Utopia

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utopia one calls a conception, which is characterised by the fact that it conceivablly, before the respective historical-cultural background however (possibly. still) is not realizable. Thus is thoseUtopia regarding their conceivableness closely with requirements for truth, connected regarding the requirement of their feasibility closely with the mistake and the lie. In the linguistic usage utopia is used as synonym for one as impracticably valid plan , dream , concept and/or vision.Semantically the term “utopia” leads itself from the two Greek words eutopie (good place) and outopie (“no place”) (“topie” is thus derived from topos, place,) off, thus non--place. In addition, the Greek translation can be laid out as “desire place”.This concerns a world, which has so far no place and only as thought and idea exists.

The utopia lies nearly always in the future, rarely also in an alleged past or in a far area. In that Present already existing beginnings or analyzed, thus to have utopias often also a society-critical character are further-thought,

In this sense main content is oneUtopia frequently a society vision, in which humans live an alternative society system practically. In their presentation the term utopia designates also literary or cinematic works, which such a utopian-better or - worse society present. One of the first utopian novels was Utopia written by Thomas Morus, 1516, which outlines the ideal picture of human living together. From the title of this novel the general term of the utopia is derived .

Although one uses the term utopia conventionally as synonym for optimistic fantastische ideals, a utopia can in their society-critical aspect quite present-practically to be laid out and attained thus apart from its fantastischen perspective a present-refer-critical. The dichotomy possible - thereby article of discussions is impossible: Proponents see new possibilities up-pulling on the horizon. Opponents answer these in the negative and forewarnunwanted or thoughtless possible consequences.

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feasibility

nevertheless draws oneUtopia strictly speaking by the fact out that it is not considered at present to its emergence immediately as realizable. This impossibility of the fast realization is always based in one (or several) the following reasons:

  • The utopia is technically not executable, is called thosetechnical possibilities are still for a long time not so far, they could become fair the circumstances represented in the utopia (see George Orwell, 1984 - [whereby it concerns here however an anti-utopia or a Dystopie] and also Werner ofSiemens, over the scientific age).
  • The utopia is not executable due to human failure, is called it makes so high demands at humans that the described ideal condition cannot be achieved, or the dystopische conception does not become generally accepted,because humans it prevented (see Stephen Hawking).
  • The implementation is intended, or of the population as is not not desirably rejected from a majority or a power elite.

Because the utopias however only from their respective historical context as unrealisticto understand are, resemble already some aspects of the everyday life life at the beginning 21. Century technical and social utopias from - the 50's (Internet, space travel) or exceed this still (genetic engineering). Also elements of Dystopien (Bend bread ago) are (monitoring).

different kinds of utopias

it exist utopian conceptions in technical, social, and religious area. In practice they in addition, combinations represent (e.g. Technocracy).

Social utopias

socialist and communist utopias treat prefer the fair distribution of goods, often with simultaneous abolishment of the money (“everyone after its needs”). Even conceptions of the abolishment of the work exist actually (leisure, Paul Lafargue,“Right to putridness “, situationism). The citizens attend only to such activities, in which they can carry out themselves .

Much time remains to maintain the arts and sciences (see also utopian socialism, spare time).

Whether thatfrom Francis Fukuyama maintained end of history also a utopia represents, is questionable, since this would exist in the already existing world.

religious utopias

Christian ones and Islamic conceptions of the sky are special utopian nature, in popular conceptions, thosea life without concerns and wrong contain. Also utopian conceptions exist of carrying out the realm of God on ground connection (God state).

The Christian future conceptions of the Paradies and/or. Garden Eden on earth, the interspersed realm of God thus, are afternot to call Christian opinion however utopia. They designate an ideal desire conception for the future, however they are reached not by working humans, but alone through God grace. The moreover one Christian theology in their leavesFaith that with the Deszendenz Jesu Christi, which already began people becoming Jesu thus , the realm of God. The Christian future conception is thus no purely futuristic, but designates a simultaneous “already” and “not yet”: The realm of God has with JesusChrist „already “begun, is continued in the church and is already interspersed in the sky. In the entire world however this conception is not yet accepted and thus still waits for completion. Accordingly no new world is preached, but thoseRenewal of the old world. One calls this conception in clear demarcation to the utopia Eschatologie.

Utopian currents are however in the Christianity of the Millenarismus or the Dominionisten, and above all also in the Islam there are comparable currents, thosea completely material God state (Theokratie) to establish want, strongly utopian courses carry (see also: Iran, Islamic revolution).

scientific-technologic utopias

in scientific-technologic utopias become owing to technical progress not only the human living conditions but alsohumans themselves manipulatable. So are illness, hunger and death by technical means to be defeated and the nature of humans purposefully to be changed. They are ideological increased heights of the material scientific and technical development, which social connections fade out consciously or also exaggeratedrepresent. In their exaggerated representation of technical possibilities they are close to involuntarily also newer apokalyptischen scenarios, in which mankind causes the world fall. These are called also anti-utopia or Dystopie.

In the scientific world one expects from thatUtopias often also one „theory for everything “as well as the possibility of understanding metaphysical Entitäten such as lives or consciousness of describing and of copying. In the last years these conceptions are seen increasingly critical however (see. artificial intelligence).

see also

Wikiquote: Utopia - quotations

literature

see also

Web on the left of

Wiktionary: Utopia - word origin, synonyms and translations
 

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