between 1961 and 1983 started the Soviet Union several space probes to the Venus. These are called after the Russian name for the Venus usually „Venera “(Russian Венера = Venus). Also the way of writing is occasional „to Wenera “(see. for this Transkription of the cyrillic writing). Besidethe designated space probes there was a set of false starts, which were proven in case of reaching the earth orbit as satellites under Sputnik - and cosmos - pseudonym. In addition took place in the context of the Zond - program a flight (Zond 1) toward Venus, as well as further not successful starts.
Table of contents
in the starting window 1961 planned to start the Soviet Union two probes direction Venus. One assumed long time thatthe probes a small landing cap on board had, which should land on the Venus and for it was designed, to be able to swim in an ocean (its presence one on the Venus assumed). This assumption became by the taking along of Soviet emblems as with the Lunik - probesfed. Today one knows the fact that the probes carried no countries, but instead a hard impact on the Venus surface to probably try should.
- Sputnik 7 started to 4. February 1961. The probe left because of the failure of the upper stage of the Molnija - booster rocket do not ground orbit. The probeweighed 6,843 kg in the orbit as well as the upper stage of the rocket (those was not separated).
- Venera 1 started to 12. February 1961 and left the earth orbit. However the contact already broke to the probe to 19. February 1961 in 2 million kilometers distance toEarth off. The mute probe flew to 20. May 1961 in 100.000 km distance to the Venus past, with which it produced first of humans for object was, which came into the proximity of the Venus. The probe weighed 643.5 kg.
There the Molnija used for the start- Was still little established booster rocket, one 1962 equal three probes started. For two of these three probes a landing was planned and for a flyby to the Venus. The mass of the probes amounted to approximately in each case 890 kg. The probes originated from the project 2-MV,with which one developed a common bus for Mars or a Venussonde. This bus could carry then either a landing cap or an instrument package.
- Sputnik 19, Sputnik 20 and Sputnik 21 started to 25. August and/or. 1. September and 12. September 1962, but came because ofthe failure of the booster rocket none beyond the earth orbit.
Sputnik 19 and Sputnik 20 were landing probes, Sputnik 21 against it a flyby probe. Technical details were not published, but because of the common bus the structure might have been identical to Mars 1.
In the year 1965 became againdifferent pairs of probes on the way skillfully: „Venera 2 “and „cosmos 96 “were flyby probes, „Venera 3 “should a landing probe release, which should land then on the planet surface. Although only „Venera 2 partly successfully worked “and „Venera 3 “, the year 1966 placed nevertheless the Soviet break-through toVenus. The USA had however come already before the Soviet Union: Their first successful Venusvorbeiflug found to 14. December 1962 by marine ones 2 instead of.
The bus of the probes was identical to from Zond 1 to Zond the 3. One planned a common bus for probesto Mars and Venus. While the Venus probes were integrated into the Venera program, one never started the Mars probes up to one. Instead they were started as Zond 1 to Zond 3. The Zond program generally did not stand for interplanetary probes, of them true nature the Soviet Unionto abandon wanted.
The flyby probes carried different spectrometers and a camera system, which should take photographs with the flyby. The countries should longer time on the surface stay and was equipped in addition with solar cells. It had meteorological sensors and instruments for the investigation of the atmosphere.
- Venera 2 started to 12. November 1965. The 963 kg heavy probe flew to 27. February 1966 in 24.000 km distance to the Venus past, the connection broke off however briefly before the flyby, so that one did not receive data. A cause was an overheating of the probe.
- Venera 3, started to 16. November 1965 had with its flyby to the Venus at the 1. March 1966 for the same reason no more contact to the ground station, but released the probe automatically their landing probe, which partly glowed however in the atmosphere of the Venusand hard on the surface impacted. It was thereby first of humans produced object, which landed on the surface of the Venus. The total mass of the probe amounted to 960 kg.
- Cosmos 96 remained after the start to 23. November 1965 in ground orbit. The probewas probably identical to „Venera 3 “.
The two probes of 1967 were further developed models of „Venera 3 “and „cosmos 96 “. „Venera 4 “was the first completely successful Venus mission of the Soviet Union, although she did not reach the Venusoberfläche, since the high pressure of the Venusatmosphäre admits only insufficientlywas. Nevertheless the probe worked over the complete planned time and could supply important data over the atmosphere of the Venus.
- Venera 4 started to 12. June 1967. The transfer probe separated to 18. October 1967 to the Venus countries off, the 96 minutes long tosuccessfully in 24,96 km height data transferred, until the batteries failed (a battery life of 100 minutes was planned). Since the atmospheric pressure was too low estimated, the probe needed for the descent longer and could not not reach the surface in the planned period of operation therefore. The total massthe probe amounted to 1,106 kg.
- Cosmos 167 came to 17. June 1967 not beyond the earth orbit. The probe was identical to „Venera 4 “.
1969 folded for the first time kind of doubling of the Soviet Union to the Venus. The two probes were similarly the successful „Venera 4 “, hadbut on a somewhat higher external pressure of 25 bar laid out landing caps. But also this was not sufficient, so that the two probes did not reach the Venusboden intact. If one had improved the parachute system, so that the probes now faster by the atmosphere arrived and battery capacityone increased. Nevertheless both probes are considered as success, because they supplied as planned, hanging during the descent on a parachute, data over the atmosphere. The mass of the probes amounted to in each case 1,130 kg, whereby 405 kg were allotted to countries.
- Venera 5 started to 5. January1969 and set to 16. May 1969 a landing probe off. With this landing probe long contact could be kept at a value of 18 kilometers over the Venusoberfläche 53 minutes, until it was crushed by the atmospheric pressure.
- Venera 6 started to 10. January 1969 and setthe landing probe to 17. May 1969 out. Contact with that countries existed 51 minutes long into 10 kilometers height.
With “Venera 7”, whose landing probe could withstand a pressure of 180 bar, the Soviet Union achieved the crucial break-through. It was the first successful landing upa strange planet at all. The total mass of the probe amounted to 1,180 kg. A weak signal could be received 23 minutes long from the Obefläche, then the landing cap grew silent. The instrumental equipment, which contained 4 6 experiments still numerous to Venera with Venera for the investigation of the atmosphere,had to be limited now to a thermometer and a barometer, since the intensified screen of the landing cap required very much weight.
- Venera 7 began the flight to the Venus to 17. August 1970. The landing probe of „Venera 7 “led to 15. December 1970 the first successfulLanding on the Venus out. The descent to the surface took 35 minutes, whereby data became to transfer over the atmosphere. After the landing 23 minutes could be received long data from the surface.
See also Venera 7
- cosmos 359 reached to 22. August 1970 because of oneMalfunctioning of the upper stage of the booster rocket no transfer course to the Venus. Probably the probe was similar „the Venera 7 “.
The two probes, which were started 1972, were similar to those from 1970. There one now the ground pressure of 90 bar knew could one the screen of the cap againreduce and more experiments carry. A radio altimeter permitted to note it the movement of the probe over the soil and to provide such an elevator profile. Equipment white ammonia chemically after and a further examined the size and distribution of the aerosols in the atmosphere. A gamma-ray spectrometer determinedat the soil the concentration of the elements potassium, uranium and thorium. A further task was it to measure the lighting conditions on the Venusoberfläche in order to prepare the next missions equipped with photo cameras. As consequence its had to land the probes on the daily side of the Venus, afterall past landing attempts on the Nachtseite were accomplished. The total mass of the probes amounted to in each case 1,180 kg, the landing probes weighed in each case 495 kg and contained the following instruments: Temperature, pressure and photosensors, in addition a height measurer, gamma-ray spectrometers and a gas analyzer. There „the Venera designed for 180 bar7 “at the soil only one pressure of 90 bar was now for 120 bar external pressure appropriate this landing cap announced before.
- Venera 8 started 27. March 1972. The landing probe dipped to 22. July 1972 around 08:37 UTC into the atmosphere of the Venus. The entrance speed of 41.696km/h was reduced by the deceleration to 900 km/h, afterwards height of the 2.5 m opened large parachute in 60 km. During the descent data were transmitted. The probe landed around 09:32 UTC on the daily side of the Venus and discovered that it on the surfacethe planet was as bright as on a cloudy day on earth, with a range of vision of approximately a kilometer. By the fact one knew that photographing is possible on the Venusoberfläche. The probe transferred altogether 50 minutes long data, whereby however only 11 seconds of databy the surface were sent.
- Cosmos 482 remained to 31. March 1972 because of failure of the booster rocket again in the earth orbit.
all past Venera probes with Molnija rockets were started, and were limited thereby to a mass of approximately 1,180 kg. Now hadone however the by far stronger proton - rocket for the order, which could carry about 5,000 kg of direction Venus. Thus by far more fastidious missions were possible, one worked therefore on the new heavy Venera probes.
After the starting window was omitted 1973, one started 1975 „Venera 9 “and „Venera 10 “,in each case of an orbiter and countries consisted. The nut/mother probes flew past not the planet for the first time, but hit an orbit. The two (without fuels) about 2,300 kg of heavy orbiters measured the planet and delivered for the first time radar measurements, there the Venusoberfläche because of completelyClouds existing atmosphere is not observable. The Soviet Union co-operated with these two missions with France. The countries of these missions were accommodated in 2,4 m large spheres and weighed in each case 1,560 kg. One set different techniques around the life span on the 475 °C is calledTo increase surface; for example precooling the entire Landers on -10 degrees Celsius and the taking along of packages with lithium nitrate tri hydrate, a salt, which melts with 30 degrees Celsius and takes up warmth. The countries for the first time contained cameras, which supplied roughdissolved pictures of the Venusoberfläche. Thiswere the first pictures of the surface of a strange planet at all. In addition the countries had an arm to by a Roentgen fluorescence spectrometer the composition of the surface were determined.
- Venera 9 started to 8. June 1975 and swivelled to 20. October 1975 into an orbitaround the Venus. The landing probe still landed on the same day and conveyed to 53 minutes long data and for the first time some pictures of the surface to the earth. The probe weighed 4,936 kg when starting.
- Venera 10 started to 14. June 1975, reached the Venus to 25. October1975 and the countries worked even 63 minutes long on the surface. It supplied likewise data and pictures of the surface of the planet. The probe weighed 5,033 kg when starting.
It became later admits that the end of the transmission does not cause by the loss of the countriesbecame, but because the orbiters of countries out behind the horizon disappeared and one could receive so no more data. The Venera 9 orbiters worked up to 22. March 1976. Both orbiters examined the Venusatmosphäre with cameras and spectrometers. Further experiments applied for interplanner arene areaand the search for gamma-ray outbreaks.
With the 1978 started „Venera 11 “and „Venera 12 “returned the Soviet Union then again to the traditional technology: The nut/mother probe flew past the planet and set countries off. This permitted a longer contact with that countries. Both probes could,because the lining of the camera was not separable, only data, but no pictures convey. The probes weighed in each case 4,940 kg when starting. At both flyby probes were besides France and Austria takes part.
- Venera 11 left the earth to 9. September 1978 and flew to 25. December1978 to the Venus past. It set countries off, which occurred with 11,2 km/s the atmosphere and about with 7 to 8 m/s on the surface put on one hour later. The countries conveyed 95 minutes data of the surface, whereby however someInstruments malfunctionings exhibited.
- Venera 12 started to 14. September 1978, but already reached the probe the planet to 21. December 1978. The landing probe transferred then 110 minutes long data, before the nut/mother probe left the radio range.
Also „the Venera 13 “and „Venera 14 “probes consisted ofin each case a flyby stage and countries. The probes conveyed pictures from the surface again contrary to their predecessors to the earth. The photographs of the surface were provided this time with highly soluble color cameras. In addition the countries had the soil samples thought out analysis systems, inferred and inside thatProbe with a Röntgenfloreszenzspektromter examined. The countries weighed in each case 760 kg. The two nut/mother probes besides still to maneuver tests for the later VeGa - mission as well as to sun observations were used.
- Venera 13 started to 30. October 1981 and flew at the 1. March 1982 to the Venus past.The landing probe of „Venera 13 “conveyed long (32 minutes were planned) data and pictures of the surface to 127 minutes at an outside temperature of 457 °C and an atmospheric pressure of 84 bar.
- Venera 14 started to 4. November 1981 and reached the Venus at the 3. March1982. The countries survived 57 minutes on the surface at an outside temperature of 465 °C and an atmospheric pressure of 94 bar and supplied data and pictures.
„Venera 15 “and „Venera 16 “set for the first time no more countries off, but set the work of „Venera 9 “and„Venera 10 “away. Both probes were developed identical and were based on modified flight platforms of „Venera 9 “to „Venera 14 “. It consisted of 5 m long cylinder and 1.4 m a high parabolic antenna with a diameter of 6 m for the Synthetic Aperture radar(SAR), which was accommodated at an end of the cylinder. A 1 m large parabolic antenna for radio altimeter was likewise at this end of the probe. A curvature at the opposite end of the cylinder carried Treibstofftanks and drive systems. For current supply two solar panels stood toOrder. A large antenna, which was attached at the side of the cylinder, served 2.6 m communication with the earth. The probes weighed in each case 4,000 kg.
Altogether the probes could seize about 30% of the surface with its Synthetic Aperture radar (SAR), with its assistance oneunder the close cloud cover of the Venus in-see could. Of „Venera the 15 “and „Venera 16 “provided maps had a dissolution of 1-2 km and was thereby about 30 times more highly detailed than from Pioneer Venus the 1. Both probes could do those in their elliptical orbit onlyNorthern Hemisphere up to approximately 30 degrees northern latitude seize. This corresponds about 25 per cent to the surface of the Venus. However the six years provided later started US-American Magellan - to probe global Venuskarten with a dissolution of approximately 100 meters, which placed the Soviet achievements into the shade. On„Venera 15 “and „Venera 16 “missions were France and the GDR with instruments involved.
- Venera 15 started to 2. June 1983 to the Venus. The probe reached to 10. October 1983 an orbit and mapped the planet up to the year 1984 with radar.
- Venera 16the earth left to 7. June 1983 and began with mapping the planet to 14. October 1983. The contact too „Venera 16 “ended to 12. July 1984.
Venera D is a planned Venus Landesonde, which is to be developed by Lavochkin and about 2016 start is. Planning proceeds from one about 1,300 kg of heavy countries,over a longer time on the Venusoberfläche to survive to be able is. „Venera D “is to be started probably by Soyuz - rocket and similarly the first Venera probes directly, without a flyby stage, on the Venus be landed. The landing is planned on the Nachtseite of the Venus. The emphasisis to be appropriate for the mission in the investigation of the lower atmosphere, in addition the surface in the infra-red light is to be photographed during the descent.
The approximate list of the instruments could look in such a way: a panorama camera, a descent camera, a mass spectrometer, an alpha ray x-ray spectrometer, a gamma-ray spectrometer, a laser spectrometer, a nebula measuring instrument anda seismic detector.
The development is to begin 2010, the costs of the mission is according to ESA approximately 300 million euro to amount to. With a sufficient financing a start would be possible 2016 with a Venus landing 2017.
the study of the Venus ranks among the high pointsand gloss achievements of Soviet space travel. Although the Soviet Union at the beginning lost a running against the USA and had to accept numerous misses, it developed its probe technique further continuously. In the year 1966 it obtained first partial successes, with the first landing on another planet 1970 thatfinal break-through. After 1972 the technology had so far developed that no more mission failed. In the year 1975 the Soviet Union sent the first orbiter, which began with the radar mapping of the planet. Mapping the planet was not completed by the Soviet Union.
Nevertheless the Venus center appliedthe 1980er years as so good investigates that the Soviet Union turned to other goals. Up to the end 20. Century was there then only a further Venus mission, Magellan of the USA, which mapping the planet completed.
Web on the left of
|Commons: Venus missions - pictures, videos and/or audio files|
- missions to the Venus (under it all Venera missions) (dt.)
- The Soviet explorationOF Venus (English)
- Venera D homepage with the ESA (English)
see also: List of the unmanned space missions