as verification or verification (of lat. veritas, truth) is designated the procedure to occupy assumed or maintained circumstances as true. The term “verification” is differently used, according to whether one may itself support during the truth identification only by a led proof, oralso the confirming examination and authentication of circumstances by an independent instance as verification regard.


work on

] science theory in the science theory by the verification of one Hypothesis the proof that this hypothesis is correct. Logical Empirismus and positivism assume such proofs are conductible. Today however generally becomes in the context of the critical rationalism (K. Popper) assumed determined forms of hypotheses (z. B. unrestrictedly universal hypotheses)to be never last valid verified, but by newer knowledge be theoretically always overhauled can. A hypothesis can be falsifiziert thus , prove thus as invalid, however it can be never indicated as security that she is valid.

To understand an example, which states Karl Popper: Assumed, those Hypothesis reads: ” All swans are white “, then it does not help anything to make itself on the search for as much as possible white swans. Even if we found one million of white swans, the hypothesis thereby is not verified. Even if one finds however only different colour one swan, sothe hypothesis is disproved. However: As long as no different colour one swan was found, the hypothesis can be regarded as provisionally valid.

The Falsifikationismus does not apply however to all kinds of hypothesis. For example with locating existence hypotheses (also “determined existence hypotheses”) circumstances turn around: For examination” to the hypothesis givesat present in Germany “it hands white swans to find a white swan in Germany. With hypotheses of this kind a verification is possible. If no white swan is, then the hypothesis can be regarded as provisionally disproved.

Further forms of scientific hypotheses as well as their controllability finditself in “Groeben, N. & Westmeyer, H. (1975).Criteria of psychological research. Juventa: Munich. “on the pages 107-133.

computer science

in computer science and software technology one understands the mathematical proof by verification that a program (thus a concrete implementation) of the given Specification corresponds (see to correctness (computer science)). Such proofs are offered with the help of the methods of formal semantics. The verification is however in principle not in every case possible, as the retaining problem and the Gödel incompleteness set show, what however not to exaggerated pessimism cause to give is.

ThereProofs for verification mostly extraordinarily largely and often for humans are not intuitive, interactive or automated Theorembeweiser are used. First are based on symbolic deduction, while latter special data structures use. While first can be used for the solution of very general problems, the latters are only in specialRanges (then however with small expenditure and small previous knowledge) applicably.

The automated verification e.g. become. frequently automat models assigned. For small systems with finite condition quantity (for example in the hardware Design) for it gladly finite automats (Model Checking), for parallel processes find begun Petri nets use.In addition, other automats can be used. Background is the possibility of transferring formal specifications into equivalent automats (e.g. the sentence of Büchi Elgot Trakhtenbrot shows the equivalence of finite automats and formulas of the monadischen logic 2. To stage, see MSO), whereby the problem of fulfilling oneSpecification on equivalent a problem of the analysis of a characteristic of the automat is transferred. Automats are the more suitable representation of the problem definition for the purpose of the analysis, since admits here good algorithms are.

Comparisons: Validating and correctness.

quality assurance

the DIN EN ISO 8402 ofAugust 1995, number 2,17 understands a confirming by verification due to an investigation and by supply of a proof that fixed demands were fulfilled. This standard refers to the quality assurance of organizational and operational operational sequence. Verification here thus understood as a “confirmation afterwards”,whether existing operational sequence the desired results obtain.

In computer science this kind of the examination is called validating.


the verification of person data or minutes is well-known as procedure of a common signature or as sovereign act of the authentication. Here also that findsused term of the Authentifizierung as synonym for a certificate of identity use. Colloquially here often also in technical documentations of verification one speaks.

examples of verification

determined in Simulationen

, summary

the early verification and/or validating of a process or a statement helps, errors in timeto recognize and technical to avoid human or prozessuale communication losses.

The contentwise evaluation of the examined statements or data on plausibility or effect is not task of the verification. It concerns here thus only the proof of a certain authenticity of the statement actually. VerifyExpression (z. B. the result of an experiment) is examined thus of third place, its scientific force of expression is however not yet occupied thereby. The verified statement has thus a higher value as the vacant statement, however a lower value than the conclusive proof.The proof belongs however no longer to the range of the synthetic (“emprischen”), but to the analytic (“theoretical”) truth.

See also: Validity, Reliabilität, verificationism

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