving pupils in such a way specified of most different age and education stages in the Middle Ages.

old person universities in the German linguistic area and in Central Europe

the German university nature has its origins in the holy one Roman realm of German nation (HRR) with the establishment of the University of Prague 1348 by Karl IV. The four countries represented there were: Böhmen, Poland, Bavaria and Saxonia. Numerous further universities developed , so for example before the reformation 1365 in Vienna, 1386 in Heidelberg, 1388 in Cologne, 1392 in Erfurt (original establishment 1379, however with the donation privilege of the Gegenpapstes Clemens VII. in Avignon, the privilege had 1392 by Pope Urban VI. again to be assigned), 1402 in peppering castle, 1409 in Leipzig, 1419 in Rostock, 1456 in grab forest, 1472 in Ingolstadt and 1477 in Tübingen.

In the year 1500 there were 17 in France, 16 in the holy one in Europe altogether 66 universities, of itRoman realm of German nation, 13 in Italy, 11 in Spain, three in Scotland, two in England and per one in Denmark, Poland, Portugal and Sweden.

Johann Georg Puschner- "Der Fleissige Student" um 1725, im Hintergrund die charakteristische Architektur des Gebäudes der Universität Altdorf zu erkennen, der Universität der Freien Reichsstadt Nürnberg
Johann George Puschner “the industrious student” around 1725, in the background the characteristic architecture of the buildingto recognize the University of old village, the university of the free realm city Nuremberg

in the process of the rapid development of the national principalities since that 15. Century and the human movement the connection between church and university was loosened. In 16. and 17. Developed for centuryfurther, partially decidedly Evangelist (lutherische or calvinistische), universities (e.g. Marburg 1527, Albertina (king mountain) 1544, pouring 1607, Kiel 1665). Many of these universities served the respective national gentlemen to train even the specialists those for the administration of the territories urgentlywere needed.

It developed besides in the German linguistic area a central form between latin in such a way specified the schools (High Schools) and universities, which were called academic High Schools or gymnasia illustria. These were furnished by free cities and smaller national princes, overto avoid moving away the educated youth to the universities. They differed from the universities usually in the size and in it that they could not lend titles. Several of these academic High Schools developed later to real universities.

“Collegium thatHochenschuel to Würtzburg "

during in the Protestant north the universities in the gradual transition institutes for state with a certain korporativen independence became, remained “the new” jesuitischen universities 16. and 17. Century (peppering castle 1582, Olmütz 1573, Graz 1582, Paderborn 1614), after of themSamples also several of the catholic universities already existing were transformed, the older type essentially faithfully.

At the Protestant universities developed in this time the student connections, at the same time a participation of the students in the university administration did not take place. ThoseChoice of young, studying princes to the rector became pure formality, since the actual administration of pro rectors, who were selected from the group of the professors, was led.

old person universities in Eastern Europe

the Jagiellonen university in Krakau (Poland) became 1364 ofPolish pair of kings of the Jagiellonen sex based. Something two hundred years later developed the Immanuel Kant university king mountain in East Prussia, which was created 1544 of duke Albrecht as Albertina. For the Baltic of special importance the University of Vilnius is, those as the oldest universityin the Baltic applies. It was created 1579 by Jesuiten.

condition of the training body

in the time between 1500 and 1670 began also the development of the academic training body to essentially this very day the valid condition. Afterwards those formtidy professors (professores publici ordinarii) as fully qualified members of the four faculties the academic (large) senate. Hereunder applies the theological faculty still long time as the most important, the philosophical however as to few outstanding; at some universities(purely outward) the honour priority of theology until today expresses itself in seat and entrance orders. The tidy professors of a faculty select the Dekan, all tidy professors the rector from its center. Besides it does not give belonging professors to the senateand private lecturers, who have a training permission, but no training obligation.

modern trend Universities of

first lectures in German language held Christian Thomasius at the university created by its efforts in resounds. There appeared also under his linethe first critical academic magazine. The first university, which was connected with an Academy of Sciences, was the University of Goettingen.

Up to the year 1789 the number of the universities in Europe on 142 had increased. The largest contingent participatedto register with 34 universities in Germany (holy Roman realm without habsburgische areas), which is to due to the competition of the national princes and the pressure of the Gegenreformation. As consequence of it there was thereafter in the Napoleoni time a substantial number ofUniversity Universities of, only the more important universities between Freiburg and Kiel remained existing. In the year 1790 Italy with 26 universities in second place stood. Then France with 25, Spain with 23, Austria Hungary with 12, the Netherlands with six, Scotland with five followed,Scandinavia with four, England and Russia with ever two as well as Ireland, Protugal and Switzerland with ever a university.

Starting from the second half 19. Century shifted the emphasis at the universities of collecting, arranging and mediating knowledgestrengthened to the research, thus for producing knowledge. This was done inspired via the Humboldt education formation of the unit of research and teachings, which in the Friedrich William university Berlin, which today's Humboldt university was justified and world-wide imitation found. Into the 1880erYears began a re-organization of the faculties at the universities, then nature -, state - developed, spirit - or economiceconomics faculties. Besides the academic seminars were liked, with which the students under guidance accomplish practical exercises. At the same time the laboratories developed, Observatories and hospitals, so that in the natural sciences and in the medicine training in line with standard usage could be made. However courses of studies arose in this time also for the first time “overfilled”. The donation university represents a special type of the university, thosefirst was created in Frankfurt/Main in the period 1912/ 1914.

The continuous economic postwar upswing and later education reforms granted simple entrance to higher education to children from all social layers in the Federal Republic starting from 1960 gradually. Starting from 1970 new becameUniversities and comprehensive universities based, among other things in Bremen, Bochum, Augsburg, Regensburg, Duesseldorf, Oldenburg, Trier in Germany as well as Salzburg and Linz in Austria.

The student movement arising since 1965 was a part of the international reformerischen departure, that particularly 1968 of Berkeley (the USA) overParis, Berlin, Frankfurt to Prague was enough. The German “68-er” - generation revolted against hushing up the crimes of the “third realm” by the parents generation and uncovered the unaufgearbeiteten involving of substantial parts of the German science in the Hitler time. The discussion determining partthe thorough processing and break regarded to the students at that time of traditions, which had prepared the third realm, as a condition for each further scientific and social progress. The most famous transparency of the student movement became 1967 during the Rektoratsübergabe at the universityHamburg reveals and prangerte this with the saying „under the robes - Muff of 1000 years “on.

Social paging extended beyond the universities: In the Federal Republic of Germany the again educated social liberal coalition began reconciliation politics alsothe east and created thereby substantial conditions for the today's German unit. The sexual revolution, third world - solidarity, ecology movement, Hausbesetzerbewegung, in addition, the RAF terrorism were only some aspects, which showed the profound change social climate.

The student movementthe universitäre landscape affected lastingly: An extended participation - third and quarterly parity - in the university committees of the academic autonomy opened an abundance at new political capabilities to the students. It exists today at the universities pluralistische variety of combinations.Among them student autonomy organs are such as AStA - Referate for university and socio-political questions (e.g. Schwulenreferate, Ausländerreferate), political specialist area initiatives, leisure facilities, e.g. Studentencafés, Entrepreneur - associations and expenditure roundness initiatives for career promotion. Student roof federations as fzs understand themselves consciously as counterweight to conventional Student connections, reject these and fight them openly.

Beside the national and the private commercial universities there were attempts, not-hierarchically also again and again organized “open” universities to create. At present the open University of in such a way specified BerlinS places such an attempt .

The German University Cairo (GUC) in Cairo/Egypt is that to time world-wide largest project supported by Germany in the education range. With support of the Universities of Ulm and Stuttgart the GUC was created in the year 2001 and had already two yearslater 3300 students with a woman portion of 40 per cent.

An at present large change in the European university landscape is the tendency for the harmonization and internationalization of the European university area (Bologna process), that the far beyond European Union borders and at that itself45 countries take part. Most important change for the students is thereby the uniform change of the study conclusions to Bachelor and masters (not identical to the anglo-saxon conclusions) up to the year 2010. Thus are a simpler university change as well as an easier acknowledgment andbetter comparison of the study conclusions with the occupation entrance or - changes by means of all frontiers to be away reached.

legal bases in Germany

after the Basic Law the Act concerning universities giving is fundamental thing of the countries, which have the culture sovereignty. This corresponds, if one ofthe centralistic time of the third realm or the GDR foresees, also the historical development of Germany. Nearly all old universities were established by the national princes, who needed for it however an imperial privilege. This principle is however broken through: For reasons thatUniversity financing came it also to frame-legal regulations by the federation with the university framework law. Otherwise the countries must inform themselves among themselves state-contractually over together wanted or intended circumstances. Also this has historical dimension: already 1654 met the Evangelist realm conditions on Reichstag to Regensburg a first agreement for the containment of the Pennalismus at the universities, ausufernden then.

the competition of the universities among themselves in 21. Century

during still before that 2. World war the number of universities for example inGerman-speaking countries and also this was visible in the competition around studying only with one another stood, has itself the offer through often reestablishments structure-politically arranged of the 2. Half 20. Century substantially changes. With the baby boom there were temporally transferred also oneBoom of establishment of university. Most spectacular reestablishment of this time was without a doubt those the University of Bremen, which appeared at the same time also in the sense of a genuine product differentiation as left university and so that sought to address a certain target group. Admits was general in Germany the competition between thatUniversities of north and South Germany, which went out constantly in favor of the South German universities, because more student from north to South Germany went than in reverse. This competition first the universities of the German Federal Armed Forces occurred also, their offer a financing of the study against oneConscription contained. End of the 1990er years was added a broad pallet of private universities with requirement for elite, which required substantial study fees of the students, these in addition, in the competition with the free national universities intersperses itself and nevertheless binnem short one the studyingto select could. Strengthened far itself the international competition, whereby in particular the Netherlands in the competition won around German studying despite study fees substantially at market shares. Create a larger transparency in the competition for some years ranking - lists in those in the pressthe quality of individual universities and faculties according to different criteria become screened. This competition is strengthened by the acceptance of the studying altogether in Europe by for years the giving way birth rate in Europe. The policy searches by concentration and the creationto step from public elite universities against. The European union considers (2006) the creation of a new European elite university.

Modern buildings of universities in the picture:

the oldest European universities to 15. Jh.

Front of the university of Salamanca in Spain, one of the oldest universities of Europe


Year university
1088 University of Bologna, Bologna
around 1170 University of Oxford, Oxford
1175 University of Modena, Modena
around 1209 University of Cambridge, Cambridge
1218 University of Salamanca, Salamanca
1222 University of Padua, Padua
1276 University of Perugia, Perugia
1289 University of Montepellier, Montpellier
1224 University of Federico II, Neapel
1229 University of Toulouse, Toulouse
1240 University of Siena, Siena
1253 University of Paris, of Paris
1254 University of Sevilla, Sevilla
1290 University of Coimbra, Coimbra
1290 University of Lisbon, Lisbon
1290 University of Macerata, Macerata
1303 University of La Sapienza, Rome
year university
1321 University of Florenz, Florenz
1339 University of Grenoble, Grenoble
1343 University of Pisa, Pisa
1346 University of Valladolid, Valladolid
1348 University of Prague, Prague
1361 University of Pavia, Pavia
1364 University of Krakau, Krakau
1365 University of Vienna, Vienna
1386 University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg
1388 University of Cologne, Cologne
1392 University of Erfurt, Erfurt
1402 University of peppering castle, peppering castle
1409 University of Leipzig, Leipzig
1419 University of Rostock, Rostock
1425 catholic University of lion, lion
1456 University of grab forest, Grab forest
1457 University of Freiburg, Freiburg in mash gau
1460 University of Basel

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see also: Diagram of the European Universities of

list of Universities of

work on []


  • Karl Griewank: “German students and universities in the revolution of 1848”, Böhlau 1949, ISBN B0000BIRT2
  • the idea of the German university: the five basic writings from the time of their new reason by classical idealism and romantic idealism (in it among other things William ofHumboldt: Over the internal and outside organization of the higher scientific institutes in Berlin. 1810). Darmstadt: Scientific book company, 1956, ISBN B0000BJR17
  • Ernst Anrich: “The idea of the German university and the reform of the German universities”, scientific book company 1960, ISBN B0000BFU6B
  • ClydeW. Barrow, Universities and the Capitalist State: Corporate Liberalism and the Reconstruction OF American Higher Education, 1894-1928, University OF Wisconsin press 1990
  • victory mouth dia. moon, Compromised Campus: The Collaboration OF Universities with the Intelligence Community, 1945-1955, Oxford University press1992
  • Joachim Ehlers, the high schools. In: Peter Weimar (Hrsg.): The Renaissance of the sciences in 12. Century, Zurich 1981, 57-86.
  • Helmut Heiber, Universität unterm swastika
    • Teil1: The professor in the third realm: Pictures from the academic province, Munich:Saur, 1991
    • part of 2: The surrender of the high schools: the year 1933 and its topics, Munich: Saur, 1994
  • roll ago Hubatsch: “German universities and universities in the east”, West German publishing house 1964, ISBN B0000BOSE0
  • Michael Klant, university in the caricature -Bad pictures from the strange history of the universities, Hanover 1984, ISBN 3-7716-1451-1
  • Klaus Heinrich, to the Geistlosigkeit of the university today, University of Oldenburg 1987, ISBN 3814210085
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  • Johann J. Angel, Johann B. Erhard, Friedrich A. Wolf: “Occasional thoughts over universities”, ISBN 3379005312
  • M. J. F. M. Hoenen, Jakob Hans Josef cutter, George how/as country (Hrsg.): “Philosophy and Learning. Universitiesinto the Middle Ages " Brill suffering 1997, ISBN 9004102124
  • Beate Krais, science culture and sex order. Over the hidden mechanisms of male dominance in the academic world, Frankfurt/Main/New York, Campus 2000, ISBN 3593362309
  • Dieter Langewie, for what the society Geisteswissenschaften needs?How much does the university need Geisteswissenschaften? In: Florian Keisinger and. A. (Hrsg.): For what Geisteswissenschaften? Controversy of arguments for an overdue debate, Frankfurt A. M. New York 2003 ISBN 359337336X
  • Christian Bremen, Armin Heinen, Ruediger Stotz: “The European union as on the right of and condition area.Future tasks and present: Lectures and discussions of a colloquium of the Universities of Aachen, Lüttich, Maastricht, 3. - 5. April 2000 ", Itschert, Michael 2000, ISBN 3897960648
  • walter Rüegg, „history of the university in Europe “, 4 volumes, Munich: C.H. Beck, Bd.3: Of 19. Centuryto the Second World War 1800-1945, 2004
  • Wolfgang E.J. Weber, history of the European University of, Stuttgart: Kohl hammer, 2002, ISBN 3170164821
  • Franco Cardini, Mariaterese Fumagalli Beonio Brocchieri (Hrsgg.), universities in the Middle Ages. The European places of the knowledge. Munich 1991, ISBN 3517012726

See also

Wiktionary: University - word origin, synonyms and translations

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