sales is the economical exchange process of goods (goods and services) against (mostly) payment. In the trade with exchange goods and with the sales against material assets the sales takes place after the same conditions. Also sales is the designation of the last functionin the operational creation of value chain (operational process) of goods and services and/or for the liquidation of private property (C-ton-C). The most important elements of sale are determined by marketing as well as of purposeful Rhetorik and psychology of selling. The goal of salein the commercial and freelance range it is frequent to realize profit.
Table of contents
sales and paragraph
the sales with realization of profits intention primarily by the market (economics) one gives, then followingas arrangement means marketing, distribution politics, purposeful Rhetorik and psychology of selling. The paragraph as economiceconomics technical term marks interaction between the needs of the Nachfrager, the offer of the competitors and the offer of the enterprise (salesman) in a triangleon the market. The “sales market” can be described thereby as buyer's market or seller's market, whereby in the western industrialized countries a buyer's market exists, there rather the Nachfrager the offer to determine and in reverse. That is often combined into the formula: “Attemptsnot to sell, which was already produced, but produce, which can be sold ". The goals of the marketing are therefore the definition of the paragraph program and the prognosis of the sales volumes as well as their prices.
goals of sale
the goalsthe sales differ after private people, enterprises and state. Enterprises are interested always to obtain profit (realization of profits intention). The state (for example with medical supply) is interested at meritorischen goods usually to make profit the impossibilitydoes not hold it however from it. Private people have many reasons to the sales:Liquidation of private property, desire at the sales, helping etc. The selling techniques for the reaching of these goals are today a firm component of the psychology of selling, in that the different industries their ownMethods developed.
sales in marketing
As acquisition here the measures of the customer production becomedesignated. Thus the akquisitorische Potenzial is to be exhausted. Thus Erich good mountain refers to the connection between the enterprise and the preferences (preferences) of certain customer groups: This attraction offers different possibilities of the price-political behavior. (Erich good mountain 1973, S. 238)
distribution politics and acquisition
techniques of the distribution politics are:
sales in the type of market pattern
B-ton-b sales (Business ton of Businesses): To the subsequent treatment or for the commercial use of capital goods and/or for operationally used semi-finished material. Decisive forthis designation is the fact of a further use to an increase in value business aimed at.
B-ton-C sales (Business ton of Consumer): Consuming the required achievement with the final consumer, usually consumer goods, under it also long-lived like for example real estates. It is decisive that with the achievement no increase in value is obtained.
C-ton-C sales (Consumer ton of Consumer): Exchange among non--buyers by means of private - sales (e.g. over Internet auction or flea market. Here non commercial interests possibly stands in on both sidesArea.
a more differentiated view of sales typology is reached by a multidimensional analysis of sales sale. The Portfolio - method, modified of the Boston Consulting Group Portfolio, offers the possibility to the entrepreneur of platzieren its sales more purposefully. The Kienbaum - personnel consultationfor this a Portfolio matrix with the following dimensions aligns:
- The entrepreneur with
- appropriate suitability diagnostics can
decide need orientation/commitment contact orientation/conclusion strength depending upon occupation picture whether the individual salesman for the position which can be occupied and/or in the Selling so mentioned center correctlyis positioned. The group of negotiations in the Buying so mentioned center of the customer, which can be expected, determines thereby the composition of the team in the industrial sales.
In the trade and in the final customer business of the consumer goods - the salesmen expectations set into it usually fulfill industryin the purchase to customer friendliness, linear need collection, offer of auxiliary sales and if necessary tasteful packing.
to the choice of the salesman
with the choice of the correct selling way an enterprise has to consider a set from factors to. Thereby those outweigh according to experienceeconomic interests of the offerer before the interests of the coworker and/or the customer. Such a position is turned around if necessary if the salesman occurs the feasibility that with sound information about the market the negotiation with the offerer andDefaults due to his professional experience or own customer contacts to relate knows (for example data to the customer behavior in this special market surrounding field points out). The sales of the verkäuferischen service is thus the most plausible work sample for the evaluation of salesmen in practice.
the firm salesman in such a way specified (also traveler) stands after §§ 611ff BGB in the contract of employment of the employer with corresponding faithful and duties to exercise diligence. Turned around the employer owes, independently of the reached conversion from the principle wages and welfare service (inthe rule social insurance benefits and personnel support).
an independent salesman
of the commercial agents is independent buyer. Contrary to the employees salesman can become active the commercial agent also for several offerers (multi-firm representatives so mentioned) and it is to no certainCommits to management of affairs. It determines independently the kind and the range of its activity.
as fundamental difficulty in the selling is to be regarded the circumstance that of potenziellen coworkers often less technical-material authority than rather gekünstelt is ordered sovereign occurrence.The often resulting noncommitment and missing authenticity of the average salesman latent from this prove in handling critical customers therefore frequently as deterring and counter productive; that leads, apart from the missing readiness of many entrepreneurs to negotiate with “employees” on same eye level,in the long run to a high fluctuation in the industry (“hire & fire” and/or. “Headhunting “).
Specialists ( salesmen ), the assigned the acquisition (customer production), have different depending upon the degree of its specialization and according to commercial law positionJob titles. Substantial elements of the selling technique are apart from the presentation means, advertising media and means of publicity, all fields of the psychology of selling. In it the methods are for the purposeful influencing control, objection treatment and customer recuperation by the salesman in the case of complaint. To it also those belongpre-aged ranges self management of the inclusive. time management as well as the personality formation and the stored range after sales management.
traditional the income spans in the sales lie apart extremely far. This is on the one hand because of the different margins into thatdifferent industries. On the other hand large differences in the consulting and investment company for the salesman settle. The individual earning facilities of the travelers and commercial agents hang in practice mainly of the industry and the product life cycle as well as of the success of the salesmanoff. During retail trade salesmen actually often also under 1.000, - euro in the month home go, earn engineers with economical auxiliary study in the international capital goods sales usually scarcely six-digit per year.
- sales promotion
- commercial agent contract
- distribution politics
- network marketing (MLM)
- price structuring
- market study
- product politics
- types of market
- price strategy
- marketing agent
- selling process
- Lauer, Hermann/Geml, smelling pool of broadcasting corporations: The small sales encyclopedia, Duesseldorf 2000, ISBN 3-87881-156-X
- joke, Jürgen: Process orientated sales management, Wiesbaden 1996, ISBN 3-409-13567-7
- Dirk Kreuter: Sales andWork engineerings in the field service, Cornelsen, ISBN of 3589235209
- Federal association of German sales and selling forces registered association. (BDV)
- Federal association of German selling companies registered association. (BDV)
- Federal association direct sale Germany registered association.
- Cent ral combination of German trade associations for commercial switching and selling (CDH)
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|Wiktionary: Sales - word origin, synonyms and translations|
- large collection of freely accessible check lists to the range sales/selling
- http://www.kiel.ihk24.de/KIIHK24/KIIHK24/produktmarken/aus_und_weiterbildung/anhaengsel/Verkaeufer.pdf Course contents in the occupation of salesman retail trade (IHK pdf document)]