People migration

map of Europe, people migration by means of arrows drawn in - recognizable are also the residential areas of Germanic trunks within the Imperium Romanum

the term people migration designation generally a moving movement, with the one large number of humans from a group of peoples or a whole group of peoplesinto another area resettles. Reason for it are usually worsened living conditions. For this there are the today's migration theories of the sociology. E. G. Ravenstein formulated already 1885 the seven laws of individual migration:The Laws OF migration. Climatic changes, those to Dürrenor inundations lead, can release likewise moving movements like political events, epidemics or over-population. If several causes accumulate, the probability of a drift of large groups of people rises.

In the special one one understands the moving movements of the Germanic peoples between that by the people migration 2. Century and 6. Century. People migration time strictly speaking the period is called of 375 (break-down of the Hunnen to east Central Europe ) to 568 (idea of the Langobarden in north Italy). Their conclusion means at the same time the end of late ancient times and/or. that , the European early Middle Ages begin Roman Kaiser era. Since the conceptual demarcation is predominantly culturally defined over the negative term of the dissolution of Roman social structures, the term use and its temporal beginning can differ depending upon region concerned.

Table of contents

the Germanic people migration

general

the probable reasons for the Germanic people migration are various and also place-dependent. Among other things this land emergency is in northeast Europe because of increasing population and unfavorable climatic conditions. Last clarity over the motives cannot be usually won.Initial moving movements of individual trunks (in particular the Hunnen) and appropriate pressure to evade to these led to a redistribution of the trunks in completely Europe. It must be noted that the “trunks”, “peoples” or towards width units of the migration time did not form constant units or descending communities:A trunk was earliest a community of rights, which could fluctuate in size and composition strongly and was concomitantly polyethnisch compound.

The slow retreat of the westRoman realm and the loss of making and administrative structures, accompanying with it, as well as increasing incorporation Germanic, A further condition educated peoples as allied one against tribute payments and as Föderaten in the Roman army. Thereby less the “barbarians” played a crucial role in the regular Roman army than rather the Germanic foederati, who control themselves from the emperor worse and worseand finally actually independent realms on realm soil left established. One speaks in the meantime rather of a transformation of the Roman world as of a proper conquest. The perhaps most important achievement of the Roman nationalness was developing the Regna in such a way specified on thatSoil of the Imperiums (Goten in Italy and Spain, Vandalen in North Africa, Franconia in Gallien), which became completely substantial for of Europe in the Middle Ages. Without the model of the lateantique Roman realm these realms would have been inconceivable.

Importantly in thatnewer research is the category of the Ethnogenese. The emergence of peoples, of ethnical identities does not become any more than biological category, but than historical process understood. Altogether one can say that itself the dissolution of the westRoman realm and the establishmentthe Germanic succession states in 5. and 6. Century so easily to explain does not leave, how it was in former times accepted. Whether the Teutons were responsible for the fall of west Rome is discussed, for a long time, is considered today however as rather improbably (Lit.:see. however Heather, case OF the novel Empire)

the substantial people migration courses up to the idea of the Hunnen

the Goten are to originally originate after the historical excessive quantity from Scandinavia, which in the modern research however is most disputed;after the turn of an era they settled anyhow in the area of the Weichsel (today Poland) and moved in 2. Century direction black sea. They caused thereby the first larger moving movement: They displaced the Vandalen and Markomannen to the south and those Burgunder to the west. These population shifts were also a trip for the Markomannenkriege, in which Rome of the Teutons could become only with trouble gentleman. Approximately around 290 the Goten divides into Terwingen/Visigoten (are however not simply identicalwith the later Westgoten, were there also different groups to the Ethnogenese involved) and Greutungen/Ostrogoten (here applies to the Ostgoten the same as in the case evenly specified). „The Ostgoten “settled in the black sea area of the today's Ukraine. Those„Westgoten “established themselves for the time being on the Balkan Peninsula , in the area north the Danube in the today's filter defiency guarantee.

About at the same time as the Goten the Langobarden moved of the Unterelbe after Mähren (today Tschechien) and Pannonien (today östl. Austria).

In this time it came only to smaller ideas into Roman rule area, which were struck back either or with smaller border corrections ended. Many trunks were settled also as confederates purposefully at the borders of the Roman realm andbuffers formed for too more hostilely gesinnten trunks (see also Föderaten).

of the idea of the Hunnen up to the conquest of Rome 410

Wanderungen des zweiten bis fünften Jahrhunderts.
migrations second to fifth century.

After the center 4. Century penetrated the Hunnen from the centralasiatic Steppes to south Russia forwards and caused thereby wavelike Fluchtbewegungen of several Germanic and sarmatischer trunks to south and Western Europe. 375 defeated the Hunnen the Ostrogoten and displaced the Terwingen from its settlement country in today's Romania. This event marks traditionallythe beginning of the people migration time strictly speaking.

Most the struck Ostrogoten (the Ostgoten became later) turned out in such a way under hunnische rule, while the Terwingen (from those the Westgoten developed later) fled over the Danube in the Roman realm.Large parts of the Donaugoten fled in the Roman realm and by emperor Valens in Thrakien were settled; soon however it came due to unsatisfactory supply to the revolt of the newsettled. They struck 378 Valens in the battle of Adrianopel, became however 382 by emperors Theodosius I. on Roman soil settled, although further tensions remain existing. Under Alarich I. they pulled then also over the Balkans, Peloponnes and at the beginning 5. Century to Italy. 410 conquered the Westgoten Rome,which led to an end time tendency among the Romans. The now finally forming Westgoten moved far into the southwest Galliens, where they were settled by the Romans 418 and the Tolosani realm in such a way specified with Toulouse established. 507 becameit of Franconias, those already 486 under Chlodwig I. the remainders of the Roman rule in Gallien had eliminated and slowly, but reliably control over completely Gallien attained, defeated and on the iberische peninsula pushed aside. that broke 711Westgotenreich by the victory of the Arabs together (see Islamic expansion).

Up to the idea of the Hunnen it came to no larger population shifts. The Roman realm continued to itself withdraw in the course of the decades always and had increasingly with problems relating to domestic affairsto fight (see history of late ancient times), to it in the year 395 n.Chr., after death emperor Theodosius' I., into west and eastRoman realm was divided. Such divisions it had already before given, whereby it itself in the reasonin each case around administrative divisions acted and this about the contemporaries also not as real handing hurrying had been understood was. The division of 395 should however finally become also an actual; both more and more own ways went to handing hurry.

Vandalensturm, Attila and the end of the people migration

the Goten had pushed the Vandalen aside originally into the area between Weichsel and or. At the beginning 5. Century pulled the Vandalen after Gallien (Rhine transition to the turn of the year 406/07) and reachedaround 409 the Iberi peninsula. Pressed by the Westgoten, it led its way into the rich Roman province Africa. 439 conquered it under king Geiserich Karthago and justified thereby the Vandalenreich, which developed to a sea power -as only the Germanic realms. From North Africa (Tunesien) out they pulled 455 Rome, late Korsika and Sardinien to Italy and plünderten. Only the eastRoman field gentleman Belisar smashed 534 the Vandalenreich.

The Hunnenreich suffered several setbacks: The Roman army master Flavius Aetius, which had co-operated first with the Hunnen, could strike back 451 together with the Westgoten a hunnisches army under Attila in the battle on the Katalauni fields. The Hunnenreich disintegrated also after death Attilas. The Ostgoten, which from parts of the Greutungen and other peoples developed and up to then under hunnischer rule had confessed, pulled on the Balkans, where they were settled as Foederati of the eastRoman realm. Theoderich the large one led its Ostgoten 489 on behalfthe eastRoman emperor Zenon to Italy and killed Odoaker, which had officiated there after the joggle of the Romulus Augustulus in the year 476 as local ruling powers. Theoderich governed formally on behalf the emperor in Konstantinopel, in reality howeverif it was as good as its own gentleman, it dared to however never acquire itself the emperor title of west Rome. But starting from 535 Belisar conquered the Ostgotenreich , which after long on behalf Justinians fights (crucial was last the victory of the eastRoman field gentleman Narses regarding the battle of Busta Gallorum 552) went down.

To the Germanic people migration courses in the Imperium Romanum applied to attain that it tried to win secured settlement country from the Roman government to in order so a secured base of life. Their goal was not thus by any means thoseDestruction of the existing cultural order, but a sharing to it. This becomes clear with the co-operation of the Germanic newcomers with the Roman Oberschicht (for example 418 in Aquitanien with the settlement of the Westgoten). Without this co-operation the Germanic groups, those would have themselveswere in terms of figures far underlaid for the novels, not to intersperse can.

486 eliminated themselves Franconias under king Chlodwig, of their power base at the Niederrhein outgoing, the remainders of the Roman rule area in Gallien, that after the end of the westRoman realm inYears 476 had still held there (see. Aegidius and Syagrius). In the years to 534 they defeated the Alamannen, Westgoten (to Spain were displaced) and Burgunder and thus in, however not centralized, large realm had created, which itselfas the most long-lived the realms developed in the people migration time to prove should.

Probably already starting from that 4. Century penetrated - even if only into small group the Friesen, fishing rods and Saxonia from Northern Germany and today's Denmark into Britannienand far parts of the country occupied, where the Roman administrative regulation already at the beginning 5. Century with the departure of the last garrison troops had broken down. Soon thereafter the Roman culture expired in Britannien and the Teutons took far parts of theCountry in possession, whereby it came however soon thereafter to fights between the newcomers. The native Celts emigrated into the peripheral areas Britanniens, parts even after Aremorica (therefore it also the name Brittany).

568 failed the Langobarden of Pannonienunder king Alboin in north Italy and established - only very loosely developed - the Langobardenreich, which existed the large one up to conquest by Karl. This course, which perhaps a failed attempt of east Rome preceded, the Langobarden in north Italy asFoederaten to settle, marks the end of the people migration time in the research. The imperial troops could hold however about half of the peninsula (under it Ravenna and Rome). Approximately at this time also the Baiern can be proven, and a little for the first time laterthe Slawen penetrated into many once Germanic areas as well as into the Roman Balkans, where they established themselves.

Only the commonwealth of Franconias, the Langobarden and fishing rod Saxonia developed again had existence and stabilized conditions again. The question, in what respect the TeutonsDebt at the fall of the Imperiums have, is however until today very disputed in the research. In any case ones had it at the metamorphosis of the antique Mediterranean world their portion (see late ancient times).

literature

  • Patrick J. Geary: European peoplesin the early Middle Ages. To the legend of of the nations. Frankfurt/Main 2002, ISBN 3-596-60111-8.
    (Fischer paperback; critical view on the long usual view of the lateantique groups of peoples as homogeneous things, instead representation of the procedures as complex interaction of heterogeneous groupsand factors.)
  • walter Goffart: Barbarians and of novel AD 418-584. The Techniques OF Accomodation. Princeton 1980, ISBN 0-691-10231-7.
    (A very influential book, the new, if also undisputed, explanation sample does not offer Teuton realms to that for the emergence.)
  • Peter J. Heather: The case OF the novel Empire: A new History. London 2005.
    (Heather stresses aspect by force and the destructive of the people migration time.)
  • Peter J. Heather: The Huns and the end to OF the novel Empire in Western Europe. In: English HistoricalReview 110 (1995), S. 4–41.
  • Stefan Krautschick: To the emergence of a date. 375 - Beginning of the people migration. In: Klio 82 (2000), 217-222.
  • Yokes Martin: Late ancient times and people migration. Munich 2001, ISBN 3-486-49684-0.
    (4. Volume in the OGG row with representation,Research tendencies and bibliographies to sources and literature, starting point for the scientific work.)
  • Roland Prien: Archaeology and migration - comparative study to the demonstrability of migration movements. Bonn 2005, ISBN 3-7749-3327-8.
  • Walter Pohl: The people migration. 2. erw. Aufl., Stuttgart and others2005, ISBN 3-17-018940-9.
    (Scientifically introduction from the Kohl hammer row founded. At present probably the best overview work.)
  • Klaus roses: The people migration. Munich 2002, ISBN 3-406-47980-4.
    (Knappe, but well readable overview representation from the reliable Beck knowledge row with annotierter short bibliography.)
  • Leslie Webster/Michelle Brown(Hgg.):The transformation OF The novel World. AD 400-900. London 1997, ISBN 0-7141-0585-6.
  • Herwig tungsten: The realm and the Teutons. Berlin 1990, ISBN 3-88680-168-3.

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see also: Late ancient times, Ethnogenese, migration, referring to people migrations by occurrences of the Helicobacter pylori with humans, Immobilisten

 

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