Verb

a verb or a verb (v. lat.: verb = word) designates that word class of a language, which is used mainly for events ( actions , procedures, conditions) in the grammar. An exact demarcation, approximately to the noun or adjective, is not possible in all languages. In particular with inflecting languages one differentiates the conjugation, thus the inflection of verbs, from the declination or nominal inflection. The Nomen verb Distinktion (distinction between thing words and activity words) is regarded languagespreading as fundamental grammatical distinction.

verbal categories

in languages, which change verbs morphologically, it thus for example bend and/or. conjugate, can the individual verb forms according to certain categories be classified, whereby different grammar schools use different paradigms. The most important categories are:

  • Internal message type: The internal message type designates the objective relationship of the event in view to its temporal process, among other things Ingressiv, Inchoativ, Durativ, iterative, Frequentativ, stand, Momentativ, Egressiv and Konativ.
  • Aspect: The aspect of verbal is not always differentiated clearly from the internal message type. In contrast to this it designates however the subjective viewpoint of the event after the basic categories perfektiv (locked as meant event) and imperfektiv (not locked as meant event). Beyond that there are more complex aspects as for example the perfektische aspect, which designates a condition resulting from an final event.
  • Dia. thesis: The dia. thesis of a verb (also Genus verbi mentioned) designates the relationship of the verb to the Hauptaktanten. Different systems occur. The most frequent system (in accusative languages) knows the categories asset, the passive and medium or Reflexiv. Beyond that there are languages with a Ergativ - or asset - system and mixing systems.
  • Genus: (not to confound with Genus verbi; see dia. thesis). If in verb forms congruence is expressed to one or more Hauptaktanten, the Genus ( or the class affiliation ) can be expressed this Aktanten at the verb with. The Genus is not thus just like the number and the person an actual verbal category.
  • Mode: The mode brings the logical modality or the personal attitude of the speaker to the reality or realization of an event to the expression. In addition the categories of the reality (Indikativ), the possibility (Potentialis), the necessity or the being (Nezessitativ, Debitiv ), the desire (Optativ), the request or the instruction (Kohortativ, imperative , Jussiv ) belong, doubting (Dubitativ), to the condition (Konditionalis), the Irrealität (Irrealis), the dissociation (for example mode relativus) and some different. The mode can be also grammatically necessary (for example Konjunktiv).
  • Number: The number with the verb is a secondary category, which results from the congruence with Aktanten: for example singular, dual and Plural.
  • Person: The person is a category, which occurs in many languages mainly with the verb, but is based to one or more Hauptaktanten in the long run on the congruence to. This Aktanten is depending upon their relationship to the speech act 1. Person (speaker), 2. Person (addressee) or 3. Person (indifferent speech article). In the majority of the 1. and 2. Person can give it to distinctions whether several speakers and/or. Addressees meant are or only in each case one speaker and/or. Addressee and one as associated thought group, in particular in the 1. Person Plural whether the addressees are closed (including) or not (exclusively). Further distinctions can be met in view to the social relationship between the persons (politeness forms), whereby in most suggesting it exists to no own verb forms but for example Plural for singular or 3. Person for 2. Person is used.
  • Rektion: The Rektion of a verb describes, how a verb in the sentence is merged. Each verb possesses a certain sample of Aktanten, which arise mandatorily or fakultativ in a grammatically complete sentence with this verb. The Rektion specifies thereby, which Aktanten arises, which role it in the sentence takes (about subject, direct object, indirect object) and in which Kasus and/or. which Präpositionalphrase it stand. Verbs with no Aktanten are also called impersonal, verbs with (subject) a Aktanten intransitiv and such with two Aktanten (subject and direct object) transitiv.
  • Tense: The tense designates the relative time relationship of the event, first from the time of the speech act out regards (absolute tense): Present, Präteritum, Futur. Beyond that relative tenses can express the period of an event in relation to another event than Vorzeitigkeit, simultaneousness or Nachzeitigkeit, for example Plusquamperfekt (Futur II).

These categories are not to be differentiated necessarily always clearly with respect to different languages. Thus the Indogermani languages tend to it, to categories like the tense to mix aspect or mode with one another.

see also

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Wiktionary: Verb - word origin, synonyms and translations
Wikibooks: Verb - learning and teaching materials
 

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