under the term driving out one understands the forced displacement about humans from its traditional homeland. With driving out regularly application is, at least however the menace by force connected. A further distinguisher betweenDriving out and out or drift processes (see.Emigration, drift) is at least partial expropriation of the refugees.
Refugees (see. Escape) leave their homeland, in order to escape a threatening existenziellen danger. In contrast to refugees they do not become directLeave their homeland in a forced manner. If the escape on arrangement of the authorities of the own country happens, one speaks of evacuation. If refugees or evacuated the return to their homeland one refuses, its situation differs no longer from the situation fromRefugee. It is plausible to likewise call it in this case refugees.
The above definition was denied hardly actively in the German-language countries into the 1980er years inside. Since then a debate began, those the term thatDriving out more near to the migration term to move close tries. The fundamental difference between forced, driving out contrary to international law and freiwilliger, international law-conformal migration and/or.Migration stepped thereby into the background.
Carefully to be noted it must that on the one hand with driving out nearly always unfairness happens to the refugee concerned,that on the other hand driving out of the point of view of the driver country and other, countries not concerned from nevertheless morally can be comprehensible. It is to be noted however that the driver country happened injustice does not justify it, if this country commits for his part injustice. By outsideCircumstances, e.g. the actual power situation after a lost war, is it possible that driving out can be formally after the right of the responsible persons countries legal, of it is the moral authorization, which will not be given in all rule to define.
driving out until 1923
- driving out of Jews by Pogrome innumerous countries, as well as of other religious or ethnical minorities like the Urchristen in the Roman realm, Huguenot, Katharern, of the church so-called Ketzern, of Muslims in the areas etc. concerned by crusades; often are these driving out with mass murdersand Pogromen connected.
- Driving out and genocide on indigenen peoples during the settlement America and Australia and afterwards, partly into the recent present. Many Indian peoples durably into reservations deportiert
among the most well-known driving out to rank:
- First ethnical motivated driving outon European soil in Europe since that 9. Century took place in the north Caucasus . Apart from banishing politically unpopular ones to Siberia - however of driving out as collective measure to differentiate the actual is here not least the driving out of the 1860erYears in the north Caucasus to call (Chechens and other peoples).
- Since about 1780 was driven out during the Highland Clearances of about 500,000 natives from Scotland.
- Measures of different hardness, with which minorities after the First World War the evacuation was suggested, for examplethe Germans from Polish the areas become after Versailles. This also „cold driving “procedure out mentioned lasted from 1918/19 to 1939 and concerned approximately 1.5 million Germans from east Upper Silesia, west Prussia, the region floats and further parts of Poland. In addition, Poland outGermany and Russia are partly “driven out” from rage of the lost areas by the there population into the new homeland, into again-created Poland.
- Africa: Already before European colonial rule, those predominantly in 19. Century began, has itself peoplesin Africa mutually fights, whereby it came also to driving out; this continued during and after the colonial age, so for example in Rwanda into the 1990er years
- Greece and Turkey: Driving the mutual minorities out in the consequence of the The First World War and the establishment of the Turkish republic. Which began 1920 as Greek aggression against Turkey, ended as „asymmetrical driving out “: As many Greeks as Turks were driven out approximately four times. The east coast of the Ägäis lost their after over 3000 yearsa Greek character, from Smyrna Izmir became. This driving out was formally legitimized by the disputed contract by Lausanne of 1923.
The driving out between 1923 and 1944/45
in Europe and particularly in the German-spoken countries driving out becomes “forwards under the keyword „everything understood driving the Germans out from east and Central Europe after the Second World War. The entire complex is seen often only belonged in the connection of the dictatorships by Hitler and Josef Stalin, however to the consequences of the First World War and thatPenetration of the national state principle into that Paris suburb contracts (Versailler contract):
- the Deportationen under Soviet rule, among other things in the Baltic, mentioned above , 1940 or the dissolution of the Volga republic 1941;
- driving a part of the Jews out from Germany through alwayslarge forms of the Ausgrenzung since 1933 to 1941; afterwards the Jews in the German sphere of influence were murdered;
- Germany: the German settlement from before totally or partly Polish areas in the Second World War („Warthegau “) and preceding driving out ofapproximately 650,000 Poland in the year 1941 from their westPrussian homeland into the Generalgouvernement in such a way specified. A further, driving out action concerned 110,000 Poland in the area of the southeastPolish city Zamosc (both numbers originate from ofzizieller Polish source from 2004). In both regions becamethen Germans from Eastern Europe settled, among them parents of today's Federal President Horst charcoal burner, who was born 1943 in close proximity to Zamosc. The international military court yard („Nürnberger war crimes tribunal “) has these driving out after 1945 as war crime and/or. Crime against the humanitystrictly punished. Also the new settlements were punished as offence against Hague the Land Warfare Convention (vgl driving out and international law). From international-law view great importance comes to this decision, because judgements of international Courts of Justice obligatory international law („hard law “and/or. „ius cogens “) define andso that it was gotten straight that driving the Germans out offended in the years 1945 to already 1948 at the act time against obligatory international law. - The 1941 refugees Poland could return starting from at the beginning of of 1945 again to their homeland and to their property. Itconcerns with it one of the few completely again-good-made driving out in Europe.
- the resettlement of the south animal oilers , the option agreed upon by Hitler and Mussolini 1939 in such a way specified. The south animal oilers were forced, between the task of their homeland and the taskto select their German language and culture. Who wanted to keep its nationality, South Tyrol had to leave. Under the impression of the intensive propaganda of the two dictators decided well 83 per cent for leaving the homeland. Only a far smaller part hadSouth Tyrol then actually abandoned, nearly all could return again.
- the evacuation of Germans from areas under Soviet rule, in particular from Estonia, agreed upon by Hitler and Stalin 1939, and Lettland, as well as the Balkans; most of them became in PolishAreas (southern west Prussia, Posener country <„Warthegau “>, isolates also in other parts of Poland) settled.
- Finland/Karelien: Beginning of the 1940er years the Finnish Karelier was equivalent twice driven out. For the first time after the defeat of Finland in the Soviet-Finnish winter war, then - after theirReturn 1941 - again 1944 with reconquest Kareliens by the USSR. Driving of the Karelier out was again-good-made also not symbolic, Karelien is today a part of Russia.
- Soviet Union: Forced resettlement of peoples, who were regarded as politically unreliable, through Stalins government particularly in the first half of the 1940er years. To it the Deportation of the Tschteschenen, Ingu, Krim Tataren, Volga Germans, ingermanländer Finns as well as many Esten, Letten, Litauer and Ukrainer belongs. All these peoples were deportiert within Soviet sphere of influence. The Krim Tatarenend of the 1980er succeeded years the rehabilitation, a large part at the Krim returned. The Polish group of peoples in Lithuania, in western white Russia and in the Westurkraine (called in the German literature often inaccurately „east Poland “), became partly eastward(Central Asia) deportiert, partly 1945/46 to the west (Poland) driven out, partly could remain it also in its homeland.
The escape and driving of the Germans out (1944 to 1948)
already starting from summer 1941 demanded the Polish and Czechoslovakian government-in-exile in London border corrections after thatVictory over National Socialist Germany. This should to be included expressly the distance of the German population from these areas as also from the remaining national territory. The motives for this demand were various: Except making and possession props the demanded areas a remuneration should offer for the losses at goods and humans during the crew time, as it demanded above all the Polish government-in-exile in London. On the other hand aimed in particular Stalin at a Verkürzung of its west border, around it - in case of recent attack -to be able to defend more easily against Germany. Apart from this military-strategic argument Stalin could hope to be able to make with driving out and expropriation on millions German Poland and Czechoslovakia dependent durably on the Soviet Union as guaranteeing power of the new status quo.With this calculation tsarist Russia and the USSR had later used driving out than means of the policy already in the north Caucasus.
Demanded driving of the Germans out was justified with their behavior during the crew and with the principle of the ethnical pureNational state. In addition, in particular into Poland, socio-economic goals came. To width of areas of east Central Europe were considered at that time as over-populated. The displacement of the Germans and (in case of Poland) the expansion to the west and the north should serve also to be able to settle „surplus “humans. Out today'sView is this argument already used by the Nazis (keyword: “People without space propaganda”) however disproves. In many parts of the world closely settled areas exhibit a higher prosperity than thinly settled. This applies also in the direct comparison between Germany and Poland. Due todriving out live in Germany today twice as many humans per square kilometer. The prosperity of Germany is clearly higher nevertheless.
On the conference of Jalta in February 1945 Stalin set the separation for that 1939 to 1941 Soviet already occupied Polish east areasto the USSR through. This led often to the acceptance, the Annexion of the German east areas by Poland as a reconciliation for the loss in the east was meant from the outset. But this explanation became only late part thatSoviet justification politics. The Polish east areas were by the majority Byelorussian and Ukrainian settled with exception of the region Lviv, Poland there only (however million-strong) a minority.
Actually the Polish communists did not only demand substantial German areas without their traditional population since 1939,but also the civil-Polish government-in-exile in Londen, although to substantially smaller extent (Schlesiens went) around parts of East Prussia and. The demand of the or Neisse line did not give it however. Afterwards was tried to justify the Annektionen with the fact that centuries beforeSlawen in these areas had settled and it therefore one „regaining “formerly Polish country concerned.
In the Potsdamer agreements 1945 were fixed the new state borders in Ostmitteluropa by the Aliierten if necessary indirectly and provisionally, by the areas beyondof or and Neisse of Polish administration were subordinated. Some weeks before the USSR the administration of these areas in a one-sided act at Poland had already transferred. In addition the remarkable reference is in minutes that the governments of the USAand Great Britain at a coming conference of peace the Soviet requirement on the area around king mountain (northern East Prussia) to support wanted. For the remaining areas beyond of or and Neisse is missing such a reference regarding Poland.
With the resolutions of potsdamthose seemed the civil-anticommunist governments-in-exile given promise for the evacuation of the Germans now to apply in view of the increasing influence of the communists in Poland and Czechoslovakia, no more. The text of the Potsdamer of minutes (see.Potsdamer agreement) contains therefore only fewclear formulations: It offered the possibility to the Polish and Czechoslovakian government and its allied Stalin of regarding which is running driving out as agreed upon and nevertheless the westallied starting from the spring 1946 the chance also used to withdraw itself to the statement,like that it was not meant. The resettlements should happen in a “human” kind; actually international control led to the fact that the obligation evacuation proceeded starting from at the beginning of of 1946 in substantially more arranged form before itself than in the weeks and monthsthe conference. It also still came nevertheless to it to numerous crimes at the German civilian population and very many deaths in the internment camps and prisons.
With the driving out areas it acted over:
- at Poland by the allied ones awarded parts of the formerGerman Reich and Danzigs, like (the southern) East Prussia, west Prussia, Pommern, the new Mark Brandenburg, Schlesien;
- the northern part of East Prussia, of Stalin of the Russian partial republic attached;
- Areas, which were denied to the German Reich since 1919, inthose however still many Germans lived (for example the eastern Upper Silesia);
- between Germany and Lithuania is enough disputed Memelland;
- further German settlement areas in the Baltic states;
- the Sudetenland, thus the northern, southern and western peripheral areas of the böhmischenCountries (see.Czechoslovakia);
- Areas of the Soviet Union at that time, apart from an extensive strewing settlement above all the German „Volga - republic “;
- several regions in South-east Europe, particularly in Hungary, Romania (filter defiency guarantee, Banat), Croatia (Slawonien), Serbia (Wojwodina) and Slovenia (Maribor (Marburg a.d.Drau), Ljubljana (loaf oh), Cilli, Gottschee, S.A. Yugoslavia).
Something over 14 million Germans were between 1944/45 and 1950 of escape and driving out concerned. Several hundredthousand in camps were arrested or had to carry - partly for many years - hard labour out. ThoseNumber „of refugees “, whose fate could not be clarified, amounted to after the two large, on behalf the German federal daily accomplished investigations of 1958 and 1965 approximately 2.1 million (see.Entire elevation). Several million women of all age groups were raped. The entireprivate property of the east and Sudeten Germans was konfisziert remunerationless, also the public and church, German property in these areas was expropriated. To the 14 million refugees and refugees particularly years came over four million German starting from end of the 1950eror ethnic German evacuee.
About 12 million east and Sudeten German were accepted until 1950 in the Federal Republic and the GDR, and (both in the west and in the east) this required of all involved ones in the 1940er, 1950er and 1960erYears a large integration achievement. By the population shifts generally speaking yardstick some countries, for example to Mecklenburg their number of inhabitants, doubled before times konfessionell homogeneous regions with strong own traditions, possessed for example Upper Bavaria and the Lüneburger heath, now large subpopulations with oneother life-style and strange konfessioneller coinage. Occasionally it came to whole city and local reestablishments such as Espelkamp, Waldkraiburg, Traunreut, Geretsried or Kaufbeuren - Neugablonz.
In the areas of Poland left by Germans among other things likewise resettled Poland becamefrom the former east Poland (the region Wilna, the western third today's white Russia, and the western Ukraine (Wolhynien and Galizien) settled. Out these regions refugees approx. 1,2 million Poland were not enough however in terms of figures by farout, in order to populate the German east areas again, because in the areas pleased at Poland 8.3 million Germans were resident, further 1.5 million lived in areas before driving out, which had already belonged from 1919 to 1939 to Poland.
Thatlargest part of the new settlers in the or Neisse areas formed Poland from the traditionally Polish areas („central Poland “). In addition approximately 400,000 Ukrainer and a somewhat smaller number of white Russians came. The cause for it is that also west the today's Polish east border since more jeher oneimportant Byelorussian and Ukrainian minority lived and lives, in particular in the regions Bialystok (white Russian) and Przemysl (Ukrainer). These groups applied for the Polish government after 1945 as potenziell unreliable and/or. as possible arguments for new Soviet demands on Poland. Therefore becamesome of them toward the east drove out (thus from the today Polish area into the areas gehörenen in intermediate wartime to Poland east the river nose), another part however to the west, particularly to Niederschlesien and Eastern Pomerania.This internal-Polish driving out lasted the responsible persons politicians and military from at the end of of April to at the end of of July 1947, called it „action Weichsel “.
To the Polish, Ukrainian and Byelorussian new settlers some ten thousand Polish forced laborers originating from east Poland came into Germany, thoseafter 1944/45 by the west shift their of homeland had become homeless and now in regions strange for it established will had. Of Poland in the east of left areas were before the war moderately closely settled and became from a people mixtureinhabited. After the Polish census of 1936 the Polish population portion in this late areas surrendered to the Soviet Union amounted to 36 per cent. However Poland had tried intensively since 1919/20 to increase the Polish portion in these regions. According to estimations this layPortion in the year 1918 with approximately 25 per cent, in the north (Byelorussian as well as litauische areas into and around Wilna) it was higher than in there the south (Westukraine around Lemberg).
Today live in these somewhat more thinly settled areas after the genocide at the Jewish population and driving most Poland out, which often placed the Oberschicht there, almost exclusively white Russians, Litauer, Ukrainer and Russians. A larger Polish minority lives until today in the environment of Wilna.
In thatto the Soviet Union Oblast Kaliningrad ( until 1945 the northern East Prussia with king mountain ), pleased, was settled likewise resettled Russians , white Russians and Ukrainer. Also some former Soviet forced laborers stranded on the way from Germany to Russia in former northeast Prussia.
In Sudetenland were settled above all Czechs from the interior as well as Sinti and Roma. In addition “designated Czechs as „Repatrianten, who originated from families, came, which in former times to France, which had emigrated the USA or into other countries.
- Werner roar: ” Onemonumental passion history “? Critical view of the research over the refugees
- Alfred Maurice De Zayas: Notes for driving the Germans out from the east, publishing house W. Kohl hammer, ISBN 3-17009-297-9
- Heinz Nawratil: Black book of driving out 1945-48, publishing house Universitas, ISBN 3-8004-1387-6
other driving out between1944 and 1948
approximate at the same time with driving out of Germans from parts of Eastern Europe, particularly from the eastern areas of the realm, found further driving out in east Central Europe and/or. “ethnical cleanings” instead of, approximately between Poland and the Soviet Ukraine, of in the Slowakeiliving Hungary and different one.
- The resettlement and/or. Driving out of approximately 1.2 million Poland in the years 1944 to 1946 from the Polish east provinces of the years 1919/20 to 1939, stressed by the Soviet Union, to Poland and into the former east areas of theGerman Reich,
- Istrien: In the year 1945 ten thousands Italians from Istrien were driven out and expropriated. Over the number very different data of approx. exist to the concerning. 30.000 to 350.000. Possibly the smaller number refers to in Istrien the residentItalians, the larger number on the total number of the Italians, who had to leave Istrien and the dalmatische coast 1945, but only few years before there were settled. In March 2004 Croatia explained itself ready for a remuneration, after before already Sloveniaa remuneration had agreed. The Italian government made this the condition of the European Union association of Slovenia, although with the contract by Osimo in the year 1975 a certain remuneration had been already carried out.
- Slowakei: In the south of the Slowakei lived until 1945approximately 720,000 ethnical Hungary (Magyaren). They were expropriated 1945 like the Sudeten and Karpatendeut by the Benesch decrees. In addition about 120,000 was driven out. Today still 580,000 Hungary lives into the Slowakei.Die Benesch decrees is still disputed in the Hungarian slowakischen relations.
- India: With reaching the independence from Great Britain 1947/48 and the establishment from Pakistan and the Indian union million Hindus and Muslim from by the majority the areas settled by members other religious community were driven out. This brutal “Bevölkerungsuastausch” concerned between 14and 15 million humans. Something over 7 million Muslims were driven out from India to Pakistan, one for instance equal large number Hindus from Pakistan to India.
Driving out for approximately 1948
- in the course of the Israeli war of independence of 1948/49 became approximately 750,000 Palestiniansfrom their homeland drove out and/or. after their escape prevented from the return. The UN awarded the right to return to its homeland and to their property to them, which was however not carried out.
- In the course of the 1950er years had severalHundredthousand of Jews often under substantial pressure their homeland in the Arab states leave. Nearly everything went to Israel, some also to France or into the USA.
- Cyprus: After the Turkish intervention in north Cyprus starting from that 20. July 1974 becameseveral thousands Greek Zyprioten into the south part of the island drove out.
- Yugoslavia: As 'ethnical cleanings 'admits become driving out within former Yugoslavia in the years 1991 to 1995. Already during the First World War there were driving out inArea later Yugoslavia. Were the first purely ethnical driving out on the European continent since the people migration time and/or. since the resettlement of several thousands Saxonia by Karl the large one in 9. Century.
- Further driving out in Africa.
Motives for thoseDriving the Germans out and Poland 1944-48
the driving out of the Germans from the east had several causes:
1. The National Socialist expansion, robbery and extermination politics of Germany during the Second World War have, but the still load-carrying relations between Germans, already loaded, andother groups of peoples in central and Eastern Europe, substantial wrecks, if not from reason on destroys. As “Untermen “outstanding and treated peoples by this politics into a position were floated, in which only the armed, but by at that timeMartial law not covered partisan fight against the German aggressors as means of self-defense remained. With appearing the military defeat of National Socialist Germany the peoples the opportunity threatened with extermination got themselves, for them caused the crimes to throats. The possessionthe refugee thereby one expropriated, one konfisziert or one geplündert, so that also this economic side of driving out, which raid and the enriching intention, among which actual motives for driving out must be ranked. This applies accordingly to a great many other driving out phenomena.
2. For some thateast and Central European (communist) governments was driving out the Germans an opportunity to strengthen their power (in particular in the later ČSSR). In addition, it should serve war avoidance. With driving the Germans out some communist postwar governments created in addition -in tying to older, by no means only communist conceptions of ethnical homogeneity - national to a large extent homogeneous commonwealth. The goal was to get rid of as much as possible of conflicts of the Vorkriegszeit, which were based on the multinational character of these states as many people states.
3. Before thatThe Second World War the respective population parts in these states were instrumentalisiert frequently for the destabilization in each case of the different area and left themselves instrumentalisieren (as for instance the Sudeten German a party Konrad Henleins). In the logic of the time one wanted future endangerments through nationalunreliable minorities as “fifth columns” exclude.
4. In the case of the later Polish areas driving the Germans out is not to be regarded detached by driving that out Poland, which was already decided 1943 and 1944 were tackled. Without the lossby the majority Polish cities such as Wilna or Lemberg the appropriation of cities would have been still more difficult such as Stettin or Breslau, which were neither on old Polish national territory nor within Polish settlement area.
The west shift of Poland at expense of defeated Germany againin the long run consequence of the refusal Stalins is to cancel the 1939 again due to Hitler Stalin pacts effected division of Poland into Soviet and German crew area and the state Poland in the borders of before 1939 purchases to leave.
The 1939 annektierten areas(43 per cent of the former national territory) 1920/21 between Soviet Russia and Poland were heavily partially already contest and remaining now with the Soviet Union, their Polish inhabitants were resettled to a large extent.
Altogether one counts that in 20. Century world-wide approximately 50Millions humans driven out are, some even several times within only one generation.
Driving out and international law
driving out are contrary to international law in each case. They offend among other things against Hague the Land Warfare Convention of 1907, against the prohibition of collective classifications, against that Right of self-determination of the peoples and against the vested title. All historically occupied driving out were connected with blood pouring and Enteigungen. But even a driving out without Enteigung would hurt the vested title of the refugees, because this right includes the right of the use. A refugee can but its real estates any longer do not use.
The proof succeeded to the rain citizen expert in international law Otto Kimminich into the 1950er year the fact that since more jeher valid international law includes the right to the homeland, even if this right did not become for a long time explicitly written down (“positiviert”).Above all the right of self-determination of the peoples presupposes the right to the homeland, because it refers regularly to those areas, in which a certain nation or group of peoples places unquestioned and rightfully the majority of the population. The latter sets however thatQuite on the homeland ahead.
As far as driving out a sufficiently clearly defined group are accomplished to concern and with the intention of destroying this group as such totally or partly they in addition the facts of the genocide in the sense of the UN fulfill- Convention of 1948.
Driving out losses
of driving out losses were divided into three categories:
- Losses on life and limb (see. Entire elevation),
- material losses and economic damage,
- idealistic ones and cultural losses.
These three loss categories concern active-moderately three groups:
- The refugee population,
- the taking upPopulation and
- the again settled population (of their political agency regularly driving out went out).
The losses of the refugees population are obvious. In addition, the taking up population has to often suffer at least at short notice from driving out. Thus the hunger emergency becamethe post-war period in Germany (hunger winter 1946/47) by the forced admission of million refugees also for the native population intensifies substantial.
In addition, for the new population driving out represents often no genuine profit, there these frequentlyinto this area came rather involuntarily, either by economic obligation or by driving out from other areas. In addition the fear often exists in the new population that the refugee population the country repeats itself, so that little inclination to langristiger ensuring of locationsexists.
Accomplishment of driving the German
admission of approximately 12 million refugees out in the four zones of occupation of Germany in the years 1945 to 1949 placed all involved ones before enormous problems. First it concerned, surviving the refugees in view of of theheavy lack of food to secure dwelling and clothes. This succeeded to a large extent, although it in the years to approx.1950 a clearly increased number of deaths due to malnutrition and infections gave. Rough calculations go from an additional number of deaths from 3 to3.5 per cent in the course of five years out, it concerned above all older, infants and health preloaded humans.
Starting from the year 1949 the refugees in the Federal Republic were allowed to organize themselves, in that GDR remained this until 1989 strictly forbidden, 1950took place the union in the federation of the refugees (BdV). Into the 1950er and early 1960er years formed the refugees a comparatively influential group of interests. The economic and social integration of this group, which constituted nearly a quarter of the West German population, succeeded not leastwith the help of the distribution of burdens soon better than expects. Drawback of the successful integration was a clear and to today increasing assimilation and thus an increasing loss at cultural varieties the Federal Republic of Germany.
Starting from center of the 1960er the political influence took yearsthe refugee federations clearly off, it succeeded to them not to prevent the faktsiche acknowledgment of the or Neisse line as GermanPolish border in the year 1970. Into the 1990er years played nearly only the Sudeten German homeland association (SL), supported by Bavaria and the CSU, oneRole as political Kraft in Germany.
The debate over the driving out term since the 1980er years
use and exact meaning of the term driving out are in Germany approximately for the late 1980er years contentiously, there the definableness between (by force) driving out and (more forceless)Migration increasingly in question was placed. The thesis was set up by some politicians and journalists, the term of driving out designates only form of obligation migration and comes in the international research predominantly as German leaning word (in English: “expulsion” and/or. “expellees”)forwards, during outside of Germany otherwise rather of Deportierten or refugees (“refugees”) one speaks. In addition come the confrontation of the cold war, because in those nations, the escape and driving of the Germans out starting from 1944/45 had arranged, select one terms rather playing down, aboutthe Czech word “odsun” (= " evacuation”) and the term “transfer” (= " transfer”). Also within Germany the term of “driving out” and the “refugees” was not always natural. Actually prevailed at the beginning of the escape and refugee term forwards, besides became in the Soviet zone of occupation andin the GDR officially purposefully of “resettlers “and/or. “former resettlers” and “new citizens” spoken. 1950 was this there about 4.3 million humans.
In the German linguistic area the term to a few years ago usually the obligation resettlement of the German population designated outthe formerly German east areas, the Sudetenland and the ethnical mixed development areas of east central and South-east Europe. The term driving out and/or. “Refugee” succeeded only end of the 1940er years and became only in the Federal Republic the official, also legally fixed designation of this procedureand/or. of it the concerning. Up to then obligation-resettled Germans were differentiated conceptually not from the whole of the “refugees” (see Displaced person), occasionally also - in the late LV linguistic usage - when “evacuated” designation.
Its own designation of this group as “refugees” is,so the objection, less by evident facts justified been, but it is rather the logic of legal and political appropriateness owed: On the one hand they possessed - due to their German nationality (with the refugees from the formerly German east areas and from thatSudetenland) and/or. as “people Germans” - another right status than not-German Deportierte and refugees. On the other hand the choice of this term offered several politically and socially desired possibilities: It created a distance between German Deportierten and from the German Deportierten -Jew, Poland, Czech, Russian etc. Thus it made a victim discourse possible, which made a profound argument more difficult with the national socialism in the Federal Republic.
It is to be noted however that some prominent representatives of the German refugees, in particular the chairmen of the homeland association Schlesien, Harsh ore Hupka, and the president of the federation of the refugees, Wenzel Jaksch, (Hupka until 1970, Jaksch up to his death) Social Democrat were and the SPD the rights of the German refugees to approximately to the year 1964 - anyhowverbal - still around some more crucially represented, as CDU and CSU. In particular the SPD held the conviction, not only driving out a crime was for many years, but even the any acknowledgment of the or Neisse line as new GermanPolish border would beas political injustice to evaluate as crimes. In this connection also the late often quoted call Willy Brandts, harsh ore Wehners and Erich Ollenhauers stands for the Germany meeting of the Schlesier in the year 1963: “Renouncement is betrayal, who wanted thatdeny. 100 years SPD is called above all 100 years fight for the right of self-determination of the peoples. One does not know the right to homeland for a lens court verhökern. Never may do behind the back out its homeland refugees or fled land peopleSchindluder to be floated! “This attitude of the SPD changed however starting from approximately 1965. In its governmental declaration of 1969 Willy Brandt gave to recognize for the first time openly the readiness for the acknowledgment of the or Neisse line as GermanPolish border.
Left itself simultaneous by the conceptualDistinction between “normal” Deportierten and German refugee the demand for revision of the or Neisse line more easily maintain; this demand again served not least the integration of the refugees into the West German postwar politics - so anyhow since the 1990er years increasingly represented argumentpolitical linking in Germany. The Federal Constitutional Court represented another legal concept however until (at least) 1987: Afterwards (formerly) the German areas became east of or and Lausitzer Neisse neither by the resolutions of the Potsdamer conference from July/August 1945, still throughWarsaw Treaty from 1970 international law-effectively from Germany separately. Of this state and international-law point of view out, which was placed already off however in the Federal Republic of Germany for instance in the middle of the 1970er years increasingly in question, was into the 1950er and1960er years not around German territorial claims at Poland, but around Polish territorial claims at Germany.
In the GDR against it the obligation-resettled were called resettlers, a group-specific special status in the social right became in particular with the distribution of expropriated surfaces with the land reformof 1946 and in the “law for the further improvement of the situation of the former resettlers in the German Democratic Republic” of 8. September 1950 fixed, remained however in contrast to the refugee right of the Federal Republic put on on a long-term basis only in early fiftiesrelevantly. In addition the GDR already recognized the or Neisse line in the year 1950 in the Görlitzer so mentioned contract as “peace border” between the GDR and Poland. All parties with exception of the KPD, represented in the Bundestag, inserted right rechtsverwahrung against this act and markedit as “zero and futile”.
There are from the view political linking nevertheless arguments to understand the term driving out as politically loaded and not to use it therefore or only reflected. The time-historical research differentiates anyway between sequential eventsthe escape, driving out and obligation resettlement. Today some historians place the named phenomenon under the generic term obligation migration. This linguistic usage leans to the formulation of Federal President at that time Richard v. Weizsäcker on, that in its speech to 40. Anniversary of theEnd of war to 8. May 1985 driving the Germans out as “forced journey” had designated.
Complete dropping of the driving out term is practically not however - in view of its anchorage in public (not only German) consciousness - also from view political linkingpossible. All the more important and more desirably you appear its classification into the general context of obligation resettlements in 20. Century, as it is strengthened made in recent time. If long debates around terms have thereby actually if not the purpose, so anyhow thoseEffect, politically delicate questions like about the number of the murders and rapes with this happening to the edge of the discussion to urge.
Beyond that political linking the attempt appears fruitfully, “driving out” and each form of obligation migration in the frameworkto regard the general migration happening. Because allegedly a clear separation between obligation resettlement, escape and “freiwilliger” migration cannot be made frequently. (Actually nobody can exclude logically compellingly that of that approximately 14 million German refugees and refugees of the years 1945to 1948 some under task of their entire property toward the west would have moved anyway shortly.)
on the other hand show newer investigations for the integration of the refugees allegedly that handling along and the behavior of refugee more parallel than differences to othersMigrantengruppen exhibits. Concrete differences, as for instance from the German refugees to the today's day raised the demands for clearing-up of the fate of several hundredthousand without trace missed, return right, right of domicile, property return and acknowledgment of their fate as a crime against the humanity inSenses of the statutes of the international Court of Justice of Nuremberg, may emislead after this aspect not about the large parallels between German “Zwangsmigranten” and foreign immigrants in Germany. Nevertheless - so this aspect - one becomes the Spezifikum of the obligation migration also furtherhave to consider.
The driving out of the 1990er years in Bosnia, Croatia and in the Kosovo let move this German discussion again into the background. The conviction that driving out and migration are two fundamentally different things, won again the upper hand. Connectedthus was the return to the initially defined driving out term. Thus Federal Chancellor Gerhard Schröder in its greeting word explained to the day of the homeland in Stuttgart of 5. September 1999: “Each act of driving out, so differently the historical background also to be likes, is a crime against the humanity. “
- to center against driving out
- refugee federations
- Displaced person
- migration (sociology)
- ethnical cleaning
- of refugee (legal definition)
Web on the left of
- documentation of the German historical museum
- documentation of the federal center for political education
- the dimension of the migration movements and demographic shifts
- ChristinaWhite, anybody does not want forgotten (“the time” No. 41, 2. October 2003)
(Christina white is Departments of State with the Federal Chancellor and assigned the Federal Government for culture and media)
- program emphasis “escape and driving out - time witnesses report” in the Deutschlandfunk, audio on and
- contemporary history-on-line, topic: ThoseMemory of escape and driving out, January 2004