|of these articles is concerned with the organization United Nations. Further meanings of the abbreviations UN, UN and VN under UN (term clarifying), UN (term clarifying) and/or. VN (term clarifying).|
Flag of the United Nations
|office languages||Arab, Chinese, English, French, Russian, Spanish|
|Secretary-General||Kofi Annan (since 1997)|
|establishment||26. June 1945|
|the entry into force of the UN-Charter||24. October 1945|
|head office||New York (the USA)|
those United Nations (VN; English. United nation, UN; often UN for United nation organization) are an intergovernmental union of 191 states of the earth and as global international organization without reservation recognized international law subject.
The most important tasks thatOrganization are the safety device of the world peace, the adherence to international law, the protection of the human rights and the promotion of the international cooperation.
major item: The United Nations in
the Völkerbund, which was created after the First World War with the goal , have history of the United Nations your roots thatTo secure peace in the world durably. However the Völkerbund did not receive the necessary influence by interest of entry lacking (so for instance the USA were not a member in the Völkerbund), in order to be able to implement its goals, and was with outbreak of the Second World War practically failed.
US president Franklin D. Roosevelt still undertook a second attempt , one after the failure of the Völkerbundes during the Second World WarOrganization to the safety device of the peace to create, and compiled the Atlantic Charter together with the British prime minister vienna clay/tone Churchill. At the 1. 26 states in the Declaration by United appointed themselves January 1942 nation to the principles of the Atlantic Charter. By thoseCooperation of the USSR and the Republic of China at the new peace order came it to Muscovites the explanation of four powers, those on a fastest possible creation of a general, on the principle sovereigns equality of all friedliebenden states of the developing organization to the upright attitude of theAimed peace and international security. With the conference of Dumbarton Oaks far over the establishment of the UN one advised. After inclusion of France into the circle of the chief executives powers the Charter of the United Nations could 1945 to the conference ofJalta to be finished placed. Them became to 26. June 1945 in San Francisco of 50 states signs. Poland signed the Charter only later, ranks however among the 51 initial members.
The Charter stepped to 24. October of the same yearly into force,after the Republic of China, France, the Soviet Union, Great Britain, which United States of America had ratified and the majority of the establishment states the Charter.
The United Nations have their head office in New York and three further seats in Geneva (UNOG), Vienna (UNOV) and Nairobi (UNON). Into the Hague is the international Court of Justice. To mark it is that after official linguistic usage the UN seats are not in the respective country, but only ofthis to be surrounded, D. h. that the international Court of Justice is into the Hague, or the head office of the UN in New York. In the UN rules of own kind apply and the Staatsmacht of the respective seat country may no coercive measures there exercise, howtheir sovereignty to that extent infrage does not stand. The fact that mechanisms of the UN would represent a kind „international territory “is according to international law not recognized. However its mechanisms exterritoriales area are comparable, by messages.
Members of the United Nations
at present are 191 member states alsoa seat into the UN represent. For a complete list, see:Member states of the United Nations (alphabetical) or member states of the United Nations (chronological).
The 51 initial members of the UN in the year 1945 were:
Egypt, Ethiopia, Argentina, Australia, Belarus, Belgium, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Republic of China, Costa Rica, Denmark, Dominican Republic of, Ecuador, El Salvador, France, Greece, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, India, Iraq, Iran, Yugoslavia, Canada, Colombia, Cuba, Lebanon, Liberia, Luxembourg, Mexico, New Zealand, Nicaragua, the Netherlands, Norway, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, the Philippines, Poland, Saudi Arabia, Soviet Union, South Africa, Syria, Czechoslovakia, Turkey, Ukraine, United States Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, Uruguay and Venezuela united by America .
No members are among other things the Vatikanstaat (its international-law agency, which Holy See has, however observer status) and the States of (west), not recognized by all countries, seeing era (democratic-Arab republicSeeing era), the Turkish Republic of north Cyprus (TRNZ), the Cookinseln and the Republic of China (Taiwan). The Republic of China takes here however a privileged position, there it as initial member of the UN from 1945 to 1971 even from five constant members inUN security council was. In the year 1971 the Republic of China had after a resolution of the general assembly from the UN to separate. Since that time the People's Republic of China, as a constant member in the security council, represents the Chinese interests within the United Nations.
The financing thatUN
the UN finance themselves mainly from contributions of their member states. One differentiates between compulsory contributions, obligation contribution reallocations and freiwillige payments of fees.
The compulsory contributions of the individual member states serve the financing of the tidy household of the organization as well as partly also the functions of the administration of their special and subsidiary organs.The height of the proportional obligation portions of all member states is computed with the help of a contribution key. This is specified again every three years on recommendation of a comittee on contributions by the general assembly. The last and at present valid change of the calculation code was decided in December 2000and stepped at the 1. January 2001 into force. The height of the contributions becomes since then on basis of the gross national product of a country on the average the last four and one-half years (before it six years) as well as computed in dependence of the debt load, the Pro-Kopf-Einkommens and the currency fluctuations.It is fixed that each country must contribute at least 0.001% to the tidy household and at the most 25% of the household may carry. States such as South Korea, Singapore and Brazil had to take over a higher percentage share of the UN household after a transitional phase starting from 2004.Japan could count due to its declining economic development on an easy lowering of contributions. The contributions of the USA were reduced, the portion of Germany remained the same in approximately. Income losses due to the three-year transitional phase were resulted from a private donation of the media entrepreneur Ted Turner (CNN)at a value of 34 millions US Dollar balanced< ref name=TAZ-2000-12-28> Andreas close:Extortion disburses itself.TAZ 28. December 2000< /ref>. The largest Finanzierer in the contribution years 2004-2006 is the USA with 22%, Japan with 19,5%, Germany with 8,7%, Great Britain also6.1% and France with 6%. All other countries contribute less than 5%, for instance half pay only the minimum contribution of 0,001%. The deadline for the payment of the contributions of the individual Mitliedsstaaten is the 31. January of therespective yearly< ref name=HSFK-98-02> hessian donation peace and conflict research:The USA and the UN: Reform or dismantling of the world-wide organization?HSFK points of view 2/98< /ref>. The two-annual budget (only compulsory contributions) the UN for 1998/1999 amounted to 2.8 billion US Dollar. The regular budget incomes of the UN sank however from 405 millionsUS Dollar in 1997 on only 279 millions US Dollar 1998. To the deadline in the year 1998 only 27 from 185 member states their contributions in full height had paid. Approx. 75% of the arrears at the regular budget and approx. 50% thatContributions with the Peacekeeping were at this time to the contribution retention of the USA to attribute< ref name= " HSFK-98-02 "/>.
With the compulsory contribution reallocations it acts likewise over from the member states to compulsory contributions which can be paid. These serve however excluding the financing of peace operations. At present valid rates of contributionfor the compulsory contribution reallocations 1973 by the general assembly were specified. Economically to few developed UN-states pay therefore only 10% of their compulsory contribution at the tidy UN-household, thus to 0.0001%. The remaining developing countries must pay their compulsory contribution to means at a value of 20%.The industrialized countries pay an amount at height of their full compulsory contribution. The five constant members of the security council pay amounts at height of their compulsory contributions plus reduced receipts developed due to the discharge of the developing countries. The latters become in accordance with the relationship of the height of the particularsCompulsory contributions weights put down. For the compulsory contribution reallocations by the tidy household separated accounts are used.< ref name= " KH-UNF-1999 "> Klaus Hüfner:UN-financing. (Conditions 1999)< /ref>
Freiwillige payments of fees become for the financing of special and/or. Subsidiary organs of the UN like e.g. the UNDP (development program of the United Nations), UNICEF (child welfare organization), UNFPA (population fund of the United Nations), UNHCR (office of the high commissioner of the United Nations for refugees) and WPF (world nourishing program) use. States know substantial influence on the emphasis of the activities of the UN by the free decision of the height of their freiwilligen achievements validlymakes< ref name= " KH-UNF-1999 "/>.
The special role of the USA
the USA began since start of the US Government under Ronald Reagan (1980-1984) an increasing part of their compulsory contributions to the UN household as well as for the Peacekeeping budget of the UN to retain. The USA justified this clear offence against the agreements at firstwith political criticism at some UN programs, later under president George Bush (starting from 1988) accused them to the UN Ineffizienz and Geldverschwendung. Until 1992 the amount of debt of the USA had increased to the UN to 1,5 billion US Dollar. Congress of US numbered thatAmount of debt 1997 under reference to allegedly furnished not-financial achievements at UN Peacekeeping missions to 926 millions US Dollar and set the payment as an argument for the reduction of the proportional obligation portion of the USA< ref name= a " TAZ-2000-12-28 "/>. Besides they used the restraint of their budget contribution as in case ofthe former general manager of the OPCW (organization for the prohibition of chemical weapons) José Bustani, Secretary-General Boutros Boutros Ghali or in case of the occupation of UN-commissions in the year 2001 as arguments around personnel changes within the UN to force< ref> Joachim Guilliard: Coup d'etat inthe UN (appeared easily shortened in) young world 28. April 2002< /ref>< ref name= " HSFK-98-02 "/><ref> The USA threaten the UN net newspaper 9. May 2001< /ref> The US Government under Bill Clinton acted to 10. June 1997 in the so-called helmet Biden agreement a lowering of the US contribution to the regularUN-budget of 25% on 20% and a lowering of the US contribution for Peacekeeping employments of 31% to 25% out< ref name= " HSFK-98-02 "/>.
The Charter of the United Nations
major items: Charter of the United Nations
the Charter is the condition of the UN and becameto 26. June 1945 in the auditorium of the veteran was Memorial Building in San Francisco signatoryly. Into force the Charter stepped to 24. October 1945. Poland, 22. Initial member, had been able not to participate in the conference and did not sign later.The Charter is a temporally not limited international-law contract and since its establishment in only four places was changed, i.e. the articles 23, 27, 61 and 109. It consists of one preamble and 19 chapters with 111 articles, in contrastin addition the Völkerbund had only 26 articles. The chapters are occupied among other things with the different principal organs of the UN, the peaceful settlement of disputes, the measures with threat or break of the peace and with agressive acts as well as their goals and principles.
At most the article 2, number 7 is disputed and discussed, in which it means:
- „the UN is not authorized to intervene in affairs, which belong to their nature after for the internal competence of a state.“
Organs of the United Nations
of principal organs
in accordance with chapter 3, article 7 of the Charter consists the UN of six principal organs, which are relevant for the decision-making processes. Beside the principal organs belong a set ofSubsidiary organs and special organizations for the system of the United Nations, which are concerned with the perception of specific tasks.
- The general assembly (general assembly): Representatives of all UN member states have a seat and a voice. The general assembly knows not binding recommendations to the member statesdeliver and collecting mains to the security council arrange, them decide also on the admission of new members.
- The secretariat (United nation Secretariat): highest civil servant is the Secretary-General.
- The security council (Security Council) has 15 members, of it is China, Russia, France, Great Britain and the USA constant members. The other ten members are selected in each case on two years by the general assembly. Resolutions of the security council are binding and interspersable. They require the agreement of at least nine members, under itall five constant members (excluded resolutions over matters of procedure). One speaks here of one „veto - right “of the constant members. In practice the abstention of a constant member is not rated as „veto “.
- The economic and social advice (Economic and SocialCouncil, ECOSOC): The many special organizations are subordinated to it.
- The trusteeship council (Trusteeship Council) suspended, there its tasks meanwhile it since 1994 (after the dismissal of the State of Palau standing to date under US administration into independence) no trust territories more gives.
- The international Court of Justice, IGH (international Court OF Justice, ICJ) into the Hague as a universal international-law arbitral tribunal.
Subsidiary organs and special organizations
major items: UN-Spezialorganisation
of subsidiary organs of the UN-general assembly are created for the perception of special activities. They have their ownManagement system, but no own international-law basis and is not international law subjects like the UN. Zurzeit gives it altogether 22 subsidiary organs, beside the probably most well-known child welfare organization to UNICEF, and. A. the environmental program UNEP, the world nourishing program WFP, the Flüchtlingskommissariat UNHCR and the development program UNDP.
Special organizations are legally, organizational and financially independently, however by an agreement closely with the UN connected. Some organizations are partially even older than the UN. Meanwhile there are 16 of these intergovernmental organizations.The UN co-operates among other things with the following autonomous organizations closely:UNESCO, WHO, IAO, IWF and other one. The work of the special organizations is coordinated by the UN-restaurants and social advice.
Work and goals
since their establishment could do thoseUN several considerable successes obtain, among other things:
- sie wirkte bei der Gründung des Staates Israel 1947 bis 1949 mit
- sie entschärfte die Berlinkrise 1948–1949,
- die Kubakrise 1962
- die Nahostkrise 1973
- sie wirkte in Rhodesien 1976auf dieIntroduction of the right to vote for black ones
- completion of the war between the Iraq and Iran 1988
you secured directly the peace for example in
Many goals have the United Nations alreadyreached:
- Elaboration of the human rights 1948
- exterminating or damming diseases (smallpox)
- the world nourishing program of the UN places annually more than half of the food assistance carried out world-wide ready
- you provides for protection of refugees
- you trains sweepers, for examplethere is in Afghanistan ten million shifted mines
- 70 per cent of the activities of the UN extends to the ranges development assistance and humanitarian assistance.
the peacekeaping measures are one of the major tasks of the United Nations. They are thatAvoidance and completion of international conflicts central obligate. The high value becomes clear thereby that in the first article of the UN-Charter the goal is already formulated,…
- the world peace and international security to true and for this purpose effective collective measures toomeet, in order to prevent and eliminate threats of the peace to suppress agressive acts and other violation of the peace and to settle international disputes or situations, which could lead to a violation of the peace, by peaceful means after the principles of the justice and international lawto settle or. (Kind. 1, number. 1 of the UN-Charter).
For the reaching of this goal by the United Nations by the freiwillige integration of the UN member states a system of collective security was created. Core of this collective safety system is the general force prohibition:
- „All states omitin its international relations each or otherwise menace or use of force “(kind, incompatible directed against the territorial soundness or the political independence of a state, with the goals of the United Nations. 2, numbers. 4 of the UN-Charter).
Despite the generalForce prohibition excludes the Charter the use of force not completely. It is concentrated apart from the individual self-defense right of each country on the security council: Collective one measures against disturbers of the peace considering chapters the VII, like economic, kommunikative and otherwise non-military sanctions to if requiredto the use of force. The security council becomes thereby the carrier „of the force authentication monopoly “. Before the security council can decide appropriate measures in a peace-threatening situation, it must examine first whether a break of the peace is present. If this should be the case, then it has in principletwo possibilities of reacting to such a break: It can express both recommendations to the UN members and coercive measures opposite the disturber of the peace as well as opposite all other member states.
With coercive measures are both non-military sanctions and direct military intervention throughthe UN or by one-dated members possible. Setting up of UN troops is intended in the Charter, however never came off. To the non-military sanctions „the complete or partial interruption of the trade relations, the railway, sea and air traffic belong,the post office, telegraph and radio communication as well as other traffic possibilities and the abort of the diplomatic relations “(kind. 41 of the UN-Charter).
major items: Peacekeeping forces of the United Nations
the blue helmets are the peace soldiers of the UN. They were as means of the passive peacekeaping measuresnot in the Charter intended. But Trade Union of German Employees Hammarskjöld and Lester Pearson sketched the idea of the peace soldiers in crisis situations. Blue helmet soldiers are easy to recognize, because it carry, as the name already says, either a blue helmet or a blue toquea UN badge beside the uniform of their country. A mandate for the delegation of blue helmets can give only the UN security council, but the government of each country may decide even whether it sends soldiers to such an employment. Until 1990 the UN has already500,000 soldiers and civilians to measures for the preservation of the peace assigned. For peace production blue helmets are not used however.
1994 was committed in Rwanda one of the heaviest crimes of history. By a force outbreak 800,000 member of the races Hutu came and Tutsi around the life. The blue helmet soldiers of the UN had to watch this genocide doless, since their number was much too small first of all and was secondly not equipped with a mandate a blue helmet soldier, which would at all have permitted an intervention. This event applies in accordance withStatement of Kofi Annan as the largest failure of the UN.
at the end of of May 1995 came it into Bosnia and Herzegowina to NATO - air raids on a ammunition depot of the Bosnian Serbs into Pale to attention an exciting taking of hostages of UN-soldiers. AsOf Bosnian Serbs proven NATO protected zones were taken attacked, to consequence of the air raids as hostages, chained UN-soldiers at tactical positions and to look placed.
although the United Nations a world-wide organization are, become already from practical reasons of not all languages of the worldofficially uses. One is actually limited to six office languages:Arab, Chinese, English, French, Russian and Spanish. Are from these six two - English and French - working languages. This is fixed in the resolution 2, thoseby the general assembly one accepted. Office language means that in each official meeting translation after and from these languages it has to come and that all meeting-preparing documents, all draft resolutions and all minutes and reports within appropriate time frame in theseLanguages to be available must. To the working languages it applies that all organization-internal operational sequences (verbal and written) in these two languages can run off. In handling the secretariat of the United Nations each (r) delegated itself the right has, verbally and in writing into express the working language of its or their choice. Also all official expressions of the secretariat in the two working languages must run off (announcements, sign-postings, for instance the well-known „Security Council/Conseil de sécurité “in New York, brochures, guidance etc.) this set of rules close einsprachige appearances in principleout.
Criticism at the UN
composition of the UN security council
a point of criticism is the historically caused composition of the UN security council. The constant members of the security council make move use of their right of veto, around condemnations and sanctions against itself or friendly statesto turn away, then 1946-64 inserted for instance the Soviet Union 103 times veto against unanimous majorities. With 69 conventions to Israel the USA inserted a veto in 20 cases .
Regards one the portions of the population of world, those the inhabitants of the constantMembers place, stand this in no balanced relation to them granted the privileged authority. For example has France, a country with 60 million inhabitants, over a constant seat in the security council, India, in 1 billion Humans live, howevernot. This problem can be solved in no simple way, because the hierarchical architecture of the UN security council, which grants larger powers to some few states, reflects in the long run the large diversity in the development of the material power of the nations. In this sensethe security council is a concentration of power and an action organ and serves not the representation. Even with 15 members it often and fast pushed to the border of its capacity to act because of the conflicting interests, which are transported by each member.
A security council, in thateach member state in accordance with its population portion fairly represented and with right of veto would be equipped, would be practically incompetent to act, since it is almost impossible, to obtain for concrete and binding decisions of a certain consequence a consent from over 190 states to. One really „fair “transformationthe Security Council could go thus only in connection with a fundamental reform of the entire condition of the UN, under consolidation of role and authority of the general assembly.
The causes for it that it did not come so far to such a reform, seem themselvesto balance: A decided transformation, which deceives the thought of a world-wide organization calculation, implied a power loss of the constant members privileged so far - predominantly industrialized countries, which apply the largest part of the financing of the UN.
a central problem of the UN is andremains the hardly existing authority. It succeeded to the UN above all therefore to unite almost all states of the world under a roof because the Charter in crucial places is so flexibly interpretable that it of practically all cultural convictions andpolitical ideologies - even if these itself z. T. are mutually exclusive - into their sense and to their favour according to the situation to be laid out can. So that the concept of a world-wide organization authorized to act can come up completely, would be a substantial delivery of nationalnational authorityto this organization within all three ranges of the division of power (executive, legislation and Judikative) necessarily. In addition at this time hardly a state is ready. In the long run national single-handed attempts defeat most beginnings, to more commitment within the UN tooarrive. Example of it are for instance the USA, which wanted the competence of the international criminal court for own citizens to reject and for the case of a process even military „release caused there against their will “reserve themselves, what the authentication of the international one Criminal court altogether in question places. By this example also that the UN can operate hardly - or not at all - in collision with the interests of the USA politics, there it shows up with the United States of America financially, historically,personnel and constitutionally too strongly verwoben is.
Some critics accuse to the UN therefore to produce for much money, which could be spent otherwise more meaningfully, above all batch printed on paper - a however very pointed point of view. Because more commitment meansnecessarily also more uniformity. Although it succeeded to the UN only on a very rudimentary level to define uniform cultural and political conceptions of mankind nevertheless some UN missions were quite successful and whether the intergovernmental conflict management without the UN switching would run off better,may be doubted likewise. Realistically regarded, there can be in the long run no genuine world government, so long itself the peoples of the world not on an assertible and nevertheless sharp definition of its cultural and political values with itself the implications resulting in from itto unite can be based and on this requirement should not the UN also.
- a large miss was that 1960 provided development assistance - concept. The countries of the third world received money, in order to develop, but the structure of a successfulCommercial system was omitted, so that they came into an increasing dependence on the transfer services.
- It is also accused to the UN that she switched herself on in the course of the time only into all those conflicts, which received the strongest attention in the media.Held out she itself against it from crises in the Sudan, Armenia, Bangladesh, Myanmar, Colombia, Rwanda and Peru.
- At industrial nations a relative lack of interest at general economic and social activities of the UN prevails; if itself actually problemsadjust, which one takes seriously, these are often treated according to tacit agreement outside of or casually in the UN.
- 1946 failed the plan of the United States to place the nuclear weapons under control of the UN. On the one hand the USA wantedwithout the atom bombs it does not do as long as they could not be surely that no other country can build them, on the other hand did not want the Soviet Union their research to adjust, as long as Washington had nuclear weapon the monopoly. During the cold war each superpower tried, further states on their side to draw, it with generous economic aids and equipment were lured. Consequently many wars broke out, which out-fenced this representatively of the superpowers (deputy wars).
- A further, disputed point of criticism is that itself the UNsuperproportionally with the condemnation of Israel would concern. With the voices of the Arab states in the plenary assembly so many resolutions were issued against Israel and as many special meetings about Middle East conflict were called up as into no other topic. In the security council these becomeDraft resolutions usually not accepted, since the USA insert usually in favor of of Israel their veto. Thus they are also not binding according to international law. On the other hand violations of human rights in the Arab world were brought up for discussion rarely. So only recently a draft resolution is, that for the first time in historythe UN explicitly the Antisemitismus to condemn should, also with the voices of the Arab states rejected. This reached a high point at the congress of UN in Durban, where the Zionismus was explained as equivalent to racingism.
- Dieter Göthel: The United Nations- An interior opinion. Foreign Office, Berlin 2002
- Günther ours: The UN - Tasks, structures, politics. dtv, Munich 2004, ISBN 3-423-05254-6
- Klaus Dieter wolf: The UN - History, tasks, perspectives. C.H.Beck, Munich 2005, ISBN 3-406-50878-2
- Sabine of Schorlemer (Hrsg.): Practice manual UN- The United Nations in the light of global challenges. Springer, Berlin 2003, ISBN 3-540-43907-2
- Swen Bernhard Gareis, Johannes Varwick: The United Nations. Leske + Budrich, Opladen 2002, ISBN 3-8252-2243-8
- Swen Bernhard Gareis, Johannes Varwick: The United Nations. Federal center for political education, Bonn 2002
- Portal: United Nations
- general declaration of the human rights
- African union
- international law
- Model United nation
- global Governance
Web on the left of
|Commons: United Nations - pictures, videos and/or audio files|
- information of the Nobelstiftung for award of the prize 2001 for the United Nations (English)
- www.un.org - international side of the UN (Arab, Chinese, English, French, Russian and Spanish)
- www.un.org/.. - Resolutions and resolutions of the security council
- www.runiceurope.org/.. - Regional information center of the UN with Charter text and information for the setting up
- www.dgvn.de - German society for the United Nationsregistered association.
- www.bpb.de/.. - Federal center for political education: 60 years United Nations
- www.globalpolicy.org/eu - information and analyses to the UN
- www.uno-komitee.de - committee for a democratic UN
- Brockhaus: Emergence and organization of the UN
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