Psychology of selling
the psychology of selling is concerned with the psychological operational sequence of perception, conviction and motivation, the work and purposeful waking of emotions, with customized language's application and communication in the sales talk. Their application is a core element of the selling technique and can, depending upon degrees of individual restaurant ethics, also the subject of purposeful manipulation techniques be.
The emphasis of this article lies in the sales field service and in the high-quality sale.
the psychology of selling concern themselves with the following questions: - Which special and statements valid in the sales can be made regarding the human behavior and experiencing? - Which regularities and connections leave themselves in experiencing and holding back humans during personal, institutionalized or more mechanistically (more Web be based) purchase procedures to find? - As humans react in relation to advertisement and arguments, with price negotiations and in cases of complaint? - Which purposeful incentives and concepts lead to the overcoming of reservations opposite offerers and to a sales conclusion? - As salesmen can individual customer preferences and aversions promptly recognize and into their strategy for customer production integrate? - Which possibilities does the psychology offer for the manipulation of the prospective customer?
Since the establishment of a experimentalpsychological laboratory at the university Leipzig by William Wundt in the year 1879 the psychology loosened itself from its origin homeland, philosophy, and its own discipline with many subranges became. The psychology of selling corresponds in this connection with the following psychological disciplines:
- General psychology
- development psychology
- learning psychology
- perception psychology
- social psychology
- personality and Differenzielle psychology
- neuro psychology
- advertising psychology
beside it integrates the psychology of selling in particular the following ranges:
- Management economics, esp. marketing
- time management
- IQ and EQ
- restaurant economics
in the analytic perspective represents the sales procedure both the exchange of individual salesman and buyer characteristics and the social interdependence of the market parties. Over the character of the dyadischen interaction between buyers and salesmen Franklin B. writes. Evans: „The sales is a social situation, in which two persons participate. The interaction between the two persons depends for its part on the economic, physical and personal characteristics of each particular on them. In order to understand however the process, it is necessary to regard both parties of sale as a dyad and not everyone individually. In particular the hypothesis reads: The sales is taken a product of the specific dyadischen interaction of a given salesman and a potenziellen customer and not the result of the individual characteristics of everyone of them for itself. “
The main result of empirical investigations of Evans reads: Ever similar salesman and customer each other are, the more largely are the probability that a purchase comes to conditions. Thereby the similarity in the dimensions age , body size , income , religion , education , political attitudes or also smoke habits was measured. On closer inspection of these dimensions it can be stated that nonverbale characteristics - in particular body size and - smell - for humans signal effect for the potenziellen status and the acceptance of the opposite have. This knowledge finds for example over striving for status symbols and attentive hygiene for salesmen its precipitation or in the selection of socially fitting typologies in the Recruiting.
the exchange of goods and services in the exchange or against currencies is as old as mankind. A systematic study of the psychological procedures running off here is in connection with the emergence of the individual psychology for the end 19. To determine century.
A first beginning for the systematic arrangement of a conviction discussion became 1898 of E. Pc. Elmo Lewis calm. It developed the AIDA in such a way specified - formula as early beginning of conviction-oriented communication in the sales. The AIDA formula was extended by other authors. The relatively new method collection of the NLP offers by far more differentiated tools to the salesman, in order to obtain a customer for example pictures, while another is supplied with kinesthetic experiences (e.g. with samples). Not blind actionism from the manual and after manual, but systematically individualized achievement decides in transparent buyer's markets on sympathy and reliability of the offer. Depending on like empathisch the salesman, he proceeds to the customer with consideration of the modern behavior research and perception psychology in succession and organization of the discussion guidance will thus adapt and diction, customer coinage or customer preferences consciously to use will try.
motivation and perception of the customer
apart from purely philosophical considerations, into which in connection with the terms information, power and moral also find questions of the ethics entrance, the practical Verkaufspychologie is based on some few realizations of the need teachings and motivational research. The Maslow need pyramid is obtained because of their simplicity very frequently as basis for the allocation of a customer into a certain need situation. This range is coined/shaped by the understanding by motivation and the human needs following from it. Others call the following five basic motivations of the customer: social acknowledgment, security and security, confidence, (compromiseless) self-respect as well as independence and responsibility.
The salesman tries to make on the basis verbal or nonverbalen expressions of the customer and its (living or work) environment an allocation into the prevailing need situation (see Bedürnispyramie). For this almost all observations are relevant in connection with the customer. If the salesman met such an allocation, he can adapt its arguments to the character of the customer. Interesting here it is that there is an appropriate possibility for the adjustment for each special contents also to the need situation of the customer. One for training purposes already completely expenditure-fills example table of the most important argumentation forms in connection with different products and the most important need situations is here.
Also the realizations of a subjective perception of humans form the foundation of the Verkaufspychologie. As Immanuel Kant already proved, also the opinion is source of realization apart from the understanding. And victory mouth Freud compiled sufficiently that not the fact, but the feeling humans to steer. One places oneself besides the fact that perception always of outside circumstances, which depend situativen context, tendency, intelligence as well as personal coinage and Sozialisation (see: selective perception), then becomes fast clear, which role has to carry the psychology of selling out with the adjustment of a reality in such a way specified to subjective experiencing of the recipient.
An optimized perception that promise to sell has for example the goal to arrange the sales documents optically in such a way the fact that important information falls directly in the eye and achievement restrictions on the back of the contract in small writing or in the picture monitor hardly readably and only briefly is to be taken up. In this connection also the effects of pictures and Typografie on the two large brain halves are well-known. Different signal processing on neural level (highly simplified; the right brain half for feelings, pictures, holistic thinking and the left brain half for numbers, data, language and analytic thinking) prepared the way for the psychology of selling to the realization that presentations holistic, i.e. with text and picture portion to show are. From the brain research in the meantime also the meaning of the smell perception is in the zwischenmenschilchen dialogue admits and been received into sales practice.
Due to the unconscious and not controllable effect of the individual elements on the customer, places itself here frequently to the question of the ethics in connection with the conscious employment of these knowledge in connection with an evolutionary principle of the competition around the better strategy as well as the basic need of humans to the dominance of limited resources or the conquest of genetic characteristics of other groups (economical similarly for this: Patents, methods and technical procedures). These possibilities were used since more jeher, in order to deceive other kinships (market participants/customer groups) and arrive at desired goods. Raumbeduftung, body smell, temperature in addition, color of light in the sales room, the purposeful employment of positive attraction words in the discussion or the offer of haptischer elements situativen context find therefore likewise entrance into the psychology of selling like the attention curve of the learning psychology or the group behavior of humans from the social psychology.
critical motivation of the salesman
the knowledge around the psyche of humans serves the assistance in the sales not, as originally meant, ill humans, but as instrument for the overreaching of the customer and the creation of one-sided balance of power opposite the potenziellen customer. The popular psychology of selling also asymmetrical information to tried therefore manufacture, uses frequently inductive argumentations and favours a forming of trusts.
Most salesmen are psychologically not primary at the product and/or. the customer use secondarily orients, but at the reward for the use, the own remuneration and the status symbols which can be obtained thereby and/or. own needs as well as at the power development. The joy in handling humans is used to convince and suggest in connection with the marketing of needs others. From this the hard in such a way specified develops selling, with which very strong supports are taken to popular war strategies and viennaistic selection scenarios. Successful salesmen, so the landläufige opinion of this rather value order ajar against an impulse theory of victory mouth Freud, switch competitors off and make much money (in the sense of an object removal).
This observation is supported by the fact that salesmen with money, high-quality journeys, status symbols and similar goods secondarily to be motivated to usually be able. Co-operation efforts or the desire to equal negotiating position they therefore accept only to that extent as these well-being of the own group (company, family) to serve. Very successful salesmen lose however in the course of their career by the permanent manipulation of their environment privately rather at stop and reliability and lose more frequently load-carrying connections.
In some enterprises however a selling culture is publicised, which leads satisfying, fair and profitable conclusion to one for all involved ones. Such beginnings of the method of negotiating are based therefore not on persuading tactics, but on the goal of convincing and for the partner lasting growth of providing. Following the dolphin strategy in such a way specified, which Harvard concept or well-known vienna vienna - principle here resources of the customer and partly even the competition are actively also included. Enterprises, which motivate their selling in this way psychologically, place primarily further training, social activities in the team, spare time or part-time job with secured income and high formative liberties in the work routine (inclusive. the request to make and learn from this errors) in prospect. Economically this style can be also favourable, since the subjective well-being of the salesman leads to the fact that it is more content with fewer moneys than with high commission prospects under pressure.
Multinationally successful companies show however the fact that psychologically and economically sophisticated strategies lead to hegemony efforts, which are a little human aligned and even by right-national control mechanisms hardly effectively can be limited. Quasi monopolists and oily arks for example within the range food these COUNT, in EDP - market, the drug cultivation, the Pharma - or power supply firm, thus particularly in economic sectors, suitably is to be created dependence, has over lobbyists thereby often influence on the legislative force.
instincts do not address
from view of the offerers are it from interest to facilitate for the customer the objective evaluation of different alternatives. Which first like a relapse may itself understand into the Steinzeit, appears in the principles of the psychology of selling as Stategie easy to learn of daily changing appeals to different instincts of humans. Others call it a responding of the five basic motivations of the customer: social acknowledgment, security and security, confidence, (compromiseless) self-respect as well as independence and responsibility.
|Appeal to the instinct||verbal example||example of nonverbal/situativ|
|fear and security||it goes around your future!||Stamps on documents print.|
|You find hunters||and collecting tank a figure in each 7. Egg!||Coupons on the packing print.|
|Sex||of men: Their wife will know, how she can thank it you! Women: Then klappt's also with the neighbour…||Sexually very attractive salesmen (inside) or bar attendance.|
|Vanity and acknowledgment||you as a professional know nevertheless…||Werbegeschenke present.|
|Sympathy and social behavior||doing it something against the emergency!||Family scenes show.|
|Play-rubbed||test weeks of… to…||Structure of console in the shop offer.|
here is it the goal of the salesman or offering enterprise of bringing the potenziellen customers from the front in here into a weaker negotiating position so that in the actual argument very friendly and apparently accomodating can be negotiated without the risk to run, the booklet from the hand taken to get.
The most well-known nonverbale strategy is here the choice of the place of the hearing: Who comes to whom? Here becomes extremely clear, who would like to occur something from the other one and the district of the official contact must. The span reaches thereby from the choice of the place and the time up to the mechanism, lighting and regaling of the interlocutors. If such a district behavior cannot be arranged for the own advantage, is frequently tried to bring the official contact into the defensive by visiting it in its private areas, in order a personal atmosphere of the confidenceness to construct and the safety feeling of the Hausherren (the housewife) in their own four walls to use.
A similar strategy has the goal that external allied ones change the basic conditions of the negotiation. This can happen in the apron with own membership in political committees (legislative force), with co-operation and fusion in the market or with influencing control on customer's requests. The negotiation party brought into the defensive in such a manner will for its part likewise allied to search to have, in order to improve their status.
The well-known verbal strategies are frequently in the use of direktiver comwares so mentioned. By this the following language models (sequence after degrees of the influence and narrowing of the options for the official contact) fall:
- Alternative question when fits it you better? End the week or next Tuesday around 10:30 clock?
- You know leading question, how important the agreement of the management is.
- Interpretation for you means that flexibility with the tool employment and less down-time.
- If you considers relating, what will soon offer your competition, is the investment risk nevertheless small.
- Statement this lacquer is the most resistant at the market.
- Argumentation the strength of this lacquer by the following references occupied…
The next-more urgent step is the demonstration, thus the demonstration of the commodity or the work of facts in the sales.
Finally the assumption of a competitor is opposite the potenziellen final customers the direktivste form of sale, since these are taken over here. They do not have to be convinced thereby any longer lengthily (see economic war and hostile takeover).
legal restrictions in Germany
misleading, missing or distorting customer information are forbidden after valid right in the sales. In on-line trade in this connection particularly restrictive regulations apply. Beyond that certain occupational groups are subject generally to a large advertising prohibition in Germany.
The law against the mean competition (UWG) implements fundamental regulations to advertising statements and represents the basis of the restrictions of statement in Germany. It begins in § 1 UWG with the definition of the legal protection purpose. Afterwards are to be protected competitors, consumers and other market participants against mean competition and be carried the interest of the public in genuine competition calculation. That follows in § 2 UWG a catalog of definitions, of which those earns the competition action as „each action with the goal of the promotion of the own or strange paragraph or purchase of goods or services “special emphasis. In § 3 UWG is then a new general clause, which does not turn no more off to the good customs in the competition, but simply each competition mean competition forbids. Which competition actions are unfair, is exemplarily in the then following regulations regulated.
In the civil law book (BGB) „entry door business so mentioned is placed “(§ 312) under special protection (see further below: Dominance strategies). Due to the surprising situation due to the place of the hearing with entry door business as „special marketing form “one resignation period 14 days one grants to the customer. Also this protection regulation occupies the danger of psychologically sophisticated sales talks for the customer and becomes, how also, not by the argumentation for new jobs and the competition of the strongest salesman weakens all other restrictions.
Other regulations in the BGB, like e.g. to the consumer leaning contract (§§ 491-507), to the so-called. Bad achievement (essentially § 323 and 280, 281) or to the so-called. Faithfully and faith (§ 242) protect the customer likewise against superelevated promise to sell or surprising (thus high conclusion strength) of the salesman.
Certain occupational groups are subject beyond that additionally to restrictions of advertising. Sense and purpose of these regulations, which are embodied in the respective condition regulations of the Lands of the Federal Republic that humans are not affected with vital decisions with importunate, more turnover-oriented and psychologically working advertisement. It offends against these condition orders, if e.g. a physician potential patient in the newspaper healing promises or if a tax counsel recruits to be able to overreach the state. These occupational groups are not subject to a general advertising prohibition however in the meantime any longer. Material advertisement, like e.g. rationally informative homepage or the advertisement in the daily paper with the indication of emphasis activities or parking lot references is permissible. Misleading one, unobjective and reisserische advertisement are forbidden. Seized essentially are:
- Physician (physicians, dentists, welfare practical man and pharmacist)
- lawyers (notaries, attorneys and chairmen)
- public ordered experts
- tax counsel
a customer a purchase desire expresses, keeps the commodity paid, and goes. The salesman addressed the customer forestalling and smiled friendly. To active selling belongs more than the attendance of the customer on demand or looking up in catalogs. If the purchase desire of the customer is fulfilled, its attention and curiosity must be directed on further parts of the assortment.
See for this to sale
another range of the practically used psychology of selling is in the Internet. Onlineshopping became the usual paragraph channel. Likewise therefore the interest in the systematic view of the user behavior rises with attendance of an Internet side.
See for this to Internet sales
field service sales
particularly in the sales field service, partially in addition, in the sale with high order, certain phases of the arrangement of a psychologically founded consulting discussion appear regularly.
See for this to sales talk
the after sales further in such a way specified - range in the sales has a completely special meaning for the application of the psychology of selling. The follow-up assistance of the customer further forms the bridge over recommendation marketing to further new customers and to subsequent business with the final customer. Here it is particularly important that changed motivation situations are in time recognized at the customer and into the early phases of next sales sale entrance to find. Straight key customers (key account) expect an intensive follow-up assistance further, e.g. by training courses, support, personal attendance or subsequent offers.
- to communication
- restaurant economics
- asymmetrical information
- Harvard concept
- vienna vienna
- dolphin strategy
- of conflicts
- force-free communication
- conflict escalation
- impulse goods
- Bänsch, Axel: Psychology of selling and selling technique, 6. Aufl., Munich and Vienna 1996
- Becker, walter: Psychology of selling, 2. Aufl., Munich and Vienna 2000
- Bierbaum/Marwitz/May: Happy Selling, ISBN 3873870215
- Correll, Werner: Humans check up, ISBN 3478088070
- Ebeling, Peter: 20 stages to the sales impact, ISBN 3478592097
- Kehl, Wolfgang T.: The technical adviser in the field service, ISBN 392083416
- Lauer, Hermann/Geml, smelling pool of broadcasting corporations: The small sales encyclopedia, Duesseldorf 2000, ISBN 3-87881-156-X
- dares, January L.: Psychology and technology of the sales talk, ISBN 3478226325
- point, Hans's Christian: Sales talk guidance, ISBN 3470447713
Web on the left of
- the ten death sins in the sales like one conversion and customer satisfaction in the retail trade prevents itself
- fulfilling prophecies - self fulfilling prophecies - in the sales
- source of the sections methodical guidance used under
- GNU FDL for the conversion of the topic in the school teaching
- methodology considerations for the employment of different training/learning procedures in sales training as well as for the examination of the participant satisfaction
- selection and evaluation of salesrelevant technical literature