República Bolivariana de Venezuela
Bolivari Republic of Venezuela
Flagge Venezuelas Wappen Venezuelas
(detail) (detail)
office language Spanish
capital Caracas
system of government Präsidialrepublik
president Hugo Chávez
surface 916,445 km ² (32.)
Number of inhabitants 25.375.281 (conditions July 2005) (45.)
Population density of 27 inhabitants per km ² (145.)
Independence of Spain to 5. July 1811 explains, recognized 1821
currency Bolívar
time belt UTC -4
expansion 60-73° westl. Length; 1-12° nördl. Spreads
national anthem Gloria aluminium bravo pueblo
national holiday 5. July - liberty explanation
national bird Turpial
national plant Orchidee
Kfz characteristic YV
Internet TLD .ve
preselection +58
Weltkarte, Venezuela hervorgehoben
Karte Venezuelas

the Bolivari Republic of Venezuela (Spanish República Bolivariana de Venezuela) is a South American state to the Karibikküste. The States of Brazil, Colombia and Guyana border on the country.

Table of contents

the name Venezuela

over the origin of the Names „Venezuela “there are two theories: Some attribute it to Amerigo Vespucci , which led an expedition together with Alonso de Ojeda 1499 along the northwest coast (today well-known as the gulf of Venezuela). When they reached the Guajira peninsula, those observedCrew the buildings of stakes (palafitos) those the natives Añu over the water had established. This reminded Vespucci to the city Venice and consequently was called the region Venezuela, which was to mean as much as “small Venice” (although this in none in questioncorresponds to coming languages the rules for the formation of minimizations).
On the other hand the Spanish Konquistador and geographer say Martín Fernández de Enciso, Mitglied of the same crew, in its writing “Summa de Geografía” that the population of this region a flat rockpopulated and “Veneciuela” were called.


the country at the north coast of South America, covers a national territory of 916.445 km ² and has one about 2,800 km long coast.

Venezuela can be divided in four regions: The Maracaibo Tiefländer in the northwest; the Anden, thosein a broad east west elbow of the Colombian border along the Caribbean sea eastward extend; the Orinoco levels (Llanos) in the center and into the high country of Guayana in the southeast.

The Anden

the summits of the venezolanischen Anden is enough in approximately5,000 m height. Into fruitful valleys between the mountains the majority of the population of Venezuela and also industry and agriculture lives is here concentrated.

The fissured mountain courses at the Colombian border are the most thinly settled part of this region.

South the Lago de Maracaibo rises the highest mountain of Venezuela, the pico Bolívar (5,007 m). Some summits in this region are the whole year over snow-covered.

A broad valley separates this mountain course from a further, which follows the coast.In this valley also the capital Caracas lies. This relatively small range is the most closely settled region of the country. Here the most intensive agriculture is operated and the traffic net is best developed.

A broad valley separates this range fromthe easternmost group of mountains, which rises steeply from the Caribbean sea.

The large levels of the Llanos extend the Orinoco level southern of the mountains. They expand from the Caribbean coast in the west to to the Colombian border. The Orinoko formsthe southern border.

Beside the grass countries this region covers also Sumpfgebiete in the Orinocodelta and at the Colombian border. The collections in the Llanos do not exceed the 200-Meter-Marke.

The Maracaibo Tiefland

Maracaibo lake

the Maracaibo Tiefland is surrounded by mountain chains, outer-taken is only thatThe north. Here it borders on the Caribbean sea. This region is very flat and rises only easily toward the surrounding mountains. 13,000 km ² large and Maracaibo lake deep up to 50 m takes a majority of the lower lyingRanges. It is connected by 75 km long strait Canal de San Carlos with the gulf of Venezuela. On the east bank of the lake the richest oil supplies of Venezuela store.

The largest city of the region is the port Maracaibo tolake of the same name.

The high country of Guayana

the high country of Guayana is one of the oldest landscapes of South America. It rises southeast the Orinoco. This high country, which is coined/shaped by plateaus and tributaries of the Orinoco, takes more than half of the national surfaceVenezuela.

Salto fishing rod

the most remarkable formation of this region is the Gran Sabana, a large, strongly eroded Hochebene. Cleared away in the course of millions of years the sandstone masses and remaining remained fissured valleys and enormous solid board mountains, those in the languagethe native Tepuis to be called. Their age becomes estimated on 70 million years. The 115 different Tepuis in this area are characterised by a singular and peculiar Flora and fauna on their high plateaus, because have themselves due to the isolationmany endemic kinds develops. From the board mountains the highest Wasserfälle of the world, like for example the Salto Kukenam and the highest Wasserfall of the world, fall the Salto del Angel with a head of 965 M. It is at the same time one thatmost well-known objects of interest of the Canaima national park, which was proclaimed of the UNESCO to the world nature inheritance.


of the Orinoco is the largest and most important over 1000 rivers of the country. It rises to one of the largest Wasserscheiden of Latin America in the border area between Venezuela and Brazil. With a length of 2500 km from the source to the Atlantic the Orinoco is the eight-largest river of the world and after of Amazon the longest of South America. The water level of the Orinoco varies (dependent on the seasons) considerably. Thosehighest conditions are measured in August. They exceed the Tiefststände of March and April around on the average thirteen meters.
The majority of the Flussbettes exhibits only a slight downward gradient. Below the upper runs it splits up into two rivers. A thirdthe water flows by the Brazo Casiquiare (Casiquiare channel) into a tributary of the Amazon. The remainder flows far into the forward channel of the Orinoco. This passage makes it possible to change for ships with low depth of the Orinoco into the river system of the Amazon.

Most rivers, which rise in the northern mountains, flow in southeast direction to the Río Apure, a tributary of the Orinoco. The Apure crosses the Llanos eastward. In the area of light precipitation south the Apure are there no considerable source areas.

Another important river is the Caroní particularly by its high velocity of flow is characterised. It rises in the high country of Guyana and flows on the height of Ciudad Guyana into the Orinoco. The Caroní is suitable particularly well forthe building of hydro-electric power plants and contributes so substantially to the energy balance of Venezuela.

Completely in the south of Venezuela, a world-wide singular geographical phenomenon, the Brazo Casiquiare, a natural channel, is to that the river systems of the Orinoko and the Amazon over that Río Negro interconnects, so that the enormous areas between Orinoko, Amazon and Atlantic form a “island”. As as first already Alexander of Humboldt at the beginning 19. Century reported, flows those water of the Brazo Casiquiare depending upon relative water level directionThe north in the Orinoko or to the south in the Río Negro.


although the country in the tropical climate zone lies in the middle, finds one, dependent on thatAltitude, the topography and the direction and intensity of the prevailing hoist, all climatic types from the tropical damp to the alpine climate. Seasonal fluctuations differ less by the temperature than by the different amounts of precipitation. In the majority of the country prevails from Mayuntil November rain time.

The country divides into four temperature zones, which can be attributed majority to the altitude:
In the tropical zone (below 800 m) temperatures between 26 prevail °C and to 28 °C in the annual average.
The moderate zoneextends between 800 and 2,000 meters sea-height with average temperatures of 12 °C to 25 °C. Here most cities of Venezuela lie, including the capital Caracas.
°C one finds colder conditions with temperatures of 9 °C to 11 inthe cool zone between 2.000 and 3.000 M.
Pastureland and durable snow fields coin/shape the landscape in the high mountains (starting from 3.000 m sea-height). Here the temperatures are in the annual average below 8 °C.

The annual precipitation is enough from 430 mm into that halfarid low countries and levels in the western part of the Karibikküste up to approximately 1,000 mm in the Orinoco triangle. In the mountain regions the amounts of precipitation vary considerably, because into lowering less rain, than at the steep walls, falls which are exposed to the northeast hoists.
In Caracas half of the annual precipitation falls from June to August. Those are 750 mm.

Important cities

the capital Caracas is at the same time also the largest city of the country. Other important cities are:

see also: List of the cities in Venezuela


Altersaufbau der Bevölkerung Venezuelas

Venezuela has approximately 25 million inhabitant. Of it are 65% European African indianischer descent (and/or. Mestizós or Mullatós)

20% are Indiani purely European descent, 10% African and 2%.The population growth amounts to annually 1.4% (2005).
The birth rate is with 18,91 (per 1000 inhabitant, value 2005). Each woman on the average brings 2.51 children to the world (value 2000), whereby the infant mortality amounts to 2.617% (value 2000).
The death rate lies with 4.90(per 1000 inhabitant, value 2005) clearly under the birth rate.

Approximately 85% of the population live in the urban areas in the north of the country. In the area south the Orinoco, which takes nevertheless nearly half of the total area, only 5% livethe inhabitant.

Newer political history starting from 1948

Venezolanischer Junge in den Llanos
Venezolani boy in the Llanos

to information about the history of the state from the natives to in 20. To century see please in addition the major item: History of Venezuela:

1948 - 1982

starting from 1948 becameVenezuela of a military junta, of 1952 under dictator Marcos Perez Jiménez led. With its fall 1958 Venezuela became a democracy. Since then years were the two determining parties the social-democratic Acción Democrática and the conservative into the 1990er COPEI, which placed also the presidents. In the first term of office of Carlo Andrés Pérez (1974 - 1979) rose the income of the country from the oil export so rapidly that the country was one of the wealthiest countries of South America, “[...]by the sales of oil Venezuela from 1973 to 1983 took approximately 240 billion dollar, i.e. for instance tenfold its that the Mars resounding plan planned " (Arturo Uslar Pietri), the distribution politics accompanying with it led to, for Latin American conditions,extraordinarily high political stability of the country.

1983 - 1997

with the striking purge of the oil price since 1983 these income did not break however away and there it other industries gave, which were able to compensate the sinking oil incomes, carried this togetherthat ever more highly becoming foreign debts (1993: 45 billion dollar) to a continuous economic crisis.

drei venezolanische Kursmünzen
three venezolanische course coins

in the second term of office of Carlo Andrés Pérez '(1989 - 1993) as consequence the restaurant course begun of instructions of the International Monetary Fund ledin the February 1989 to hunger revolts, which so-called Caracazo, whose striking down by force cost officially 246, according to unofficial estimations far over 1000 humans the life. After two Putschversuchen in the year 1992, one to 4. February by Hugo Chávez and one to 27. November 1993, one national economy year with minus growth and the conclusion-finite joggle of the president by the highest Court of Justice because of defraudation and corruption became 1994 Rafael Caldera president. Until 1998 political stabilization, the economic crisis however became also it succeeded to itnot gentleman (1994:Inflation rate: 71%, heavy monetary crisis and Bankencrash).

1998 to today

Chávez (left) and president Lula of Brazil

to 6. December 1998 became Hugo Chávez, the founder of the Movimiento Quinta República and leader of two Putschversuche approximatelythe former venezolanische republic, selected with a surprising victory (56%) to the president. Chávez is an advocate of the Bolivarismus, its avowed goals is the fight against corruption, the creation and stabilization of direct a democracy as possible, as well as the national and economicIndependence. This politics are called also „Bolivari revolution “. After the elaboration of a new „bolivarischen “condition and their acceptance by referendum, Chávez was confirmed to majority (60%), even risen clearly, again in the year 2000 with one opposite 1998.Of Venezuela state designation since then „Bolivari Republic of Venezuela reads “and in the vernacular as „fifth republic “(quinta república) is designated.

To 12. April 2002 came it to a Putsch against the government with the goal of falling Chávez. Despite support of allprivate medium transmitter through „political parteiische reporting “(venezolanischer journalists' federation) and locking of the only, national transmitter (Canal 8) by the new government the revolution attempt failed because of the broad population masses, which went for their president on the road. The Putschisten remained unpunishedor went into the exile.

The policy Chávez'

attacked point of the venezolanischen national assembly building the USA repeated sharply and explained publicly that they support the opposition. Since they refer however a majority of their oil from Venezuela, they cannot do itself all toolarge criticism carry out. Venezuela is contrary to most other countries of Latin America in a the position to pay its foreign debts and is not forced to submit to the savings dictation of the International Monetary Fund.

To 15. August 2004 found a referenduminstead of, which was initiated by the opposition. To it strikes went in front among other things at the national oil company PDVSA, as well as so-called tax strikes of the wealthy part of the population. After the responsible electoral registration office had stated that the necessary number of signatures (about2,5 millions) reached would be scarce, avowed Chávez, it to this referendum would place myself. The referendum confirmed Chávez during high election turnout (73%) with 58% (scarcely 5 millions) clearly in the office. The opposition accused Chávez electoral fraud, but onefrom them initiated and of the OAS (organization of American states) and the election result confirmed accomplished second counting of the voices to the Carter center. Due to the remarkably high crush it came too partial waiting periods for hours and the locking of the polling stations had, several times finallyto midnight, to be shifted.


the system of government of Venezuela are a form of the Präsidialdemokratie (i.e. the directselected president is a at the same time nominal head of state and boss of the executive) with strong directdemocratic elements, a complicated division of power between the five Gewalten legislation, executive, Judikative, citizen force(Kind. 273-291) and choice force (kind. 292-298) as well as numerous elections on different levels. The new condition of Venezuela forbids the privatisation of the oil industry and the social security systems, orders the free national education and measures for the reactivation of unused large-landed property, respected beyond that however thatPrivate property, also the private property at means of production. The entire change of state and society took place via plebiszitäre document: With the presidency elections in December 1998 were void 56 per cent of the voices to Chávez, in April 1999 tuned 88 per cent of the voters for thoseSummoning of a Konstituante, in the December of the same yearly 71 per cent for the new condition now as” Bolivari Republic of Venezuela “designated state. In this condition the civil division of power is not waived, but extends by directdemocratic possibilities: Both the delegates andthe president (6-jährige term of office) can be voted out starting from the center of their term of office by referendum. It is a head of state and the head of the government. Present office holder is since that 2. February 1999 Hugo Chávez, the vice-president is José Vicente Rangel,the thus deputy state and head of the government are.

The parliament is the national assembly (Asamblea Nacional) with an a chamber system with five-year legislative period. It has 165 seats, about which the left Movimiento Quinta República of Chávez at present has 76. Further government parties are Movimiento the Podemos (left, splitting off from MAS), the Patria Para Todos (PPT, left); three Indigene (MVR intimate). The Movimiento aluminium Socialismo (MAS, left) forms the opposition, the Acción Democrática (AD, social-democratically, placed several presidents), the Proyecto Venezuela (test specification, conservatively), the Comitéde Organización Política Electoral del Pueblo Independiente (COPEI, in a christian-social manner, placed several presidents), the Primero Justicia (PJ, right-liberally) and the La Causa R (left).

There are two large trade unions. On the one hand that would be the Confederación de Trabajadores Venezolanos (CTV), itself1936 based and the international federation suitor trade unions attached. It is part of the opposition. On the other hand that would be the Fuerza Bolivariana de Trabajadores, a chavistische reestablishment.

The administrative structure of the country is divided in 23 Federal States. There are oneCapital district. The federal territories are mostly islands.

Venezuela is member in the UN with subsidiary organizations, the organization of American States of (OAS), and close A SHANk, the Latin American economic system (SELA), the OPEC, G 77, G 15, G 3 (Venezuela Colombia, Mexico), the Amazon pact, thatCommunity of Caribbean states and the South American union.

Military politics

the new military doctrine of Venezuela are integrals, national, territorial defense, which orients itself at the operational readiness level one technically, economically and demographically by far stronger enemy. The substantially new to it is coined/shaped throughthe experiences since the Viet Nam war, the military resistance in the Iraq and the insight that a strong military power cannot be broken by conventional forces, but only by something that called Mao the long persisting people war. Meant is thus longerirregular war, in which front and hinterland mix themselves with one another, in that civilians, militias and combat troops a unit form and in that weapons on low technological basis to be used. In addition those became after reports of the Guardian admits that Venezuela aims at,to construct largest reserve on the Latin American continent. (see. [1]).

The goals of the monetary policy

core contents of the new central bank law is the modernization of an outdated vision of the central bank role, which blocked the development of the venezolanischen economy and society. Instead of an orthodoxmonetaryistic conception, which itself limited to it, of playing over the manipulation of the liquidity an anti-inflationary role a new interpretation of the central bank role of application finds in Venezuela: similarly as Alan Greenspan in the USA or also the European central bank, on thatnaturally act to side as guards of the currency stability, but is to be proceeded on the other page weightily kept unemployment and economic situation in the eye, now also here.

The goals of the Bolivari process

the goals of the Bolivari process introduced by Hugo Chávezare the following:

  • The state aims at a state-capitalistic development process, how actually Friedrich cunning publicised it before 180 years in Germany and in Venezuela endogenous development is called.
  • Erstrebt becomes the building up of socialism in Venezuela. For this purpose with the creation of structures and mentalities one began, which introduce the transition to socialism.
  • Beyond that a Latin American block is to be formed, in which thatSocialism and those allegedly necessary defense against American and European interests function. From this it results also that the heavyweight of the measures of the government is based on the development perspective of the market economics. It becomes remedy of the total third world economics, on the other hand the rise of the levelthe worker and the fight of the direct emergency desired.
  • Hugo Chávez hat zur Entwicklung von Ideen zum Thema „Sozialismus des 21. Century “called.

Administrative arrangement

board mountain Mt. Roraima
lot Barrios, a quarter of the capital Caracas
Caracas, Skyline of the city center

Venezuelasubdivided itself in 23 Federal States, the dependent areas as well as the federal district. The Federal States and their capitals are in detail:



the gross domestic product lieswith 110.8 billion US Dollar, per inhabitant with 4.262 US Dollar.

Oil and other raw materials

three numbers illustrate impressively, as important the raw material is oil for the OPEC initial member Venezuela: it stands for four fifth of the exports of the Latin American country as well asfor half of the public revenues and 25 per cent of the restaurant achievement. 2005 earned the country approximately 35 per cent more with oil than in the year before. The current incomes of the government are therefore in the first six months of the last yearly over80 per cent risen.

With the rise of the incomes from the oil business the economy grew strongly, however in the second quarter by 11,1 per cent. The International Monetary Fund counts on an annual instalment of 7,8 per cent. Even if the special fund is filled andalthough after Analystenschätzungen a budgetary deficit from two to three per cent might accumulate, the state continues to swim in money: The foreign exchange reserves are estimated at more than 30 billion dollar.

The state demands fair” into the OPEC high and according to its opinion “Prices, as well as restrictions of delivery. Since 2002 comes proceeds from the oil industry no longer completely, which becomes dominant elite of benefit, but used by the government also for programs in the social, education, and public health policy. Despite the continuous tensions between the united ones States and Venezuela refer the United States approximately 15 per cent of their oil from Venezuela.

Foreign trade

the country implements also steel, iron, precious metals, cement, textiles and in much smaller measure other products. A further important industryis the tourism industry.


Venezuela is main owner of the television station TeleSUR. The government intends to give with the transmitter Latin America its own “bolivarische” voice.

International trade relations

to 9. December 2005 joined Venezuela as a fifth member the South American restaurant alliance MERCOSUR .

The moreover one the capital Caracas is the seat of the World Boxing Association.

Oil for needy

Venezuela communicated to supply American Bedürftigte with reduced in price oil which almost provokes tensions. The national venezolanische oil company Citgo and the American Federal State Mainean appropriate agreement made. „The heating costs rose dramatically, and the American government did not create it to supply the inhabitants resources necessary by Maine with. We thank the venezolanischen government for their generosity”, became the governor ofMaine in the venezolanischen explanation quotes. Citgo will therefore sell to fuel oil 34 million litre to 40 per cent under the market price to socially weak households in Maine. Also four Indian trunks and homeless person are to come according to message into the benefit of the special price.In previous November Citgo had supplied already similarly cheaply fuel oil to needy ones to bad clay/tone and in New Yorker quarters the Bronx.


1991 and 2000 the portion of the public expenditures for the health service

culture and social


office language is Spanish, other languages is Guajiro, Pemón and Warao (indigene languages).


96% of the population are Roman catholic, 2% belong to the Protestant faith.


the national holiday is that 5. July (day of independence, Día de la Independencia), which day, on which 1811 the declaration of independence was written. A further holiday is the 24. July, date of birth the Simón Bolívars.


gives five television channels, which radiate country-wide. Fourof it are privately and rather oppositionally, one nationally and rather government friendly. All Fernesehkanäle is very course-bent their owner. The moreover one there is numerous regional transmitter. The most important daily papers are El universal (rather right liberal), El Nacional (rather left liberal), Ultimas Noticias(Boulevard), valley, Cual (rather left liberal), DAILY journal (English-language, business paper) and VEA, Diario de Caracas (government near).


in Venezuela gives it a national, and a private training and university system. In the Latin American comparison the university system is very good, however are stillto recognize clear deficits in the national educational system. The compulsory schooling amounts to nine years, however these fulfill only approx. 60% of the schoolable children. The illiterate rate was lowered by the Alphabetisierungskampagnen from 10% to 1%. The establishment of the so-called “bolivarischen schools “with the concept of the allday school as extremely effective proved.

Bolivari (national) education system

during the private educational system in Venezuela is liable to pay the costs, extended the state with the bolivarischen educational system since 2003 the free national educational system, which howeverto recognize leaves still heavy deficits. The bolivarische education system addresses itself both to adults and to schoolable ones. The adult education programs are organized into misiones so mentioned. They started after the general strike in the spring 2003 and were decentralized offered: Mision Robinsonis a Alphabetisierungsprogramm for adults, in whom to 2005 1.5 million persons participated. In addition mision course offers for the acquisition of a primary graduation (6. Class) on. In these courses in the year 2005 600,000 persons participated. Mision Ribas is inAdult education program for the acquisition of a secondary graduation (after conclusion the 11. Class). Mision Sucre covers the university education. 2003 were created the university bolivariana, at which contrary to the national university all prospective customers with secondary graduation can study. At this university existat present 11 development-technically relevant courses of studies (e.g. Municipality medicine, social work, Pädagogik, law). The training consists in equal numbers of universitären and practical portions. Since the bolivarianische university can accept not all prospective customers, decentralized studying circles were furnished, those by lecturer, student of higher terms as well asvia remote course to be supplied. The decentralized university education is contents of the Mision Sucre.

In the arm quarters bolivarianische preparatory schools, primary schools and secondary level schools are established. The schools are perspectively conceived as allday schools. At the conception of the schools are all persons employed (teacher, psychologistand craftsmen) to be taken part. The schools are to make school clothes, 2 meals on the day and the medical supply available of the children. Learning contents are not only the usual school fan, but also the accomplishment of the everyday life. In the year 2003 2800 new schools were created,in those the conception is partly already carried out.


by a project of the government, in which first only 2000 Cuban, later also native physicians participated, could be raised the supply of the population, particularly the poorest layers. A nourishing project became supplementingstarted that the supply guarantees arms with food in noticing aluminum markets at subsidized prices.

Medical supply

up to the year 2005 10,000 Cuban physicians were ready placed, in order to develop in the arm quarters the health care. The supply is free, thoseMedicines are placed from the state to the order. The medicine stations are established from a component system set, which consists of a small practice and a small dwelling. The population becomes by one Cuban and a venezolanischen physician each (and/or. Students of higher term) supplies.Short-term objective is that the Cuban physician can return after one year and the Venezolaner trains a further Venezolaner. Distant goal is the training of 200.000 physicians within 10 years, which are to then supply Latin America completely. Already 6 months after that3 million persons were medically supplied start of the program 2003.

Nourishing project

in the cities since 2003 in nationally subsidized food is offered to organized noticing aluminum markets. The noticing aluminum markets convert 2005 country-wide 40% of the basic food and 20% of all food. The pricesare between 30% and 70% under those of the normal shops. A goal is the surface covering food supply above all the poor population. 2004 gave it to 2000 shops.


one of the largest problems of Venezuela is the criminality, which itself since assumption of office Chavez still onceincreased clearly.

The murder rate with 100,000 inhabitants developed according to data of the United Nations as follows. The tendency is further rising.

1998: 19,61

1999: 25,21

2000: 33,15

2001: 33,17

2002: 38,50

sources: [[2]]



thosethe capital Caracas offers cultural high points of the country. In the interior the cultural life is developed against it less.

Among the most well-known museums in Caracas the Colección Cisneros, the Colección Fundación polar, ranks the national art museum, the Museo Alejandro Otero (contemporaryArt), the Museo de Arte Colonial Quinta de Anauco (museum for art of the colonial age) and the Museo de Arte Contemporáneo de Caracas Sofía Imber (contemporary art)

further museums are in Acarigua, Barquisimeto, Ciudad Bolívar, Maracaibo, Mérida, San Carlos, San Cristóbal, San Felipe and Valencia.

A culinary speciality of Venezuela are the Arepas, baked or frittierte Maisfladen.

Further topics

Web on the left of

coordinates: 1°-12° N, 60°-73° W


  > German to English > (Machine translated into English)