|office language|| Uzbek one, regionally also|
|capital||Taschkent (usbek. Toshkent)|
|system of government|| Republic of, Präsidialdemokratie|
with two-chamber parliament
|head of the government||Shavkat Mirziyoyev|
|minister of foreign affairs||Elyor G `aniyev|
|surface||447,400 km ²|
|Number of inhabitants||26.851.195 (conditions 2005)|
|population density||of 59 inhabitants per km ²|
|independence|| from the Soviet Union|
at the 1. September 1991
|time belt||UTC +5|
|national anthem|| Serquyosh, hur o `lkam, |
elga baxt, najot
Usbekistan (usbek. O `zbekiston; officially Republic of Usbekistan, usbek. O `zbekiston Respublikasi; unofficially also O `zbekiston Jumhuriyati) is a densely populated state in central Asia. Neighboring countries are Kazakhstan, Kirgisistan, Tadschikistan, Afghanistan and Turkmenistan.
Table of contents
11 Web on the left of [work on] geography Usbekistan ² and lies in the middle central Asia. It is a Binnenstaat, thatonly is surrounded by Binnenstaaten (this characteristic divides it world-wide only with the Principality of Liechtenstein).
The Aral Sea threatened by complete drainage has at present a surface of approx. 43,000 km ². Southwest the lake is the flatwavy, wildful Ustjurt - plateau, whose west half belongs to Kazakhstan and which a large nature reservation forms.
The largest part of the surfaceUsbekistans is taken by deserts. Southeast the Aral Sea in the low country from Turan the Kysylkum extends - desert (usbek. Qizilqum), which covers four tenths of the state State of Usbekistans and at the adjacent territory of Kazakhstan continues. It becomes only by some Remainder massifs interrupted, which reach 920 m height in the Gora Aktau. South of it a large steppe landscape lies, by which the Amudarja flows.
In the east Usbekistans lie the Turkestankette and the vorgebirgige landscape of the Tienschan.
The highest mountain Usbekistans is the Beshtor, on which the locality Adelunga Tog is `i. It has a height of 4.301 M. The deepestPlace in the country is to 12 m under the sea level in the Kysylkum.
by Usbekistan flow the two most important supplies of the Aral Sea and largest rivers of central Asia, the Amudarja (usbek. Amudaryo, in the antique Oxus mentioned; 2,539 kmlong) and the Syrdarja (usbek. Sirdaryo; 2,212 km long). Both rivers lie however only with a part of their run in Usbekistan. Their source rivers rise outside of Usbekistans in to Tadschikistan and Afghanistan belonging Pamir (for the Amudarja) and/or. in too Kirgisistan belonging Tienschan (for the Syrdarja). The Syrdarja crossed in its central run the part of the Ferghanatals belonging to Usbekistan, flows then over the territory Tadschikistans, southwest from Taschkent again a distance by Usbekistan, while its underflow belongs to Kazakhstan.The Amudarja forms the usbekisch--Afghan border in its central run first and runs then parallel to the border Usbekistans to Turkmenistan, which follows the river directly however only in a section. Its muzzle range belongs completely to Usbekistan.
Further important rivers are still the Surchundarja (usbek. Surxondaryo), the Kaschkadarja (usbek. Qashqadaryo), which reaches the oasis of Qarshi, and which Zarafshon, which waters the oases of Samarkand and book era and finally in the desert southwest from book era ends, without thatAmudarja to have reached.
in Usbekistan prevails continental desert climate forwards. The yearly precipitation amounts to - depending upon region - only 50-200 mm, rises however in the mountains partly to 1,000 mm annually. The temperatures vary bothyearly and dailytemporally strongly.
The summers are usually hot and cloudless, the winters inconsistantly and cold.
Usbekistan is thinly populated. Germany is about five times as closely settled as Usbekistan. The settlement distributes itselfhowever unevenly on the country. Thus the population density in the Ferghana basin rises to over 400 inhabitants per km ².
Russian consist nationalities the population Usbekistans according to official data from 1993 to 73.7% of Usbeken ,5.1% Tadschiken, 4.2% Kasachen, 2% Krimtataren, 2% Karakalpaken, 1.1% Korean. Among the smaller minorities rank Uiguren, Germans, Mescheten, Aserbaidschaner and Turks. There are about 40,000 Germansin the country.
From tadschikischer side one states, the number of Tadschiken in Usbekistan is indicated much more highly than officially. This statement became in recent time also from some international human right organizations, like z. B. Human Rights Watch or Amnesty international, taken up. Actually however an impartial determination of the population portion of the Tadschiken is in some regions as the area around the cities Samarkand and book era hardly possible, there the there population traditionally bilingual (turk and persischsprachig or in today's terminology usbekischand tadschikischsprachig) and a separation was inserted into two different peoples only by the modern official terminology is.
Lately ever more discriminations against the Tadschiken were reported nevertheless. In the year 2000 it came to obligation driving and toArrest of many Tadschiken . Besides it came 1998 to book burns and suppressions of persischsprachiger media and newspapers .
approx. 88% of the population are Sunni Muslims, approx. 9% Russian-orthodox (usually member of the RussianMinority). Beyond that gives it Shiite Muslims (particularly in book era and Samarkand) as well as member of other Christian denominations (member of the Armenian apostolischen, the catholic and Protestant churches) as well as Jews (approx. To 93,000 Gläubige, see Buchari Jews), Buddhisten, trailer of the Bahaismus and trailer of the teachings Krishnas.
As in the other countries of central Asia (excluded Afghanistan) the number of the practicing Muslims lies only with approximately 8%. Ramadan nevertheless still becomes from approx. 40% in the city and 85%on the country practices.
the largest cities Usbekistans are Taschkent (Toshkent) (approx. 1.978.000 inhabitants), Namangan (approx. 432,500 inhabitants), Samarkand (Samarqand) (approx. 319.400), Andijon (approx. 318.500), book era (Buxoro) (approx. 247.700) and Nukus (approx. 230.000) (Conditions 2005).
See also: List of the cities in Usbekistan
major item: History Usbekistans
from the democratic front apart (parliament - Oliy Majlis) is Usbekistan a dictatorship,in the violations of human rights such as torture at the agenda are. With the parliamentary elections 2004 only five regime-faithful parties were certified. Oppositionals groupings were not allowed to participate and become in the elections suppressed by force.
unrests from May 2005
Craig Murray, the former British Ambassador in Usbekistan had already months before on „the very horrible, totalitarian dictatorship “of the president Islom Karimov referred to and systematic torture. In addition the Financial Time reported of an internal report Murrays, according to which the British secret service MI6 uses extorted statements of Uzbek authorities under torture.  Short time on it it became to dismiss.
The of several daysUnrests, which took place beside Andijon also in Qorasuv and other cities the close border to Kirgisistan, attributed by the regime Karimov the Islamic of the Hizb ut Tahrir (a party of release) and spent their bloody suppression as fight against the terror.Actually they had however social and political causes - high unemployment, housing shortage and poverty and by the suppression were released (FAZ, 25. May 2005).
See also: Unrests in Usbekistan
Usbekistan endeavoreditself into the 1990er and in the first half of the 2000er years to maintain good relations both to Russia and to the USA and Great Britain. At present however the relations between the USA and Usbekistan cooled down, thereKarimov the American military basis to vacate left (). A reason for it was that the USA condemned the bloody suppressions in Andijon (see above). Minister of foreign affairs is Elyor G `aniyev.
fight against the Islamic fundamentalism
Russiaand some Nato states are regarded as allied one against the Islamic fundamentalism, which is represented against government side as the largest outside threat of the country and already fought since longer. Since by western states sees to the beginning of the “fight against the international terrorism”Karimov only quite is confirmed to proceed against fundamentalists. But this is often used as justification, in order to arrest innocent, only not regime-faithful persons. In the course of arrests and raids against terrorists among other things also oppositionals were brought in the prison. Thosedevastating human right situation is often ignored by the foreign country.
Russian president Vladimir Putin and its Uzbek colleague Islom Karimov in Moscow a military assistance pact signed assistance pact with Russia in the middle of. As it means therein, becomesa military attack on one of the two states as “aggression against both sides” rated: “In the case of an aggression against one of the Contracting Parties the other side becomes each necessary, also military assistance offers”. According to reports the contract vacates besides both countriesthe right to a mutual use of their military infrastructure. Karimow therefore called the contract “historical agreement”. “Russia was and remains our most faithful allying.” Putin appreciated the Russian relationship to Usbekistan in similar way.
The agreement is considered to commentators asConfirmation for the fact that Usbekistan wants to commit itself in the future primarily at Russia and orient less strongly at interests of US. Russia strengthens thereby its influence in the centralasiatic country. For the silk road strategy of the USA the agreement means after conviction of manyObserver an harsh setback (S. also: The Great Game).
relationship to Turkey
although the government Usbekistans a too large power influence of Turkey in central Asia feared, is Usbekistan member of the central Asia summit of the Turkish republics.
United Nations (UN), Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO), community of independent States of (GUS), Eurasi Economic Community, Economic Cooperation Organization (ECO), organization of the Islamic conference (OIC).
From the GUAM (up to then GUUAM) Usbekistan steppedin May 2005 out.
soldiers of the German Federal Armed Forces are stationed military in Usbekistan. The Germans use the base Termiz, 500 kilometers south of Taschkent, for the supply of the international colonial force in Afghanistan (ISAF).
Usbekistan has 50.000Man of ground forces: , 1 brigade, 2 air assault brigades, 1 airmobile brigade, 1 Spetsnaz motorized 3 Korpskommanden, 2 tank brigades, 4 motorized infantry regiments, 1 mountain brigade (easy) - brigade, 4 Artillery brigades, 1 multiple rocket launcher brigade. (Source: Federal Ministry for national defense)
see also: Uzbek armed forces
by the insufficient payment of its members is notorious the Uzbek militia because of the corruption grassierenden in their rows. She is regarded of far parts of the population as a kind of national mafia. On land and zugangsstrassen cities become inregular distances of inspection points developed. Passing are requested to pass or stop slowly the checkpoint. All license numbers are noted, what makes comprehensive control for the population possible (consequence: Usbeken is almost unknown the word case of hit and run). The anyway already strong operational readiness levelthe militia very unpopular under the population as consequence of unrests in May 2005 still one developed.
Usbekistan is in 12 provinces (usbek. viloyat, Pl. viloyatlar), an autonomous republic (usbek. respublika) anda city (shahar) with province rank arranged.
|Andijon (Andijon viloyati)||Andijon|
|Buxoro (Buxoro viloyati)||Buxoro (German book era)|
|Farg `ona (Farg `ona viloyati)||Farg `ona (Ferghana)|
|Jizzax (Jizzax viloyati)||Jizzax|
|Namangan (Namangan viloyati)||Namangan|
|Navoiy (Navoiy viloyati)||Navoiy|
|Qashqadaryo (Qashqadaryo viloyati)||Qarshi|
|Samarqand (Samarqand viloyati)||Samarqand (Samarkand)|
|Sirdaryo (Sirdaryo viloyati)||Guliston|
|Surxondaryo (Surxondaryo viloyati)||Termiz|
|Toshkent (Toshkent viloyati)||Toshkent (Taschkent)|
|Choresmien (Xorazm viloyati)||Urganch (Urgentsch)|
|Republic of Karakalpakistan (Qoraqalpog `iston Respublikasi)||Nukus|
|city Toshkent (Toshkent shahri)|
Usbekistan orders compared with itsNeighbour over a relatively good infrastructure.
The railway dominates traffic. The railway system has a length of approx. 3,460 km (conditions 1990).
Road system: over 78.400 km, about which 67,000 km are equipped with firm carriageway surfacing (conditions 1990). Of outstanding importancethe distance Taschkent - Samarkand - is book era along the old silk road.
1,100 km of the water routes are navigable. The strong water withdrawals from the Amudarja limit the navigation however strongly.
in the former Soviet Union was Usbekistan one of the poorer areas. More than 60% of the population lived in weakly settled rural communities. Today Usbekistan is thatthird biggest cotton exporters, an important promoter of gold and natural gas and locally producer of chemistry and machines.
Scarcely 80% of the agricultural effective area serve the cultivation of cotton. Considerable cultivation areas are the Ferghana basin and the regions around Taschkent, Samarkand and book era. Those in national hand Uzbek cotton production present is based predominantly partially on Kinderarbeit.
In consequence of independence 1991 the government at that time tried the planned economy after Soviet samples with subsidies and strong control of production and the pricesto catch.1994 one began to reform the economy due to the strong inflation. The investment climate for foreign investors should be slowly gone back be improved, the role of the state, be further floated in front the privatisation and introduced a stricter monetary policy. The state is howeverfurther a dominating factor in the Uzbek economy and the reforms failed so far, they did not bring the urgently used structural changes. The IWF postponed 1996 a 185-Millionen-Dollar-Kredit, because the political situation at that time in Usbekistan a fulfilmentthe rear conditions made impossible. Due to the Asia and Russia crisis the export and the monetary policy were continued to tighten. A principal reason for the present stagnation is the economic policy, which bounces foreign investors.
Data: Uzbek economy
inDifference to the populations in the neighboring countries Kazakhstan, Kirgisien and Turkmenistan, which were for a long time only superficially islamized to today in the Nomadentum roots and, was the region of the today's Usbekistan already since the early Middle Ages a central area of Islamic culture. Substantially for itwas the highly developed, Persian coined/shaped city culture. In particular the old centers in the today's national center, book era and Samarkand, have culturally an unusual history. They brought many important philosophers, scientists and theologians out . The most famous are:
- the universal scholar aluminum beer university,
- the mathematician aluminium-Chwarizmi,
- the tradition scientist aluminum book air and
- the physician and philosopher Ibn Sina.
- Sheikh Burhan aluminium DIN Naqschband created there the medal of the Naqschbandi - the-wipe, that this very day into Turkey and to Palestineis common.
- the astronomer and scientist Ulugh Beg.
The language and culture of Persia are maintained this very day by many humans in the periphery of these cities, while the state State of Uzbek one from eastTurkish Idiomen developed. The largest poet of the country, meAli shear Nava'i in 15. Century, originated from Herat and on Tschagataiisch and Persian sealed.
To the oldest and most important cultural excessive quantities of the country the traditional indoiranische New Year celebration new RON belongs (usbek. Navro `z), that in spring solemnly committedbecomes.Navro `z is a legal holiday.
the excessive taking out water from rivers to the irrigation of Ländereien for the cultivation of cotton causes ecological damage.
The Aral Sea stands before its drainage, because its supplies since the times that USSR too strongly for artificial irrigation were used. Its depth halved itself, its surface was approx. reduced from 66.000 km ² to at present. 43,000 km ². Disappearing of the once enormous lake will make the climate still drier.
- James Critchlow: Nationalism in Uzbekistan: A Soviet republic's road tons sovereignty. - Boulder [among other things]: Westview press, 1991.
- Julia M. Hitting a corner ore: The independent Usbekistan: on the way from Marx to Timur: political strategies of the conflict regulation in oneMany people state. - Münster: Lit, 1996. (Citizen of Berlin studies to the international policy; 1)
- Jürgen Nowak: The ethnopolitische situation Usbekistans. - Cologne: Bundesinst. for Ostwiss. and boarding school. Studies, 1995. (Reports of the Federal institut for eastscientific and international studies; 1995,30)
- ResulYalcin: The rebirth OF Uzbekistan: politics, economy and society into the post office Soviet era. 1. OD. - Reading [among other things]: Garnet [among other things], 2002.
Web on the left of
- land and travel information of the Foreign Office
- national profile Usbekistan of the LIBRARY OF Congress (English,pdf)
- Link collections to Usbekistan of the Eastern Europe network
- HARAKAT independent press agency for Central Asia
- state portal of the Republic of Usbekistan (Uzbek one, English, Russian)
- Usbekistan information, pictures and maps (German, English, Russian)
- Machallas in Usbekistan (old ways of life/traditions)
- report on a journey by Usbekistan
- homepage of the Uzbek civil rights movementBIRLIK
- Uzbekistan: Ethnic Composition and Discrimination (English)
- report “miserable dust” of Dimitri Ladischensky
- Türk Haber: Uzbekistan (national information and a very detailed link list, on English)
- iodine-fermented Obid
- Daniel Kimmage, Uzbekistan: Between East and west (Eurasia Insight, 17. November 2005)
- Erich Marquardt,Yevgeny Bendersky, Uzbekistan's new Foreign Policy Strategy (PINR, 23.11.2005 - see. )
- Uzbekistan: Into for the Long Haul (international Crisis Group, Asia Briefing N°45, 16. February 2006 - Pdf down load possible, 16 S., 405 KB - see also )
47 asiatic UN member states:
Afghanistan | Armenia | Azerbaijan | Bahrain | Bangladesh | Bhutan | Brunei | China, People's Republic | Georgien | India | Indonesia | Iraq | Iran | Israel | Japan | Yemen | Jordanian one | Kambodscha | Kazakhstan | Qatar | Kirgisistan | Kuwait | Laos | Lebanon | Malaysia | Maldives | Mongolia | Myanmar | Nepal | North Korea | Oman | Osttimor | Pakistan | The Philippines | Russia | Saudi Arabia | Singapore | Sri Lanka | South Korea | Syria | Tadschikistan | Thailand | Turkmenistan | Turkey | Usbekistan | Combined Arab emirates | Viet Nam | Cyprus
other one, disputed states:
Abchasien | Republic of Bergkarabach | Palestine | Südossetien | China, Republic of (Taiwan) | Turkish Republic of north Cyprus
other areas (z. B. Colonies):
Hong Kong | Macao | Tschagos archipelago | Tibet
coordinates: 37°-46° N, 56°-73° O