Fall of the Roman realm
the fall of the Roman realm is the probably most-discussed topic of the antiquity science. It concerns the reasons for the case (west) of the Roman realm, whereby most different theories were sketched; East Rome however outlasted the collapse of the westRoman dock ore around. In the following the complex topic can be only outlined.
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older research opinion
in the older research indicated above all Edward Gibbon the clay/tone. Regarding its fulminanten work The History OF the DEK LINE and case OF the novel Empire postulated Gibbon the opinion, Rome went down particularly at structural weaknesses: It gave the debt to the Christianity to a not small part; this weakened the old forces of the Roman realm. It followed also the Dekadenztheorie Montesquieus , while its Christianity theory Voltaires follow the ideas.
Still in 19. Century one gave to the Christianity and the outside pressure by the Teutons the debt at the case of Rome. Their eignenen answers must be stressed to find - in this context that each time tried, and thus always very lucky did not lie. Oswald Spengler saw a cyclic process: After the ascent of a large realm follow the fall (fall of the evening country). This cyclic school finds partially also today still trailers. Arnold Joseph Toynbee saw a failure of the moral instances, in addition, the coincidence, which played a role. Late ancient times are often interpreted in this sense as mirror image of the own society. So it can come to the fact that the historian refers his own time often too strongly (like Spengler). Otto Seeck regarded late ancient times as a pure purge time, while Henri Pirenne stated as reason for the collapse of the lateantique Mediterranean world the attack Islam (see Islamic expansion and Pirenne thesis).
newer research opinion
today is interpreted late ancient times, in whose period (about 300 to 600) the case of Rome fell, more differentiated than for example still from Otto Seeck. The Dekadenztheorie is regarded as to a large extent generic term-oiled. Although particularly starting from approximately 550 a decrease of the education can be stated, it is probably more correct, instead of speaking of purge from transformation to.
Also the economic fall is only conditionally valid as reason of the purge. On the contrary: Rather late ancient times were not a solidifying time, but a time of paging and the unbroken economic Vitalität, above all - however not only - in the east (see. Demandt, late ancient times, S. 453), even if it probably came into certain regions to a decrease in population (Jones, Later novel Empire, Bd. 2, S. 1038 FF.).
The same applies to the devaluing designation Dominat , those rather the attitude of some liberals historians 19. Century corresponds (like Theodor Mommsen), which wanted to see a military dictatorship in the lateRoman realm. The Bürokratisierung increased, even if the Roman realm were rather under-administered compared with modern societies, however also the social mobility. Besides many courses of this development could be recognized already much in former times. The military often extracted itself from control of the emperor, just as the church and parts of the aristocracy. Into that time perhaps also a clear decrease of the slavery fell (see. Demandt, late ancient times, S. 454; in the research however not undisputedly), even if it strengthens Kolonate gave (connection of the farmers to the country).
The debt was given, the Christianity is likewise more differentiated to be regarded. Often it was given the Christians by Agnostikern. But objectively also some may be correct, although in another connection: Thus many men of highest integrity turned to the Christianity and spent their life in the service of the church, were lost so however to the state. The bureaucracy of the state had to often strike itself with corruption, although this was however probably not so far common, as some means one (see. Jones, Later novel Empire, Bd. 2, S. 1063 f.).
The theory of the outside influencing control faces these systems-inherent attempts at explanation. And here one comes on a central problem of the lateRoman state to speak: the army. This was long no more able to protect the borders effectively. Reasons were based one on the grown challenges to small crew strength as well as substantial arms progress of the Teutons; an important bleeding represented probably the battle of Adrianopel (378) and at the Frigidus (394). In the east faced the Imperium with the Sassanidenreich besides an almost equivalent opponent with a regular army. Ever more Roman citizens went around the service in the army, which had already enlisted mercenaries in the early Kaiser era. Now recruitments of not-Roman mercenaries increased ever more. Teutons and others served in the army, which was barbarisiert ever more . In addition a strong pressure came on the borders. It did not succeed to the Romans to merge the Teutons into the realm federation (Demandt, late ancient times, S. 471). The problem with “unreliable” barbarians arose however after the sources only with foederati , thus to the Teuton serving as confederates, not however with the Teutons integrated in the army (Jones, Later novel Empire, Bd. 2, S. 1038). The role, which the Teutons played in the long run with the emergence of the medieval world - occupied and/or. took over it the westRoman realm rather, they would by force have conquered it ? - one did not clarify until today satisfying.
Incapable child emperors (Arcadius, Honorius, Valentinian III.) and the attitude some (usually Germanic) of a Magister militum to rather seize the weapons against the own Roman government in order to strengthen so the own position, contributed to the power loss of the western dock ore around. West Rome power already was before 476 and/or. 480 temporarily only a shade of its - which became imperial centre government in Ravenna finally expenditure-levered by the Germanic army masters. As break is considered the murder of the westRoman general Flavius Aëtius 454, which with its armies, widen the Roman rule in Italy parts Galliens as well as Katalonien and Dalmatien had kept upright.
The Germanic Foederaten took over now the administration of their areas completely and recognized z. T. the eastRoman emperor as their upper gentlemen on. Still Justinian I. was able to intersperse the Roman requirement for rule in the west also militarily - at least partly and for limited time. Only the Arab expansion, which prevented the emperors in Konstantinopel for all future to exert in the west effective influence meant the final fall of the Roman realm.
it is heavy to formulate a clear answer why the westRoman realm went down. However (exclusive) the debt cannot be given to the Christianity and the alleged Dekadenz. In the east proved the Christianity in certain measure as uniting volume, in the west the Heidentum had obviously survived itself. Debt were however surely certain systems-inherent lack in the administration and the army, above all however was militarily not strong the west enough. The west realm was met by the force of the lateantique people migration (375 - 568) with whole hardness, particularly since were to there fewer troops than because of Danube and Euphrates. The west did not have also the population numbers and the high resource of the east - in addition it succeeded to the westRoman state obviously less and less, at the partially still enormous private possession enriches senators to access or sufficient realm inhabitants to the military service to enlist.
To a large extent which is missing resistance against the Teutons can actually mean only two different kinds: Either once then martial Romans had purged into apathy, or however one did not feel the “barbarians” at all as threatening intruders (Lit.: see. W. Goffart, on the other hand see however Heather and Ward Perkins; Heather stresses among other things the role of the Hunnen).
A monocausal viewpoint will become fair however never all difficult problems. Probably the contemporaries checked up the procedures rather still less than the modern research. So no suitable counter measures could be seized. Safe are only one: Rome lived culturally away - and to have been future Europe crucially along and activated also dynamic forces like, formed late ancient times, so badly certain events for parts of the population.
- hard vienna Brandt: The end of the antique ones. History of the lateRoman realm, Munich 2002. (Very much knappe, quite conservative introduction to the history of the years from 284 to 565)
- Karl Christian (Hrsg.): The fall of the Roman realm, Darmstadt 1970.
- Alexander Demandt: History of late ancient times, Munich 1998, S. 445 FF.
- Ders.: The case of Rome, Munich 1984.
- Walter Goffart: Barbarians and of novel A.D.418-584. The of techniques OF accomodation, Princeton 1980. (Influential newer theory for the role of the Teutons; not completely undisputedly.)
- Peter J. Heather: The case OF the novel Empire: A new History, London 2005. (Heather regards above all the Hunnen as reason for the penetration of the Teutons in the Roman realm; see also the essay below.)
- Peter J. Heather: The Huns and the end to OF the novel Empire in Western Europe, in: English Historical Review 110 (1995), S. 4–41.
- Alfred Heuss: Roman history, 7. Aufl., Paderborn 2000, particularly S. 500-506 and S. 601 FF. (Research overview).
- Arnold Hugh Martin Jones: The Later novel Empire 284-602. A Social, Economic and administrative Survey, 2 Bde., Oxford 1964 (PAPER-bake lp Baltimore 1986), particularly Bd. 2, S. 1025ff.
- Walter Pohl: The people migration. Conquest and integration, Stuttgart 2001.
- Bryan Ward Perkins: The case OF Rome: And the end to OF Civilization, Oxford 2005. (Representation of the end of the westRoman realm, which contrary to W. Goffart this process as brutal cut understands.)
Web on the left of
- the fall of Rome. Of a coworker of the chair history at the University of Frankfurt (pdf)
- The case OF Rome - on author dialogue (discussion between Peter Heather and Bryan Ward Perkins)