|office language||latin, Italian, German 1|
|System of government||absolute choice monarchy|
|head of state||Benedikt XVI.|
|Cardinal undersecretary of state||Angelo Sodano|
|president of theGovernatorato (SCV)||Edmund Casimir Szoka|
|surface||0.44 km ²|
|number of inhabitants||of 932 inhabitants (July 2005)|
|population density||of 2,071 inhabitants per km ²|
|independence||11. February 1929 (Lateranvertrag)|
|time belt||UTC +1|
|national anthem||Inno e Marcia Pontificale|
|preselection||+39 06 (assigned: +379)|
|Official web page||www.vatican.va|
|1 official language of the Swiss guard is German.|
The State of Vatikanstadt (official long form in Germany and Switzerland) or state of the Vatikanstadt (official long form in Austria) is the smallest independent recognized by the UNState of the world. It lies within the city of Rome (Italy) and has a surface of 0,44 km ² and 932 inhabitants (of it 552 citizens). To the Vatikanstadt belong the Peter cathedral, the Peter place, the Sixtini chapel as well as thosePalaces and gardens within the vatikanischen walls.
The state of the Vatikanstadt is an absolute choice monarchy, head of state is a Pope. The the Holy See as non-governmental, independent international law subject which can be differentiated from the state of the Vatikanstadt represents the state on international level.
Table of contents
major items: Territory of the Vatikanstadt
on the territory of the Vatikanstadt are underother one:
- the Peter cathedral
- the Sixtini chapel
- the Vatikani museums (the Vatikani collections)
- the Vatikani library
- Vatikani secret archives
- the Vatikani Pinakothek
- the Vatikani station, that the Vatikan with goods supplies
- the Vatikani gardens
- the Leonini wall
- the papal palace
- the Gouvernatoratsgebäude
beside it are following buildings and properties in the exterritorialen possession of the holy chair (however not part of vatikanischen national territory):
- Castel Gandolfo
- Santa Maria Maggiore
- church San Giovanni in Laterano
- church San Paolo fuori le Mura
- Palazzo Courtial
- Palazzo di PropagandaFide
- Palazzo di San Callisto
- Palazzo del Vicariato
- Palazzo della Cancelleria
- seat of the Kongregation for the eastern churches
- seat of the Kongregation for the faith teachings
of that about 800 humans, who live in the Vatikan, have approximately 550the vatikanische nationality (among them are approx. 100 Switzerland suppl. pool of broadcasting corporationsists - Citizen on time and about 50 further laymen). The vatikanische nationality is lent only occasionally and bound to a function. It never replaces „the natural” nationality. It becomes thathigh members of the Kurie, which members of Swiss guard as well as all in the Vatikan or in Rome living cardinals awarded, beyond that those, which live in the long term with special permission of the Pope in the Vatikanstadt. Hold themselves well 40 per cent of the citizenshowever not in the Vatikanstaat or in the city Rome up. With them it concerns the papal envoys and Nuntien, who are for the duration of their office likewise vatikanische citizens.
In the Vatikan the Pope with its cardinals lives,Prälaten and the Switzerland suppl. pool of broadcasting corporationsists. On the 3,000 employees practically nobody lives in the Vatikan. Most employees are the cabinet members, ceremony master, salesman, restorers, cooks, office worker, printer, employee of the state-own bank (Vatikanbank) or cleaning personnel. The employees are rough into partition five groups:
- House personnel: Cooks, cleaning forces, chamber servant etc.
- Religiousness: Priests, who take over also a majority administration and art-historical tasks.
- Security: Papal Swiss guard, Gendarmeria and supervision personnel for churches and museums.
- Broadcast and press: Publisher of the L'Osservatore Romano as well as of radio Vaticano.
- Teaching staff for those the Vatikan attached universities and chairs.
the seat of the Popes was to in 14. Century not the Vatikan, but the Lateranpalast. “Vatikan” designated first one at the right Tiberufer convenient hill of Rome (mons vaticanus). There the circus of the emperor Nero was in the antique one, in whom Martyrien are to have taken place and executions of numerous Christians and Jews. North the circus was a small cemetery,on that allegedly the Apostel Petrus was buried. One already little later built there a first church, and in 4. Century let a large grave church establish emperor Konstantin in their place - pc. Peter. The Vatikan became therebycentral place of pilgrimage of the Petrusverehrung. In the following centuries further buildings on the hill, above all scholae so mentioned , for barrier drivers of different nationalities of accommodations, developed chapels and cemeteries offered, in addition, had weir systems. Under Leo IV.became in thatCenter 9. Century establishes larger attachments around the entire place of pilgrimage (Leostadt).
With the decay of the Roman realm stressed the Popes under appointment to in such a way specified, in 15. Century as falsification unmasked, konstantinische donation the lay ruleover the territory around Rome, which became thus the germ cell of the future church state. 751 this state was finally guaranteed to them by the Pippini donation. The Popes resided however not in the Vatikan, but in the Lateranpalast, and the cathedral of the Popeas a bishop von Rom remained to today the Lateranbasilika.
The Vatikani hill became only at the end 14. Century with the return of the Popes from Avignon (1377) and the end of the Schismas (1417) to the papalSeat of the government, location of the Roman Kurie and thus for the center of the church state as well as the catholic church altogether. After the Schisma the again won unit of the church should be clarified by large building projects. The Vatikan present before the gates of Rome offered for itapart from the proximity to the assumed Gebeinen Petrus' also sufficiently vacant area. Above all Nikolaus V.sketched in the middle 15. Century enormous structural drawings, which were only partially converted however among it and its successors. Partly in a well-planned manner, partly from pragmaticDeveloped for reasons in the following centuries churches, chapels, administration buildings, weir systems, accommodations and other buildings on the Vatikani hill.1506 began the construction work at the Peter cathedral. 1589 gave Sixtus V.the building of the Apostoli palace in order, that this very day thoseDwelling of the Pope and important administrative organs contain.1626 were inaugurated the Peter cathedral, the final development lasted however until 1650. Shortly thereafter also the Peter place received its current form.
Parallel to the development of the Vatikan also the territory of the church state widenedout. To in 19. Century extended it over today's central Italy, however 1798 in the course of the French revolution the area were explained as „the Roman republic “, 1808 was incorporated the territories the Kingdom of Italy. The Viennese congressrestored the church state however.
In the course of the Italian agreement the church state became by king Viktor Emanuel II.in the year 1870 occupies. The status of the Vatikanstadt was first unsettled, however in fact the rule of the catholic remained in itChurch exist, so that starting from 1870 the church administrative organs from the remaining church state concentrated in the Vatikanstadt. In this time the structural and institutional bulkheading of the remainder of Rome developed. Only by the Lateranverträge of 1929 between that The church state was fixed to holy chair and the fascist Kingdom of Italy under Benito Mussolini again as sovereign state. Afterwards it covers however only the area limited by a wall around the Peter cathedral.
the state of the Vatikanstadt stands for head of state under the authority of the holy chair ( after international right a further of sovereign, however non-governmental international law subject), is the Pope. Certain possessions of the holy chair into and around Rome have exterritorialen status in accordance with the Lateranverträgen, without being however part of vatikanischen territory. For the internal security of the state Swiss guard and the vatikanische Gendarmeriekorps are responsibly. Outside security is ensured by the Italian state.
The Pope is as a bishop von Rom ex officio a head of state of the state of the Vatikanstadt and possesses the abundance of the legislative, implementing and judicial force (kind. 1, exp. 1 of the Basic Law of the Vatikanstaates< ref>Basic Law of the Vatikanstadt< /ref>).
Since 1984 are assigned the cardinal undersecretary of state the constant agency of the Pope in the lay line of the Vatikanstaats.
During the Sedisvakanz, thus the time interval between the death of the Pope and thatChoice of its successor, has the Kardinalskollegium all powers of the Pope, whereby naturally the urgent task is to be seen the adjustment of the Papal election, which takes place in the Konklave so mentioned. Legal regulations, which became to issue from the Kardinalskollegium during the Sedisvakanz, are only in urgent cases permissible and in their effectiveness the Sedisvakanz limits in the long run. It is open the again selected Pope to confirm or reject these regulations according to the regulations of the canonical right.
The legislation force practices, ifthe Pope a decision or special Kurienmitgliedern did not reserve himself, the papal commission for the Vatikanstadt, consisting of seven Kurienkardinälen , out. She is appointed by the Pope for in each case five years and compiles law suggestions, those the Pope by that Office of the secretary of state for investigation to be submitted. It is mainly responsible for the definition of the financial and budgetary policy of the Vatikanstadt.
The executive force is exercised by the Governatorat of the Vatikanstadt, their president Edmund Casimir cardinal Szoka at the same time also the chairman of the papal ones Commission is. It is supported in its activity of a Secretary-General as a director/conductor of the Governatorat, responsibly for the central administration. The cardinal president of the commission or the office of the secretary of state submits important questions for examination.
The Judikative consists of a court firstInstance, a Appellations and a Kassationshof. Judgements become in the name of the Pope please. This has to intervene after the constitution the right in jedweder punishing or civil case and in each phase all-comprehensively and for example the power of decision in a process of a specialInstance or also are passed.Redresses are no longer permissible in such cases.
The state of the Vatikanstadt takes up no diplomatic relations with other states, but leaves this to the holy chair. It is thus also no member that United Nations (during the the Holy See permanent observer status enjoys).
as sovereign state completes the Vatikanstaat its financial transactions independently.
at the beginning of the 1990er years have also noticeable apart from the disclosure of the finances of the stateEfforts assigned to simplify the organisational structure grown over two thousand years. The administration of vatikanischen net assets is based now upon four columns:
- The “Minister of Finance” manages the prefecture for economic affairs the world church (cardinal Sergio Sebastiani)
- as a governor of the city stateVatikan is a cardinal Edmund Szoka responsibly for incomes and expenditures on the territory.
- The administration of an estate of the holy chair (Apsa) leads cardinal Attilio Nicora. Over the Apsa the salaries are paid and decided also on resulting investments.
- Institut for, Better than Vatikanbank 1942 of Pope Pius XII admit, became religious works (IOR).based. The bank becomes from a lay manager, for who banker controls Angelo Caloia, led and from a cardinal commission. Owner of this mechanism is a Pope, thatalso requirement on their profits has.
To the main sources of income of the Vatikanstaats the business belongs within the Vatikan. The conversions of the supermarket, just as the incomes of the Vatikantankstelle, the pharmacy and the clothing store flow into the treasury.
Further main incomes become ofSouvenir stands and by freiwillige obtains donations. On average about 85 million euro are donated annually to the Vatikan. Other sources of income are the sales of vatikanischen euro coins and special coinages as well as stamps at collecting tanks. The letting of approximately 2,400 houses outside of of theVatikan guarantees a regular income.
Besides the Vatikan gold, which it stores in New York, possesses well 850 real estates in the estimated value of 1.5 billion euro as well as (priceless) art treasures, of those the former Pope Johannes Paul II.said: “You are unsalable, they belong to all humans ".
By the state balance of the Vatikan the incomes are expressly impossible from church taxes as well as certain expenditures. These flow directly to the Diözesen and medal communities in all world, however the work of the Pope, the vatikanischen Kongregationen,Advice and church courts with amounts of millions support. According to data of different dioceses in Germany understand yourself the catholic church expressly as world church and the Vatikan important superordinate tasks notice there, carry over the federation of the Diözesen Germany therefore all German dioceses perYear a portion for the tasks of the world church.
calling cardsin the Vatikanstadt and the exterritorialen areas is there some telephone boxes.There are also vatikanische calling cards, which function only there, not however in Italian Fernsprechhäuschen. Nearly all buyers of the calling cards use it as collecting objects, because only few persons have admission to the places, at which the vatikanischen map telephones are installed(z. B.Vatikani library). Thus the sales of the calling cards became a lucrative source of income for the national budget.
of the Vatikanstaat has since 1933 also its own station with 852 m rail distance. This became lastonly two times 1979 (to the next station in Rome) and 2002 (after Assisi) of Johannes Paul II. used. Since 2003 a department store is accommodated in this station. Otherwise this rail distance is only used for the goods transport.
Value added tax
in the Vatikan does not give it a value added tax.
- Fabrizio Rossi: The Vatikan. Politics and organization. Beck, Munich 2004, ISBN 3-406-51483-9
- Thomas's J. Reese: Inside Vatikan. Politics andOrganization of the catholic church. Fischer, Frankfurt A. M. 2000, ISBN 3-10-062921-3
- Niccolo Del Re (Hg.) /dt. Treatment: Elmar on-board field: Vatikanlexikon. Pattloch, Augsburg 1998. ISBN 3-629-00815-1
Web on the left of
|Wikinews: Portal: Vatikan - current messages|
|Wikisource: Basic Law of the state of the Vatikanstadt - Source texts|
- Vatican.va - official German-language side of the Vatikanstaates
- article to the Vatikan from the Ökumeni holy encyclopedia
- land and travel information of the Foreign Office
- city plan of the Vatikanstadt
- Vaticano Web (Italian)
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United kingdom |
coordinates: 41° 54 ' 9 " N, 12° 27 ' 6 " O