Venus taken up to natural colors, of marine one 10
|characteristics of the orbit|
|aphelion|| 108.94 millions km|
|large course shaft section|| 108.21 millions km|
|Perihel|| 107.48 millions km|
|Sideri rotating period||224.701 days|
|Synodi rotating period||583.924 days|
|middle one </br>Peripheral speed||35.0214 km/s|
| distance of the Perihels|
from the ascending knot
|of smallest ones distance to the earth||38.3 millions km|
|of largest ones distance to the earth||260.9 millions km|
|equator diameter||12,104 km|
|pole diameters||12.103, 6 km|
|surface contents|| 460.2 millions km ²|
(0,902fache of the earth)
|mass|| 4.8685 × 10 24 kg|
(0.815 ground connection masses)
|middle one density||5.243 g/cm ³|
| Ø acceleration due to gravity|
at the surface
| 8.87 m/s ²|
(0,905fache of the earth)
|escape velocity||10.36 km/s|
|rotation period|| 243 daysand 26.9 min.|
(- 243.0187 days, declining)
| rotation speed |
at the equator
| 6.52 km/h|
|inclination of the rotation axle||177,36°|
| spherical albedo|
| middle temperature|
at the surface
|characteristics of the atmosphere|
|height||of 250 km|
| medium pressure|
|sulfur dioxide||150 ppm|
|Carbon monoxide||17 ppm|
the Venus is after the Merkur the internal planet as well as the sixth-largest of the Solar system. She comes on her orbit of the Earth's orbit next and has nearly the same size as the earth. After the moon it is the brightest, not artificially erschaffene object in the night sky. There the Venus as onethe lower planets best in the morning and in the evening visibly and against midnight, becomes it is never also morning star and/or. Evening star mentioned. It is a earthsimilar (terrestrial) planet.
The usual indication of the planet Venus is from biologyadmitted symbol for the female sex (♀). Representative representation of the hand mirror of the goddess Venus from the Roman mythology stands also for the femaleness as such and is considered as.
Table of contents
generally speaking solar system are generally no two planets so similar as thoseVenus and the earth. So the Venus with 12.103, 6 km has nearly the same diameter as the earth. Often the two planet sisters are called also twins. But so much it itself in the mass and in the chemical, Differ the surfaces of both planets also resemble composition nevertheless strongly.
the atmosphere of the Venus consists mainly of carbon dioxide. Nitrogen constitutes 3.5%. The absolute quantity of the nitrogen corresponds to that due to the large total massAtmosphere for instance the fivefold one in the terrestrial atmosphere. The mass of the Venusatmosphäre amounts to approximately the 90fache of the mantle of air of the earth and causes at the middle soil level a pressure of 92 bar. This equals the pressure in well 910 m sea depth.The density of the atmosphere is at the surface on the average zirka 50-mal as highly as on earth.
The bulk of the atmosphere with approximately 90 per cent is enough from the surface at a value of 28 kilometers. The mass of thisGas ocean corresponds zirka to a third of the mass of the terrestrial Weltmeeres. To this close Dunstschicht the far underneath cloud cover by different probes registered electromagnetic impulse are to be probably also assigned, which speaks for very frequent lightning discharges. Within the clouds would have of Thunderstorms lighting up lightnings at night to be noticeable must, but on the Nachtseite of the Venus no appropriate Leuchterscheinungen could be observed. Over the clouds outside Dunstschichten are enough at a value of approximately 90 kilometers. Approximately 10 kilometers more highly the troposphere ends. In the above, zirka 40 kilometers thicken mesosphere reaches the temperature lowest values of approximately -100 °C. In the following floor, the thermosphere, the temperature rises due to the absorption of the solar radiation. Minus degrees prevail altogether only at the reason to thatThermosphere to down into the upper cloud situations. The exosphere as outermost atmosphere layer extends at a value of approximately 220 to 250 kilometers.
The atmosphere of the Venus is from the outside completely obscure, is however not so much because of thatMass and/or. the very high density of the gas covering, but mainly at a always closed cloud cover. It is at a value of approximately 50 km and is approximately 20 kilometers thick. Their main part are to approximately 75 percentage by weight droplets outSulfuric acid. Besides there are also chlorine - and phosphorhaltige aerosols. In the lower of altogether three cloud layers there are possibly also admixtures of elementary sulfur.
The spherical albedo of the cream-yellow and mostly structureless cloud surface amounts to 0,76; thatis called, it scatters 76 per cent back of the light arriving practically parallel from the sun. The earth reflects against it only 39 per cent. Of the Venus not reflected radiation is absorbed to approximately two thirds of the cloud cover. This energy floatsthe highest equatorial cloud layers to a speed of approximately 100 m/s and/or. 360 km/h, with which they always move in rotation direction of the Venus in only four days once around the planet. The upper atmosphere rotates thus approximately 60-mal so fastlike the Venus themselves. This feature is called „superrotation “. Their cause is at least in the case of the Venus unknown. The only other examples in the solar system are the jet streams in the higher atmosphere of the earth and the cloud top deck of the Saturnmondes titanium,its nitrogen atmosphere at the soil nevertheless the one and a half times one pressure of the terrestrial mantle of air has. A superrotation gives it thus only with the three firm Weltkörpern of the solar system, which possess a close atmosphere.
the gas wraps the Venus forms only one convection cell. The gas masses ascended in the most intensively illuminated equator zone flow into the polar areas and sink there into deeper situations, in those them to Equator flow back. The structures of the cloud cover visible in the ultraviolet light have therefore the form toward the rotation lying Y (see picture left). At ground level only small wind velocity from 0,5 to 2 m/s were measured. By the high gas densitynevertheless corresponds on earth to the wind force 4, i.e., it equals a moderate Brise, the dust to move can. From the sunlight breaking in on the Venus reach only two per cent the surface and result in a density of light of approximately5,000 lux. The range of vision amounts to as in a gloomy afternoon approximately three kilometers there.
Not of the clouds or absorbed radiation reflected mainly from the lower, much seals atmosphere absorbed and into thermal radiation of the infrared range converted.In this wavelength coverage the absorptive capacity of the carbon dioxide is very large and the radiant heat so well completely by the lower atmosphere layer is taken up. The strong greenhouse effect is mainly due to the mass at carbon dioxide, in addition, the slight traces of Water vapour and sulfur dioxide have of it a substantial portion. It provides at the soil for a middle temperature of 470 °C. That lies the far over fusing temperatures of tin (232 °C) and lead (327 °C) and exceeds even the maximum temperature on that Merkur (427 °C). The heating up of the surface is also in such a manner even by the fact that the temperature differences despite the very slow rotation of the Venus both between the day and the Nachtseite and between the equator region and the pole areas only very smallare. A minimum of approximately 440 °C is never fallen below at ground level. Without the cloud cover with its high reflecting power it would be still substantially hotter on the Venus.
The 180° (left) and the 0°-Hemisphäre
| the Gattungsbezeichnungen that IAU - Nomenclature|
for the Topografie of the Venus
| singular |
|short description|| rule for |
the individual names
| Chasma |
| steilwandig |
|hunt God inside|
| Collis |
|hill||of sea God inside|
| Corona |
|“Einbruchkrater”|| God inside |
| Dorsum |
|elevator backs|| sky and |
light God inside
| Farrum |
| volcanic |
| water God inside |
| Fluctus |
|lava current field||earthGod inside|
| Fossa |
| long, narrow |
and flat valley
| war God inside |
and whale cures
| Linea |
| linear |
| war God inside |
| Mons |
| mountain |
| Patera |
| irregular, |
| Famous women |
| Planitia |
| lowlandses |
| Mythologi |
| subgrade level |
|Hochebene|| dear |
and war goddess
| Regio |
| high situation with |
a continental character
| Rupes |
| embankment, |
| home and |
stove God inside
| Terra |
| large |
high land mass
| Venus in |
| width unit serums |
| high situation |
with parquet structure
|fate God inside|
| Tholus |
|volcanic dome||God inside|
| Unda |
| wavy |
|deserts God inside|
| Vallis |
|valley||river God inside|
the soil of the Venus is constant dark red-glowing. Due to the very high temperature of up to 480 °Cthere are no waters. The relief is controlled mainly by gently waved levels. With relatively small level differences of less than thousand meters they correspond to the global average level and imagine, relatively similarly the sea level of the earth, for all elevator datapractical reference level. This zero level (Normalnull) the Venus corresponds to a ball radius of 6.051, 8 kilometers. The levels take over 60 per cent of the surface. Somewhat less than 20 per cent are up to 2 kilometers deep valleys. The remaining 20 per centare collections, but are allotted to only about 8 per cent to expressed high countries, which rise more than 1.5 kilometers over the zero level. The hypsografische curve of the elevator distribution on the Venus shows thus no second main level as in the case of the earth, of themextensive upper crust in form of the continents beside the ocean floors a third of the surface of the earth's crust forms approximately. The difference in height between the lowest and the highest point of the Venusoberfläche amounts to about 12,200 meters; those are approximately two thirds of the maximum difference in heightthe earth's crust with approximately 19,880 meters. The elevator data in detail are often very different for the Venus.
All formations on the Venus carry female names, with exception of alpha Regio and betaRegio - the structures discovered first starting from 1963 from the earth - as well as Maxwell Montes. The latters received their name as the highest collection of the planet in honours from James Clerk Maxwell, that with its equations that electromagnetic waves among other things also a basis for the radar investigation of the Venusoberfläche created.
Occasional is howeveralso still the global map of Pioneer Venus 1 in use, which has into for instance the dissolution of a map of the world of the earth in a large Atlas.
the high situations essentially distribute themselves on two continent-like structures. The more extensivefrom both, Aphrodite Terra, is about as large as South America and extends in the form of a scorpio lengthwise over for instance a third of the equator. In its western part the plateau emphasizes itself Ovda Regio, in the northern centerThetis Regio and in the east Atla Regio. The country of the Aphrodite is a component of the equatorial high land belt, which expands with individual larger islands to for instance 45° northern and southern latitude. A whole piece northwest from Aphrodite, between that 45. andthat 80. Degree of latitude, is appropriate for Ishtar Terra. The Ishtar country is only approximately as large as Australia, but on it the Maxwell mountains are, with a ceiling of up to approximately 10,800 meters. The Mount Everest needs however with itsHeight of 8,850 meters over the sea level behind the Maxwell mountains to hide, because, if one measures the size of the Himalaja in similar way at the middle crust level of the earth, does not even achieve the highest collection of the earth a height ofabout 11,280 meters. The core of Ishtar on the Venus the singular, for relatively flat Hochebene Lakshmi subgrade level with the two large volcanic Einsenkungen Colette Patera and Sacajawea Patera form in the western part. The Hochebene lies about 4 kilometers over the average leveland by the highest chain mountains of the planet one limits. In the south of the Danu Montes, in the west of the higher Akna Montes, in the northwest of at 6.5 kilometers still higher the Freyja Montes and finally in the east of MaxwellMontes. In the Maxwell mountains the Einschlagkrater Cleopatra lies, with a diameter of 104 kilometers the eight-largest Impaktstruktur on the Venus. Due to this situation one thought at the sight of the first, still indistinct radar images that it concerns a Vulkankrater. Upmany mountain courses radar-bright „snow caps were determined “, which very probably consist considering the there dominant conditions of a thin precipitation layer of the Schwermetallsalze lead sulfide and Bismutsulfid. The East part of Ishtar, with the name Fortuna width unit serums, is a hilly, width unit-serum-like plateau alsoa height of up to approximately 2.5 kilometers over Normal-Null.
the high situations of the Tesserae (griech. as much as „mosaic “) belong to the special forms of the Venusreliefs. They consist of parquet sample-like broken blocks with in each case up to over 20 kilometers width, those apparentby tectonic tensions distorted are. These every now and then also „cube countries “high situations mentioned take large parts in the west and the north of Aphrodite as well as in the north and particularly in the east of Ishtar. Besides they rise up also as islands out of thatLow countries up, like the three larger units alpha Regio, with a diameter of approximately 1,300 kilometers, as well as Phoebe Regio and Tellus width unit serums, which rank all among the equatorial high land belt.
Closely at the western Südrand to the alpha region (see picture) Eve Corona lies. Thosein the diameter about 330 kilometers large structure for a Einschlagkrater one kept original. Their bright central mark served as point of reference for the definition of the zero Meridians.
The number of Einschlagkrater on the Venusoberfläche amounts to straight once 963 copies. Those are about as many as on the land surfacethe earth. Because of that much seal atmosphere on the Venus a still far smaller number one accepted. Their diameters lie in the range between 1 and 300 kilometer. In this size there are smaller against it alone on the twenty-four timesFront of the moon, despite the large Marebecken smoothed to a large extent by lava, approximately hundreds times so many. On the moon it by the way even more Krater than among other things on Mars, gives due to the nearly completely smoothed Northern Hemisphere of theMars. Since the moon possesses also no atmosphere, and its surface therefore also no appropriate erosion is suspended, applies its also with still many smaller impact structures of practically completely occupied and still completely received high countries on the basis of the chemical age determinationthe moon rocks as the classical comparison yardstick for the age estimation of other planet and lunar surfaces. If the Kraterhäufigkeit on the moon would correspond to that one the Venus, then it would have to offer altogether only 80 copies.
|The eight largest Krater of the Venus|
width (°); Length (°)
|Mead||280||12.5 N; 057.4 O|
|Isabella||175||29.7 S; 204.1 O|
|Klenova||125||78.1 N; 104.2 O|
|Cochran||124||52.0 N; 142.6 O|
|Stanton||110||23.4 S; 199.9 O|
|Baker||105||62.6 N;040.5 O|
|pink Bonheur||105||09.8 N; 288.7 O|
|Cleopatra||104||66.0 N; 008.0 O|
the Venuskrater are amazingly evenly distributed over the surface for their small number. There only larger Meteoroiden those very close atmosphere penetrates and also suchImpact structures to produce know, give it no Kraterdurchmesser under 1.5 kilometers, but in place its only as as „Schmauchspuren “. Smaller Krater are often surrounded by a radar-dark, thus smooth, terrain, to probably attribute that to the pressure wave of the impactis; in some of such circular surfaces however no Zentralkrater is to be recognized. The Venuskrater Mead largest with distance has a diameter of approximately 280 kilometers. Further copies sieved by over 100 kilometers follow it in the grössenbereich. The absence ofKratern with larger extents, like on the moon, Mars and also on the Merkur, where it in the most salient in each case cases even diameters until well over 1.000 and/or. 2,000 kilometers reach, likewise with the high atmosphere density are explained.The relief of all Einschlagkrater on the Venus is very flat.
Consist about 85 per cent of the Venusoberfläche of clear traces of a surface covering magma promotion. Most Krater were however not pulled of it in, them therefore only later developed. Thatregarding its meager and very even distribution in the comparison with the lunar surface to the conclusion it led that the present surface of the Venus came out only about 500 to 800 million years old and from comprehensive as well as relatively rapid lava floods,those the old relief covered. This view culminates in the explanation of the American scientists Gerald G. Scraper and Robert G. River that the volcanic heat release of the Venus does not run off continuously as on earth, but in large periodicThrusts takes place. That would mean that the lithosphere of the Venus is substantially thicker than those the earth and thus does not permit a relatively unhindered heat flow but accumulates over longer time, to it itself by all force in the form of strongtectonic activities and a violent volcanism course breaks.
Coronae and Arachnoiden
as special indication of this paging become the singular Coronae (lat. „Crowns “) and Arachnoiden (lat. „Spiders “) outstandingly. There is the most characteristicThing on the Venus. They are to hundreds in the lowlandses, accumulate themselves up in the equatorial zone and coin/shape there also large parts of the country of the Aphrodite. Due to its exterior, that earliest the impression sunk and distorted volcanosaroused, they are called every now and then Einbruchkrater. According to another explanation it can concern also impact structures. The circular and oval things contain a flat, wavy basin with a low, broad and easily curved edge, which is under the environment level,by a broad ditch is surrounded with concentric breaks and mountain combs.
|The largest Coronae starting from 600 km|
width (°); Length (°)
|kind-badly||2,600||35.0 S; 135.0 O|
|Heng o||1,060||02.0 S; 355.0 O|
|Zisa||850||12.0 N; 221.0 O|
|of cerium||675||16.0 S; 151.5 O|
|Pölöznitsa||675||00.5 N; 302.0 O|
|Atete||600||16.0 S; 243.5 O|
|Beiwe||600||52.6 N; 306.5 O|
|Maram||600||07.5 S; 221.5 O|
the smallest diameters amount to about 40Kilometer. Kind-badly Corona with the circular ditch system possesses the diameter of approximately 2,600 kilometers, largest with distance, kind-badly Chasma. The giant thing lies in the country of the Aphrodite, in the south of the central site. The span between 100 in most cases measures and400 km. The Arachnoiden is mostly somewhat smaller than the Coronae and is additionally from radial tears pulled through, whose sample reminds of a langbeinige spider in its net.
Some geologists assume a preliminary stage in the interrupted development way in the Arachnoidento the Corona. The cause of these things are in the usually spread opinion coat plumes not completely ascended. Similarly as blisters therefore large portions from coat melt ascended to the surface, which however already cooled down, as it the crust straight raised and broken openhad. Due to the cooling-conditioned contraction the started crust is not nachgesackt and it could a correct sign volcano be developed. In regard of the plumes and as distinction in relation to the plate tectonics of the earth this globaltectonic process is called drop tectonics.
volcanos comes on the Venus at least in such a waynumerously before as on earth. There are whole fields of sign volcanos and fields with hundreds of small volcanic crests and - cones. The number of the small volcanic collections goes well beyond 50.000. Of volcanos with one at least 100 kilometers of through-measuring basisthere are not less than 167 copies.
Among the most prominent lava mountains the sign volcanos Sif Mons and Gula Mons in ice TLA Regio with heights of 2 rank and/or. 3 kilometers and mouth diameters of 300 and/or. 250 kilometers. Likewise in beta Regiothe Rhea Mons with a ceiling of 4.5 kilometers as well as the equivalent high Theia Mons with a sayful mouth diameter of 700 kilometers. Those are approximately 100 kilometers more than the basis of the Olympus Mons on Mars measure, alsoa basis height of approximately 27 kilometers highest mountain in the well-known solar system. Die höchsten Vulkane der Venus gibt es in Atla Regio, dem östlichsten Abschnitt von Aphrodite Terra. There is except the zweigipfligen Sapas Mons (4.5 and/or. 400 kilometers) alsothe Ozza Mons (6 and/or. 300 kilometers) and finally the leading seaman Mons, that also over 8 kilometers height highest volcano of the Venus, and after the Maxwell mountains their second largest collection, with a mouth diameter of only 200 kilometers (picture on the top right).The giant volcanos of the Venus are all component of the equatorial high land belt. Usually they are the more largely the more near them at the equator are. The leading seaman Mons lies nearly exactly on it. Generally have on the Venus also the volcanosa rather flat relief. The slope inclinations amount to mostly only 1 to 2 degrees.
A special volcanic form has the pointed name due to a certain similarity „ticks “(English. „Zecke “) get (picture on the top right). There are similar volcanos on the bottom of the sea of the earth.
Toothe unique volcanic surface textures of the Venus count very regularly developed, circular source crests, which are called because of its appearance jokeful pancake of cathedral („pancake domes “). They have a typical diameter of mostly about 25 kilometers and a height by 700 meters, thosein addition, until over 1 kilometer can amount to. They arise also in groups and then often overlap themselves. Their surface is coined/shaped beside a central opening by concentric and radial tears. Obvious the things are by a lava alsodeveloped for very high tenacity. One puzzles, as the lava could pour in such a manner evenly over the levels. Viscose rayon lava accumulates itself up also on earth to domes, but those are very many smaller and not in such a manner symmetrical.
volcanic levels with large lava floodings are on the Venus the most frequent type of area. Other volcanic structures point on rivers of very highly liquid lava. Apart from thousands of kilometers, to rigid lava stream, give it very remarkable erosion valleys are enough for the Fluctus. Someproceed as broad discharge formation from large Einschlagkratern. They reach a length of up to 150 kilometers, exhibit on their soil island-like structures and lose themselves without further traces in the levels. Their to walls high over 100 metersare from swung form, therefore these formations have the special Gattungsbezeichnung Unda (lat. „Wave “) get. Probably at the phänomenalsten those are much are enough and clearly wound gutters. They are mostly only about 1.5 kilometers wide and likewise not very deep. Thosemost impressing gutter has a length of approximately 6,800 kilometers and exceeds thereby over over 100 kilometers even the Nile, the longest river of the earth. The thing with the name Hildr Fossa bolting ELT itself of Atla Regio into thoselarge northern lowlandses Atalanta Planitia, in which with a depth of up to 1,400 meters under Normal-Null the deepest point was measured on the Venus. The circular lowers is approximately as large as the gulf of Mexico. Due to thatextremely high surface temperature is not applicable liquid water as a cause „of the channels “. On earth the longest lava gutters drag on however only some dozen of kilometers. Possibly there was enormously highly liquid, salt-rich lava masses with according to lower melting point, which tooa time with planet far still larger surface temperature formed out the landscape in such a manner. Also pyroklastische rivers from hot gas and dust are considered.
It is one thatlarge mysteries of the Venus that it seems to be geologically dead despite the multiplicity and that variety of volcanic structures today. However one became also not inevitable during a only one closer global investigation of the volcanically constantly active earth in each caseStraight witnesses a volcanic eruption running off becomes. Determined variations of the portion of sulfur dioxide in the Venusatmosphäre and the density distribution in the upper Dunstschicht actually point on possible activities. Also the signs of lightnings could witness of it. In concrete suspicion standabove all the two large sign volcanos in beta Regio and the leading seaman Mons. Parts of the volcanic flanks are radar dark, i.e., they reflect the scanning radar jets only very small and are thus rather smooth. This evennesses leaves itself in the caseregard as an indication of fresh lava stream. Direct proofs for an at present active volcanism were not found so far however yet. The only real change of the surface was registered in another part of Aphrodite Terra, at the west edge of the Ovda region,and looks like a broad slope slip (see picture). Re-examinations of the pictures let assume however that it is nevertheless only by overlapping effects of the radar system of caused picture errors.
the most impressing ditch on the Venus is Diana Chasma.The relatively steilwandige valley is on Aphrodite Terra, salient-proves in the neighbourhood of kind-badly Corona, the Corona largest with distance, and forms partially the southern section of the edge ditch of the large elliptical cerium Corona. It is about 280 kilometersbroadly and it drops setting in ridges approximately 4 kilometers deeply on a level of more than 1 kilometer under Normal-Null at the foot of the highest. The Canyon-like structure does not have a comparable example on earth and often becomes with thatMarine valley system on Mars compared. Probably it resulted like this from tectonic activities. Both ditches extend nearly parallel to the respective equator.
In the beta Regio are the volcanos Rhea Mons and Theia Mons by the obviously tectonic ditch Devana Chasma connected.
defiance of the only small wind velocities, which were based on the soil, show some regions radar-bright touch and fan-like structures in the kindof „Windfahnen “, which proceed from individual Kratern and volcanic cones. Their process shows the wind direction prevailing during their education. Most wind strips prefer the global atmospheric currents at ground level corresponding a western and equatorial direction. It is not thereby however alwaysclearly whether the appearing bright strips directly of the blown material to consist or however loose material was all around cleared away and only in the lee lying remained (see also astrogeology).
Underneath the lithosphere the inside the Venus probably resembles that the earth. Since it nearly the same mass and a similar middle density has (5.24 g/cm ³ compared with 5,52 g/cm ³ in case of the earth) and in accordance with the cosmogonywithin the same range of the solar system , should exhibit it also a similar shell structure developed. The fact that the earth has a somewhat larger middle density is to be due not only to its chemical composition, but partially a purely physical effect of their largerMass, which causes a stronger self-compression by the accordingly larger force of gravity. The Venus possesses - contrary to the much smaller Merkur - a larger portion of lighter elements than the earth, it would have thus even with same size as thoseEarth still another smaller mass. That is not quite understandable for a planet within the Earth's orbit, because in accordance with the conventional theory for the emergence of the solar system the relationship between the easy and the heavy elements of the Venus between conditions would havefor the earth and Merkur are appropriate, there above all the lighter elements by the particularly stormy particle stream of the young, developing sun into the external areas were floated. An explanation for the relatively large and heavy metallic core of the earth offersthe Theia theory, which to consequence the boy earth collided with a Mars-large planet named Theia; the core of this planet merged its rock with the earth core, evaporated and formed after condensing the moon - which possesses therefore at all no core.Under the default of the classical shell structure of the earth one can close thus instead of on a relatively larger only on a relatively smaller iron nickel core and but on a somewhat larger coat. Particularly the upper coat is relatively more thickly expected. Also thoseLithosphere could be substantially thicker, how by gravitational field measurements of the Venussonde Magellan close were put, than those the earth. On this consideration also the explanation is based for it that there are on the Venus no plate tectonics as on earth, as well as thoseHypothesis the fact that itself the Venusoberfläche instead in a long-periodic rhythm by substantial global volcanic activities renews.
Although the Venus should have just as large nickel iron core as the earth, she does not have an internal magnetic field. That is on its extremely slow rotationto lead back, which is not sufficient, in order to produce by the direct current generator effect such. To the Venusoberfläche measured magnetic field is extremely weak. It is induced by electric currents in the ionosphere, those there by the reciprocal effect with the electrically charged particlesthe solar wind to be caused. In this Magnetosphäre there are no belts of caught sun particles equal those the Van Allen belt of the earth and the radiation belt of the Jupiter, Saturn and Uranus. The Venusmagnetfeld reaches one ten thousandth of the strength at the soil only,those the earth's magnetic field at the earth's surface has. The surface of the Venus is not protected against the near-racing particles of the solar wind by the magnetic field, like the earth's surface, but by the ionosphere as well as by the close atmosphere, along-induced by the particle stream.
orbit and resonances
|Spacer conditions of the internal planets to the sun|
|earth/moon||Venus||Merkur||sun (true to scale)|
the middle distance of the planet center from the common emphasis of the solar system, his Baryzentrum, one calls large course shaft section and amounts tothe Venus of 108.209.077 kilometers. Somewhat more descriptive expressed those are about 72.3 per cent of the middle Earth's orbit radius, thus 0.723 astronomical units (AE). Its sun-next point, the Perihel, is with 0,718 AE and its sun-furthest point, the aphelion, with 0,728 AE.From this results a middle course distance of approximately 41 million kilometer, so that the Venus and the earth are to each other next planet neighbours in the solar system. The orbit of the Venus is bent 3,39471° against the ecliptic. The siderische rotating period of the Venus -the duration of a Venusjahres - 224.701 days amount to.
as well as the course period of the earth of 365,256 days one period of 583,924 days as a period between two sequential largest approximations, which can be understood also as a mutual orbit/trajectory disturbance period, results. From the earth that is seenthe synodische rotating period of the Venus. The scan times from Venus and earth are to each other in the Kommensurabilität 8:13 (exactly 8:13,004); that is, they stand themselves in a relationship, that been based on a common measure and accordingly nearly accurately by smallwhole numbers to express leaves. From the difference of the two numbers (<math> 13 - 8 = 5< /math>) one can read off in the case of an agreeing direction of rotation that itself the largest approximations ideally of exactly circular courses on in each case five different points of coursewould distribute accurately evenly. Possible is also also a reason for the very small eccentricity of the Venusbahn. Kommensurabilitäten lead the relationship of the numbers by the resonance effect to strong orbit/trajectory disturbances, which are the more pronounced, are the more exactly reached and thethe difference between them is smaller. The most well-known example is the influence of the Jupiter on the distribution the Planetoiden, which by such resonance effects within the Planetoidengürtels to Kommensurabilitätslücken (Kirkwoodlücken) as well as - amassments leads. Similar effects have alsothe Umlaufbewegungen under the moons of the Saturn on the structure of its ring system. All neighbouring in each case planets and regular moon move in kommensurablen rotating conditions and underline thereby the certain regularity of the course distances in the solar system (see Titius Bode row).
The middleCourse distance to the Merkur, the secondarysmallest planet and internal course neighbour of the Venus, amounts to approximately 50.3 million kilometer (0.336 astronomical units). That is only somewhat less than its large course shaft section (0.387 astronomical units). The middle orbit/trajectory disturbance period between the Venus and thatMerkur amounts to 144.565 days. Their scan times have the kommensurable relationship 5:2 (exactly 5:1,957). Ideally the largest approximations would distribute themselves evenly thus on in each case three points of course, but the orbit of the Merkurs is nearly as eccentrically as those stillsmaller and outermost planet Pluto.
The orbit of the Venus has the smallest eccentricity under all planet courses. The numeric eccentricity amounts to only 0,0068; that is, the largest and the smallest distance from the Baryzentrum yield only around 0,68% of thatRadius of the middle circular path off. The planet course of the Venus is with this deviation from under a per cent thus at the kreisförmigsten. Still smaller deviations from the circle have the orbits of some moons in the solar system only. But is the inclination of the Venusbahnagainst the course level after the earth of Pluto (17,15°) and Merkur (7,0°) also most largely, although with for instance 3,4° clearly more moderately than the inclination of these two smallest planets, which frame the planet system of the sun to a certain extent.
Rotation and resonances
the rotation of the Venus are declining contrary to the usual direction of rotation of the self-turn and the Umlaufbewegung of the planets and most moons (retrograd), i.e., on it go down the sun regarding the west on and in the east.The inclination of the rotation axle is indicated therefore not as 2,64° but as 177,36°, as if the axle would have been tilted for originally progradem direction of rotation on the head. The only further planets with retrogradem sense of rotation are the Uranus and the Pluto. The self-turn of the Venus is besides unusually slowly: A siderische rotation period (that is, relative to the fixed stars) takes 243.019 days, and thus even 8% longer than the rotating period. By the declining direction of rotation on the sun the referred lastsRotation period - thus a Venustag - however „only “116.751 Erdtage; in the other case the relationship between the rotation and would mean the peripheral speed nearly a bound rotation, as in the completed example of the moon, which thereby the earth constantly the sameSide turns. The Venus would have granted a similar fate thereby opposite the sun.
The cause of the retrograden direction of rotation and the particularly slow speed of the Venusrotation is not well-known. According to a hypothesis it would know the result of a collision with a large Asteroiden its. The siderische rotation period does not appear perfectly arbitrary however, because it stands strange-proves in a nearly accurate 2:3 - relationship for the course period of the earth (<math> 365,256:243,019 = 2:3,006< /math>). The synodische rotation period of the Venus (is called relative to the earth) amounts to on the average 145,928Days. That is more exactly said the period, with which a Venusmeridian lies parallel to the heliozentrischen length of the earth. A direct adjustment to the earth is only to the upper and/or. lower conjunction given, if itself the Venus seen from the earthin a line behind and/or. before the sun finds. There it itself in 2:3 - relationship around two to each other opposite acts, applies to the spatial distribution of this periodicity not the difference but the sum of the proportionality factors. That corresponds during nearlyexactly two years again a pentagrammartigen distribution on five evenly distributed course positions of the earth (5: 1,998).
The two-year total period of the interaction of the Venusrotation with the earth movement stands with 729,64 days in a relationship 4:5 (4: 4,998) for the synodischen rotating period of the Venus. Thatsynodische Venusjahr covers four middle synodische rotations (1 with 583,924 days: 4,001). An observer on the Venus became - with unimpaired view - the earth every 146 ground connection days and/or. all 1.25 Venustage at the same position find. The Venus turns thatEarth for example with each upper and each lower conjunction, as well as, from the sun seen, with each 90°-Stellung (eastward and/or. to the west) practically always the same side too, - the side of the zero Meridians. From this locationthe earth would have every 146 days alternating at midday, against sunset, over midnight and against sunrise their highest level. The salient example of the earth adjustment of the hemisphere of the zero Meridians refers to the same spatial earth positions as the exclusive consequence thatlower conjunctions, only with the faster period and in the reverse order of the Pentagramm sample. The small deviation of the Venusrotation means only a systematic shift around well in each case a half degree of longitude toward the east.
During eight rotating periods of the earth and/or. thirteenRotating periods of the Venus with five conjunction periods to each other, the Venus, likewise nearly on the day exactly, rotates twelve times relative to the stars, twenty times relative to the earth and twenty five times relative to the sun. It lies the assumption close that it itself altogetheraround resonance - phenomenon acts.
moons have moons the Venus. Nevertheless the Italian astronomer maintained Giovanni Domenico Cassini in the year 1672 such to have discovered and called him Neith. Until 1892 were the faith in a Venusmond spreads, before it turned out that stars had apparent been regarded erroneous as a moon.
There is itself a hypothesis, after that it with the outwardly very moon-similar Merkur around an escaped satellite of the Venusacts. Thus it can be among other things explained why the two internal planets as only no companion to have (see also list of the moons).
due to the close, always closed cloud cover was a study of the surface of the planetonly by radio-astronomical procedures and by means of Venus probes possible. Early observations with the naked eye and assistance of telescopes could examine only geometry of the orbit and the cloud surface.
with the first observationsthe Venus with telescopes by Galileo Galilei and contemporary in the year 1610 showed up directly that the Venus shows like the moon phases. This observation, which results from the perspective of the earth, after that the Venus a lower planetit is one of the large proofs was at the time at that time that the Venus circles the sun and not the earth. The phases of the Venus were predicted of Nikolaus Kopernikus as possible proof of its heliozentrischen teachings. However already Herakleides Pontikos had,a pupil expressed by Aristoteles, the assumption that Merkur and Venus circle the sun. Even in the Ptolemäi model and also in the planet model of Tycho Brahe, inspired by Herakleides Pontikos, can be explained phases of these two planets, however know Merkurand Venus with Ptolemäus never as full disk appear. The observations of phases alone without the pursuit of the temporal development do not permit a distinction free of doubts between the geo heliozentrischen model of the Tycho Brahe and the heliozentrischen kopernikanischen model, the observation of full disksdisproved however the ptolemäische model.
End of the eight tenth century accomplished the Lilienthaler astronomer Johann Hieronymus Schröter more exact investigations of the Venusphasen. It states that it between the geometrically computed phase of the Venus and the actually observed phase systematic differencesgives. First Schröter meant that these irregularities, like with the moon, decrease/go back on surface details such as mountain courses. In 1803 published work over the Venusphase at the time of the dichotomy (Halbvenus) concluded it then however correctly that it itself around twilight effectsin the atmosphere acts. Therefore this feature is generally called today after the designation pellet he effect introduced by Patrick Moore. The effect is for amateurs with small telescope easy as „Venushörner “to observe (see in addition the lower section observation).
Since Johannes Kepler had predicted the Venustransits of 1631 and 1639, these rare events, with which the Venus is to be seen as dark wafer before the sun, were a particularly popular Forschungsgebiet. With the help of these observations could in particular the range scalethe solar system to be substantially improved (see in addition the major item to the Venus transit and the section further below). On the occasion of the Venusdurchgangs of 1761 George Christoph silver impact discovered the atmosphere of the Venus as the first as a bright aura around the planet.
Throughnew observation possibilities stepped the invention of the radar and radio astronomy in addition in the center of the twentieth century. Microwaves - observations, which the astronomers C. Mayer et al. in the year for the first time to a very high surface temperature that accomplished, pointed 1956Venus of at least 600 Kelvin. The rotation duration of the Venus could be measured for the first time during the lower conjunction in the year 1961. This succeeded to the Jodrell bank Radioobservatorium in Great Britain and the Soviet with the help of a radar jet of the 26-Meter-Antenne in gold clay/tone, California,Radio telescope in Yevpatoria on the Krim. However only 1964 could be proven that the rotation of the Venus takes place retrograd.
The measurement of the running time of the radar jets, when these investigations supplied besides accurate values for the distance of the Venus from the earth.In the course of these Laufzeitmessungen Irwin I. succeeded to the physicist. Shapiro 1968 the experimental confirmation and after it of the designated Shapiro effect predicted by him in the year 1964. After general relativity theory the running time of a radar signal should with the run of the gravitational fieldthe sun in relation to the classical theory something increased its. The effect should constitute about 200 microseconds with the upper conjunction of the Venus. This value was confirmed since the first measurements with ever larger accuracy.
The surface investigation by means of the ground-based radar measurementseized by, the resonance-like rotation of the Venus during the lower conjunction, indirectly bound to the earth movement, in each case the hemisphere of alpha Regio, with beta Regio in the west and Ishtar Terra in the north. The central Nullmeridian of these „front “runs accordinglyby alpha Regio. In the north it runs over Maxwell Montes. The coordinate system of the Venus was specified in such a way that the degrees of longitude are counted according to the retrograden rotation by the west eastward, from 0° to 360° of eastern length. By the insignificancethe systematic deviation from a genuine resonance with only well a half degree of longitude toward the east 347 such synodischen Venusjahre must offense, thus 554.7 earth years, until also „the back “the Venus is in this way seized.
researchby space probes
there was a multiplicity of unmanned Venus missions. Some covered a soft landing on the surface, with communication times of up to 110 minutes, however all without return (with samples).
the way to the Venus
the Venus circlesthe sun more near than the earth, whereby the distance of the Venus to the sun amounts to only 72 per cent of the distance of the earth to the sun. Therefore a space probe must over 41 million kilometers to the gravitation potential of the sun fly, which to onesubstantial acceptance of the potential energy of the probe leads. The freed potential energy is converted thereby into kinetic energy. This leads to an increase of the speed of the probe, so that the speed and the direction of motion of the probe must be strongly changed,in order to reach an approximation to the Venus.
to 12. February 1961 started the Soviet Union Venera 1, the first space probe to a strange planet.An overheated orientation sensor caused a malfunction, however combined Venera 1 for the first time all for a interplanetary flight forced characteristics: Solar panel, parabolic communication antenna, 3-Achsen-Stabilisierung, engine to the flight path correction and a start of a Parkorbit around the earth. The probe flew to 100.000 kmDistance to the Venus past, without their observations implement or with the earth to communicate to be able.
The first successful Venus space probe was the US-American marine ones 2, modified Ranger - a moon probe, which flew past to 1962 to the Venus. She discovered that thoseVenus over no magnetic field orders and measured thermal microwave radiation of the Venus.
early landingsand orbiters
at the 1. March 1966 accomplished the Soviet Venera 3 probe a Crashlandung on the Venus, with which it became the first spacecraft, which reached the surface of the Venus. The probe did not survive the landing. Its sister probe Venera 2failed briefly before the flyby due to an overheating.
The landing cap of the Venera 4 dipped to 18. October 1967 into the Venusatmosphäre. It measured temperature, pressure and density, accomplished besides 11 automatic chemical experiments for the analysis of the atmosphere.It became thereby the first space probe which supplied direct measuring data of another planet. The data showed a carbon dioxide portion of 95% and in combination with the data of the American marine ones 5 probe one by far more highly than expected atmospheric pressure of75 to 100 bar.
These data became of the Venera 5 and Venera 6 missions to 16. May and 17. May 1969 confirms and refines. But so far none of these space probes reached intact the Venusoberfläche. The battery of the Venera 4 emptiedstill during the probe by the unexpectedly substantial atmosphere drove itself, Venera 5 and 6 by the high external pressure at a value of approximately 18 km over the soil was crushed.
the first successful landing succeeded the Venera 7 probe to 15. December 1970. It measured surface temperatures from 457 to 474 °C and an external pressure of 90 bar. Venera 8 landed to 22. July 1972. Additionallyto the received pressure and temperature distributions a light meter pointed that the clouds a layer forms, which ends to 35 km over the surface. A gamma-ray spectrometer analyzed the chemical composition of the soil rock.
The Soviet space probe Venera 9, first probe of the newGeneration of heavy space probes, which were started with new proton - rockets, swivelled to 22. October 1975 into a Venusorbit. It became thereby the first artificial satellite of the Venus. A multiplicity of cameras and spectrometers supplied data over the Venuswolken, ionospherein addition and Magnetosphäre and accomplished first bistatische radar measurements of the Venusoberfläche.
The 660 kilograms heavy landing cap separated from Venera 9 and landed after approximately one hour. It supplied the first pictures of the surface, examined besides the soil with oneGamma-ray spectrometer and a densitometer. During the descent pressure, and lighting conditions were measured temperature, in addition with Backscattering and multi-fish Scattering (nebula measuring instrument) measurements of the cloud density accomplished. The probe discovered that the clouds are arranged in three separated layers. To 25. Octoberthe sister probe Venera 10 arrived and accomplished a similar measuring program.
in the year 1978 sent NASA two Pioneer- Space probes to the Venus: an orbiter and a multi-sample probe, which were separately started. The multi-sample probe had large and three smaller atmosphere probes on board. The large probe became to 16. November 1978 set free, the three smaller to 20. November. Everythingfour stepped to 9. December into the atmosphere, followed of the carrier probe. Although the probes were not designed to survive a landing one of them, after it reached the surface, transmitted 45 minute long data back.
ThatPioneer Venus orbiter reached to 4. December 1978 an elliptical Venusorbit. It had seventeen experiments on board, should the Venus with radar map (with a dissolution of approximately 20 kilometers per pixel) and when flying through the highest atmosphere layers these to analyze,in order to investigate their composition as well as the interactions of the upper atmosphere with the solar wind. The orbiter was operated until the fuel used for the situation correction went out. It was destroyed in August 1992 by glowing in the atmosphere.
further ones Soviet successes
likewise 1978 flew past to Venera 11 and Venera 12 to the Venus and set its landing caps free, to 21. December and 25. Decembers into the atmosphere occurred. The countries carried color cameras, soil drilling equipment and an analyzer, thoseunfortunately all did not function. Each countries accomplished measurements with a nebula measuring instrument, a mass spectrometer and a gas chromatograph. In addition one discovered an unexpectedly high portion of chlorine in the clouds by X-ray, additionally to the already well-known sulfur. Alsoa strong lightning activity was observed.
Venera 13 and Venera 14 accomplished practically the same mission. They reached the Venus at the 1. March and 5. March 1982. This time bore/analysis experiments were the color cameras successfully, also functionedperfectly. Roentgen irradiation of the soil samples showed results, which failed a potassium-rich basalt with Venera 13 similarly and 900 kilometers further southeast, in the landing place of Venera 14, which resembled basalts of the terrestrial ocean floor.
To 10. and 11. Octobers stepped Venera 15 and Venera 16 into polar orbits around the Venus. Venera 15 observed and mapped the upper atmosphere with a infrared Fourierspektrometer. Of 10. November up to 10. Both satellites the northern third of the planet surface with one mapped July Synthetic Aperture radar. Could altogether about 30 per cent of the surface with a dissolution of to two kilometers be seized, the provided maps were thereby about 10 times more highly detailed than of Pioneer Venus the 1. The results permitted firstmore concrete conceptions of the geological development of the Venus.
The Soviet space probes VeGa 1 and VeGa 2 reached the Venus at the 11. June and 15. June 1985. The experiments of their landing units were focused on the study of the cloud composition and structure.Each countries ultraviolet absorption spectrometer as well as equipment carried around the size of the aerosol particles to measure, in addition for devices for collecting atmosphere samples, which were examined with the help of a mass spectrometer, a gas chromatograph and an x-ray spectrometer. The two upper cloud layers became as outSulfuric acid, the lower layer as probably consisting of phosphoric acid found. On the surface of the Venus drilling equipment and a gamma-ray spectrometer were used. There were pictures of the surface none - the countries did not have cameras on board. This were at the same timethe last landings on the surface of the Venus.
In addition the VeGa probes suspended balloons in the atmosphere of the Venus, which flew at a value of approximately 53 kilometers in each case 46 and 60 hours long. The balloons put therebya way of for instance a third of the extent of the Venus back. They measured thereby wind velocity, temperature, pressure and cloud density. More storm and flow activity than expected one discovered, including sudden flight altitude changes around up to three kilometers. The VeGa Muttersonden continued to fly toHalley's comets, which they reached nine months later.
to 10. August 1990 reached the next US-American space probe an orbit with Magellan after Pioneer Venus around the Venus. The only instrument of the probewas a Synthetic Aperture radar, with which the surface of the Venus should be mapped. In the years following on it 98 per cent of the surface by 89° north to 89° south were mapped, whereby the dissolution of the photographs with approximately 100Was appropriate for meters per pixel. Thus the maps were around the factor 200 opposite Pioneer Venus 1 and nevertheless around the factor 15 opposite Venera 15 and Venera 16 more highly detailed. Besides the course of the probe became in such a way in the final phase of the missionselected the fact that it flew by the highest layers of the atmosphere and so conclusions over the density and composition to the atmosphere permitted. Anyway already hardly the functioning probe was braked by these maneuvers constantly and stepped finally to 12. October 1994into the deeper layers and glowed for the atmosphere of the Venus; it is not to be excluded however that some remainder parts of the probe reached the surface. We owe the best today available maps of the Venus to the Magellan probe.
Vorbeiflügemore recent time
the Venus used some space probes on the way to goals far outside of the Earth's orbit, in order by Swing By - maneuvers their speed of increasing. This were into the 1990ern the Galileo - mission to the Jupiter and the Cassini Huygens - mission to the Saturn(two Vorbeiflüge). In particular the instruments of Cassini Huygens could supply numerous scientific data with these meetings. Thus the radar designed for the Saturnmonde resulted in most exact mapping of some Venus regions. Magnetometer - tests showed that it against the data of the Soviet Venera probesno lightnings from the 48 kilometers high Venuswolken gives. Thus the presence by lightning activity or similar electrical features remains up to the today's day an unsettled secret.
current ones and future missions
at the 11. April 2006 is firstVenussonde of the European space travel agency ESA, Venus express, swung into the Venusumlaufbahn and is to study from there from at least two Venustage long (about 500 Erdtage) the atmosphere and the surface of the planet. The scientific work is to begin at the beginning of of June.Researchers expect from the mission above all by far more exact data over the atmosphere and the cloud cover of the Venus. In addition an US-American space probe is to the Merkur on the way with MEASURINGCLOSE, which will fly past the Venus 2006 and 2007 two times.Also the Japanese space travel agency JAXA plans the start of a small Venusorbiters for 2010 named planet C, which is to observe the Venus in infrared light after its arrival in December 2010 with cooled cameras and to study the superrotation of the atmosphere. Innext decade Russia would know possibly with a new landing mission named Venera D, whose start is set for 2016 at present, to which earlier Venera success of the Soviet time ties. Also the USA preserve considerations for new Venus missions, however so far no concrete becamePlanning met. It is however with no US-American Venus mission to at the earliest for instance in the middle of next decade to count (see also chronology of the Venus missions).
the inclination of the Venusbahn against the Earth's orbit
because the Venus a lower planetis, i.e. a closer orbit than the earth possesses, it can depart from the earth seen never far from the sun. In particular the Venus, contrary to the upper planets, can the sun at the sky ballnever face, i.e. come into opposition. Instead one differentiates the upper conjunction (Venus behind the sun) of the lower conjunction in place of the conjunction of the outside planets, with which the Venus before the sun stands.
The inclination of the Venusbahnagainst the course level of the earth for instance 3,4° amounts to. Although this value does not appear particularly large, it is very rare thereby (also in the comparison to the Merkur) that it comes with the lower conjunction to a passage in such a way specified before the sun disk.Since the Venus is distant from the earth with the lower conjunction only about 41 million km, she can move by herself perspectively in a angle angle of up to nearly 9° over or under the sun disk. So can it for someDays (with Vorbeizug north the sun in the Northern Hemisphere and with Vorbeizug south the sun in the Southern Hemisphere) both in the evening and in the morning sky to be seen. In 20. Century did not give it for example only one Venustransit.
Standsthe Venus east the sun, can be observed it as evening star in the west sky, stands it west, can it as morning star in the east sky be seen. Here visibility times of up to 4,5 hours are (from the Venusaufgang to the sunrise and/or. of the sunsetup to the Venusuntergang) possible. Because of their large brightness and their larger angle distance is much easier Venus to observe than Merkur. In favorable weather she can be seen at present to the largest Elongation by 48 degrees on the day with the naked eye.
Due to its course movement the Venus shows different phases in the telescope depending upon position (like the phases of the moon). Before and after an upper conjunction it appears as small, nearly round wafer with a diameter of approximately 10 ″ (Bogensekunden). With increasing angle distance of the sun it becomes perspectively larger and takes for largest eastern Elongation thoseForm of a removing „Halbvenus “on. While the Venus of the far lower conjunction zustrebt, its angle distance to the sun again smaller, it shows narrow becoming Sichel and achieves its largest apparent diameter of approximately 60 ″. While the apparent size of thatVenus as a whole thus grows, the portion of the visible surface ever smaller, and is turned around, if the circle closes after altogether 584 days again. Therefore it has its largest apparent brightness of well - 4 m in a certain „compromise position “,it about 35 days before and/or. after the lower conjunction reaches, if it turns about 30 per cent of its lit surface to the earth. The Venus stands then in their „for largest gloss “. In the further process can, by the light scattering of its atmosphere,at the bright Sichel a strong extension of the points to be observed, „spreading in such a way specified of the horn points “. The Venussichel covers close of the lower conjunction thus an elbow from far over 180°, although a lit firm ball actually only a Sichelbogenof accurately 180° to show should. The constantly closed cloud cover of the Venus refuses each view to the eye, strengthened however always their shining. Before the lower conjunction the Sichelbogen short circuits itself even completely to a circle. This effect is howeverto observe because of the large sun proximity only with difficulty.
The synodische visibility cycle of the Venus repeats itself in accordance with the pentagrammartigen distribution of the points of conjunction on their course five times one behind the other before different in each case star background. This entire star cycle again nearly repeats itself upthe day exactly every eight years.
visibilities to 2008
major items: Venuspositionen until 2020
in the following table are indicated the special positions of the Venus up to the year 2008.
|Largest eastern Elongation||maximum brightness||stationary, becomes declining||Lower conjunction||stationary, becomes rechtläufig||maximum brightness||largest one western Elongation||upper conjunction|
|29. March 2004 - 46°||3. May 2004||18. May 2004||8. June 2004||29. June 2004||13. July 2004||17. August 2004 - 45.8°||31. March 2005|
|3. November 2005 - 47.1°||12. December 2005||23. December 2005||13. January 2006||3. February 2006||14. February 2006||25. March 2006 - 46.5°||27. October 2006|
|9. June 2007 - 45.4°||14. July 2007||25. July 2007||18.August 2007||7. September 2007||23. September 2007||28. October 2007 - 46.5°||9. June 2008|
most extreme perigees
of all planets can come the Venus of the earth next. The smallest distance from the earth became since 1800to 16. December 1850 with 0,264138541298281 AE = 39.514.827 kilometers reaches. Only to 16. December 2101 will come the Venus of the earth with a minimum clearance of 0,26431736 AE = 39.541.578 kilometers nearly as close as at that time.
Major item: Venustransit
meets the lower conjunction with the junction of the Venusbahn (an intersection with the ecliptic)together, the Venus stands before the sun disk and it comes exactly to a passage (transit). The last Venusdurchgang occurred to 8. June 2004, between approx. 07:15 and 13:23 clock Central European Summer Time and could be observed from completely Europe.Further Venusdurchgänge (after the Gregorian calendar):
- 5. June 1518
- 2. June 1526
- 7. December 1631 (of Johannes Kepler not visibly precalculates, in Europe)
- 4. December 1639 (of Jeremiah of hearing skirt computes and observes)
- 6. June 1761 (world-wide coordinated observation expeditions)
- 3. June 1769
- 9. December 1874
- 6. December 1882
- 8. June 2004
- 6. June 2012 (in Central Europe only the end is visible)
- 11. December 2117
- 8. December 2125
- 11. June 2247
- 9. June of 2255
passages of the Venus always find alternatingin June or in December instead of, because at these times the earth passes the knots of the Venusbahn. The cycle the transit amounts to 243 years, four passages with the distances of 8 years, of 121.5 years find, again from 8and then after 105.5 years instead of. By the observation of a Venustransits of different positions on earth one can derive the distance earth sun ( the astronomical unit) with the measurement of the horizontal parallax (see also Merkurtransit).
Since the Venus is the brightest star-like object at the Firmament, she probably played a basic role in the astronomy, in addition, in the mythology and the Astrologie since beginning of culture history. In the old Babylon one connected the brightestChange star with Ishtar, the most important Babylonian goddess. In the early antique Greece one called the Venus as morning star Phosphoros (as many as „Lichtbringer “) - on Latin Lucifer -, sometimes also Heosphoros, and as evening star Hesperos. Only the laterHellenen referred this planet to the goddess Aphrodite. In old Egypt one connected the change star with the goddess Isis and in the Germanic mythology with the goddess Freyja (altnordisch „lady “) and/or Freia, on those our weekday name for Fridaydecreases/goes back. With the Renaissance the name Venus has itself for the planet (lat. „Beauty “, „dear attraction “) of the Roman dear goddess interspersed, the name of an old-Italian garden goddess, who the Greek Aphrodite was equated later.
Since the antique one becomes both for thatPlanets and for the goddess Venus the Pentagramm as symbol uses. The origin of this symbolism apparent lies in the special periodic motion of the planet, whose most remarkable positions at the starlit sky in the period of eight years a quite accurate Pentagramm describe.There are assumptions that the Greeks aligned the olympic plays of the antique ones after this cycle.
In the Astrologie is the Venus among other things the symbol of the connection ability.
In the Christian seal the morning star is a symbol for the approachingGod son and its lightful feature at the night of the world (Epiphanie).
In antique China one assigned in accordance with the five-element teachings the planets to Venus of the transformation phase metal. Therefore the Venus in the Chinese and Japanese metal star is called (金星 chin. jīnxīng, jap. kinsei).
Rezeption in the novel, film and music
in the first scientifically supported conceptions of the Venus as Weltkörper applied this earthsimilar planet by its larger sun proximity contrary to Mars than a life-friendlier, youngand very warm world of the primeval times, which are coined/shaped by jungle and deserts under the impenetrable cloud cover. That settled then also in the scientific Phantastik arisen later the literature and the film art, particularly in form of most diverse Venusianer.With the investigation of the real conditions, since the second half of the 1960er years, it became quiet then in this regard around the Venus.
1948 appeared of Robert A. Heinlein the youth book space Cadet (space cadet). An American officer school candidate exists as an applicant of the inter+planetaryPeace patrol in the year 2075, in the employment for peaceful living together of the different planet peoples, its first ordeal by fire against a rebellion of the amphibious natures of the Venus.
1950 publish Immanuel Velikovsky its work worlds in the collision, in which he an alternative, buttoday's scientific realizations describes contradicting and therefore as high-speculatively outstanding developing history of the Venus.
1951 followed after others with Between Planets (between the planet) a further youth book of Heinlein, which partly acts on the Venus. Mars and Venus are from Kolonistenthe earth settles, which live in peaceful coexistence with native in each case intelligent species. Here the Kolonisten „of the nebula planet “Venus revolts against the government on earth.
1951 appeared to that of Stanisław Lem the novel Astronauci, under the German titles The astronauts or planet of death one gave change. After this novel collecting main the Sciencefiction film the being silent star from 1959 to 1960 as Gemeinschaftsproduktion of the GDR and Poland ( rental business title in the FRG developed: Spaceship Venus does not answer). The work referson the danger of an atomic world war. After the identification of a mysterious find an international expedition breaks 1908 open for the purpose of the investigation to the Venus and decodes on the way the reference to an attack on earth, failed, in the year 1970. ToA goal arrived, finds the crew a liveless, radioactively contaminated world, in which only the automatic plants of a destruction machinery run, the inhabitants of the Venus obviously are pleased which to the victim.
1956 appeared with It Conquered the World onethe early film work of Roger Corman. To the Funkkontakt with a missing person satellite of the USA returns this with invasion intentions a carrying space monster as one the last his kind of the Venus. Under the pretext, the self destruction of mankindto prevent, the monster from a cave hiding place brings individual inhabitants of an American town to assistance of small flying skates in key positions under its control.1966 gave it a Remake of the kultigen SF-Trash under the title Zontar the Thing from to Venus of Larry Buchanan.
1958 came from director Edward Bernd Queen from outer space into the cinemas. 1961 followed the German synchronous version in the claws of the Venus. The action sow-Irish put on of beautiful women and genuine chaps plays in the year1985. A spaceship of the earth is diverted with its astronauts by an unknown Kraft by the course and kidnapped on the Venus. There after a war except for few exceptions all men were banished on a neighbour planet.
1964 are thatNovel the inheritance of the Phaetonen of Georgi Martynow on German appeared. The Venus and its manlike inhabitants play a Nebenrolle in very varied history as stopover on the search for the traces of the old civilization as Asteroidengürtel of the gone downfifth planet Arsenia (Phaeton).
The 31-bändige youth book series space partisans of Marks of Brandis, which appeared between 1970 and 1987 in German language, selected the Venus as seat „of the Venus earth society for Astronautik “after a Terraforming not described more near.
see also: Topics and motives in the Sciencefiction
- Jürgen Blunck: Gods in planets and moons. Harri German, Frankfurt/Main 1987. ISBN 3-8171-1003-0
- Peter Cattermole, Patrick Moore: Atlas OF Venus. Cambridge University press, Cambridge 1997 (English). ISBN 0-521-49652-7
- Ronald Greeley, Raymond Batson: The NASA Atlas of the solar system. Knaur, Munich 2002. ISBN 3-426-66454-2
- Holger Heuseler, Ralf Jaumann, Gerhard Neukum: Between sun and Pluto. The future of the planet research. BLV, Munich 2000.ISBN 3-405-15726-9
- David Morrison: Planet worlds. A discovery journey by the solar system. Spectrum academic publishing house, Heidelberg 1999. ISBN 3-8274-0527-0
- Rolf Sauermost (Hrsg.): Encyclopedia of the astronomy. In 2 volumes. Herder, Freiburg 1989f. ISBN 3-451-21632-9
- Roland Wielen (Hrsg.): Planetand their moons. The large bodies of the solar system. Spectrum academic publishing house, Heidelberg 1997. ISBN 3-8274-0218-2
- Helmut Zimmermann, Alfred refuses: ABC encyclopedia astronomy. Spectrum academic publishing house, Heidelberg 8 1995. ISBN 3-86025-688-2
Web on the left of
- the nine planets: Venus
- The Nine Planets: Photo and Movies (English)
- raumfahrer.net: Venus
- NASA Venus Fact Sheet (English)
- link collection to the Venusdurchgang
- observation information and historical to Venusdurchgängen
- Bacteria in the Venusatmosphäre?
- Further pictures of the surface (English)
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