Vespasian (* 17. November 9 in Falacrina; † 23. June 79 in Aquae Cutiliae) was from the 1. July 69 to 23. June 79 Roman emperor. He was the last emperor of the four-emperor yearly. Ita lasting consolidation of the Imperiums succeeded, whereby it positively stood out also by its character against predecessors such as Caligula or Nero.
Caesar Vespasianus Augustus, original name Titus Flavius Vespasianus, was the first Roman emperor from the flavischen dynasty. With Vespasian a man mounted the throne, which represents an exception feature in this position because of its tolerant and world-open kind. During its ten-year rule it succeeded to it to stabilize the realm both politically and financially. It applied andis considered as one of the most important emperors and in this connection with Augustus and Trajan into a row one places.
Table of contents
Vespasian before the government assumption
youth and first offices
Vespasian became to 17. November 9 n. Chr. born in Falacrina (in the proximity of the today's Rieti) as Titus Flavius Vespasianus. Its fatherFlavius Sabinus belonged to the knight conditions and was a civil servant in Aventicum, where Vespasian spent a part of its youth. Vespasian was thus the first emperor, who did not come of to the senate aristocracy. A brother of its nut/mother Vespasia Polla however already was into thatSenator conditions raised.
Vespasian and its brother Sabinus were the first members of their family, which senatorische posts reached. Vespasians career brought it under Tiberius as Militärtribun after Thrakien. It was in addition Quaestor of the province Creta et Cyrene. Itsucceeded to it to in-flatter itself with Caligula and so it became in the year 40 Praetor.
ascent under Claudius
in the years 43 and 44 befehligte Vespasian during conquest Britanniens legio the II Augusta, which itthe Insignien of a Triumphators and in the consequence of two offices for priest brought in. 51 it became consul, later still pro consul over the province Africa. Since it not, how most its predecessor, into which own bag kept house, it went almostbankruptcy and had to be errettet by its brother from large economic difficulties.
So career-consciously it its public offices exercised, so uncommonly was the choice of its wife, Flavia Domitilla. Domitilla was the former Mätresse of a knight and first not even inPossession of the full Roman citizen right. This choice did not prevent Vespasian however from it, the two sons, who rose from this marriage, Titus and Domitian to intend later for its successors. The nut/mother of its sons however still died before his accession.
Afterearly death Domitillas Vespasian with Antonia Caenis lived together , a releasing of the younger Antonia. Due to the Standesunterschieds he selected the form of the Konkubinats, those for this connection in the Roman right as the second form of the monogamen heterosexual relationshipapart from the marriage was recognized. Caenis had as a former private secretary of the emperor nut/mother large influence at the yard of the Claudius and could support the ascent of their partner in this way outstanding. When Vespasian had become emperor, she stepped in the publicas his wife up and was helpful to its always new sources of income looking for life companion in his financial transactions. It also could accumulate a considerable fortune. It died 73 or 74.
Vespasian under Nero
Nero made Vespasian one of his official companions, who had to accompany it on its singing tours to Greece. Vespasian is during one of these lectures fallen asleep and but with the emperor in disgrace pleases to be. It became howeversoon again taken up to grace, since Nero needed an unsuspected army leader for the east, in order to reduce the danger of a military revolt against its increasingly unpopular rule.
Thus Vespasian took over the command over striking down the Jewish rebellion and moved 67at the point of three putting ions and strong helping troops, altogether approximately 60,000 men, in the province Iudaea in an indication that the Flavier was regarded also further as loyal. The fights dragged on over years, ran however in the long runfor the Romans successfully. Only as Vespasian emperor was already, the rebellion of its son Titus was bloodily struck down;Flavius Josephus reports on it in its historical work Bellum Iudaicum.
the four-emperor year
as Vespasian of Neros Suizid experienced,it set first on the greisen Galba. But it understood to use confusions of the four-emperor year at the end even best. After death Galbas and Othos took over Vitellius power. Now also Vespasian became actively. It metwith the governor of Syria, Gaius Licinius Mucianus, in order to advise over their further procedure. With support of the governor of Egypt, Tiberius Julius Alexander, they planned now the rebellion. Reports on a spontaneous acclamation Vespasians belong rather inthe range of propaganda, as relatively safe it applies however that it at the 1. July 69 by Julius Alexander to the emperor was proclaimed. Anyhow to Vespasian until August the yearly all putting ions in the Orient and at the Danube border admitted themselves 69,with it the bulk of the army to have could.
The flavischen troops under Mucianus should march to Italy, while Vespasian went to Egypt, in order the grain supply of Rome into its hand to get. The completion of the FE storage of Jerusalem putit into the hands of its son Titus. These planning became however void, when the Danube putting ions broke in under Marcus Antonius Primus, obviously on own initiative, in Italy, in order to secure for Vespasian the throne. Primus could finally become generally accepted and marchedto 20. December 69 in Rome, where it had likewise come to fights between trailers Vespasians and trailers of the Vitellius. Vespasians brother Sabinus, which had entrenchd itself on the Kapitol, died thereby. Vitellius had itself afterhidden, one had however found to the dissolution of his troops , which had surrendered in the case of Carsulae north of Rome the flavischen troops, and one had finally killed. The realm was given now to Vespasian, which arrived center 70 in Rome, where Mucianus so long forPeace had ensured. With lex the de imperio Vespasiani in such a way specified (is only fragmentarily received) it all authority of a Princeps was transferred.
Vespasian as emperors
military and defense policy
after the civil war stood for Vespasianbefore a similar problem as before it already Augustus: There were too many putting ions. Like in addition, Augustus it dismissed these gradually, set up three new; at the end 29 putting ions stood under weapons. It proved thereby large intuitive feelingand provided for necessary financial cushioning, without exaggerating this. Veterans were settled in colonies, particularly on the Balkans and in Africa, which proved with the Romanisierung of these regions as helpful.
Also the army was reorganized. ThoseRhine putting ions entmachtete Vespasian, as the large camps on the Rhine were broken off and the troops were distributed on smaller camps along the borders. One paid attention to keep as inhomogenous as possible the troops so that no group of peoples within a unit the upper handwon. This advanced the Romanisierung of the linksrheinischen areas and secured for Vespasian the loyalty of the troops. Differently than Vitellius it attached also importance to mark that day than its first in the office (this imperii), in that it thoseTroops to the ruler had proclaimed. In order to shorten the border on the Rhine, the Dekumatland in such a way specified (agri decumates) the realm were incorporated, the area between Danube and high Rhine. Also several putting ion camps were again repaired, among other things Mainz, Bonn and Neuss. With the establishment of the first Limites it was made also clear that Vespasian gave preference before conquests to defensive politics. After the rebellion of the Batavers Julius Civilis (69/70) the strength became thatArmy of the Rhine reduced and also their composition changes. Some putting ions, which applied by their participation during the civil war as unreliable, were dissolved even completely. The Germanic Auxiliareinheiten was dissolved likewise and subordinated again set up, troops from clientele trunks now Roman officers.
In Britannien Vespasian in the border safety device became active: It introduced the final conquest of the island up to the border of today's Scotland . We are relatively well informed, there about it the historian Tacitus in its work Agricola, its father-in-law of the same namededicated, also with the Roman policy in Britannien deals. The conquest of the island was not locked however no more during lifetimes Vespasians.
Also in the east arrondierte Vespasian the borders. After striking down the Jewish rebellion several clientele realms were annektiert such as comma genesand troops in small Asia stations: Legio XVI the Flavia company referred in Samosata accomodation, while legio XII the Fulminata referred garrison in Melitene. Obviously Vespasian, which knew the east from own experience quite well, expected a conflict with the Parthern, the eastern neighbours of Rome, and provided for the appropriate precautions in case of a confrontation. The border straightening in the east should be Rome anyhow in the future from use and as the smallest merit/service of the Flavier not regard, those in addition alsothe infrastructure by the building of additional roads improved.
Vespasians invention wealth with the Vermehrung of the public revenues was well-known. Thus it had introduced a latrine tax due to the high debts , which Nero had left. As itself its son Tituswith it over it, delayed Vespasian Titus weighted a coin, which originated from this tax. Titus had to admit that her not stank, whereupon Vespasian held out to him:
- Atqui, e lotio est. („And it originates nevertheless from the urine. “: Sueton, Vespasian,23).
Vespasian actually took over a state, which was as good after the Eskapaden of its predecessors as bankruptcy. Vespasian reorganized the public households with large success, whereby he the exemption from taxes of Achaea, which had granted Nero due to its Philhellenentums, immediatelycancelled again. It furnished also three special cashes:fiscus Iudaicus, fiscus Alexandrinus and fiscus Asiaticus. Surely also the booty from the Jewish war helped with the reorganization of finances, in addition, in Italy it opened new tax sources.Its measures occupied thereby that intuitive feeling, which it proved also with the dismissal of the troops. It increased the taxes, let however first of all tax evaders pursue and arrears drive. Also it sold public offices to highest bidders, differently than itsPredecessors however never expropriated he from bare money greed a political opponent.
If he had determined high redevelopment demand at the beginning of his term of office still another, then he left arranged cashes and no debts with his death. Its financial policy became also from Sueton andTacitus praised.
the centralistic of the Claudius
operated political reforms and rule safety device Vespasian, which stated publicly gladly to orient itself at the augusteischen policy in truth. It concerned to it the autocracy, what one already sees to itthat he introduced 73 the office of the censor again, it also first can dressed, and which helped it to control the senators; likewise he dressed several times the consulate. At the same time he flattered to the senate with the fact that he regularlyits meetings visited, without granting to it however more rights or do without it to let remove carefully the opponents of its politics from the committee. Altogether it maintained however good relations with the senate. A side effect of its politics was that the recruiting basisfor the senate one widened and ever more senators from the provinces originated, which set the possible climbing of the old high aristocracy thereby against from the beginning violent resistance. Also Vespasian operated skillful propaganda, by he the condition of the Imperiums in the timeNeros a new beginning under its rule confronted. On coins Vespasian was celebrated approximately as a defender of the liberty of the Roman people (Lit.: to „the flavischen ideology “see. Levick, Vespasian, S. 65ff.).
The process back-up, which had formed by the civil war,because the senate with its tasks could not become finished any longer, Vespasian met by a procedure acceleration. The Romanisierung of the realm made above addressed, like already, under Vespasian some progress.Hispanien received even the latinische citizen right (ius Latii), onePreliminary stage to the Roman citizen right. For the administration of the realm Vespasian put more tasks with the years ever into the hand of its son Titus, which he developed thereby systematically to his successor. This procedure demanded unites resistance out, but after TitusPrätorianerpräfekt and even also censor had become, Vespasian facts had created, against which no genuine resistance was more possible. Thus Vespasian a rule basis secured by family connections created itself, and did not have not to fear by an ambitious Prätorianerpräfekten to be fallen,particularly since Titus, which was militarily talented, but before he became after death Vespasians 79 even emperors also some human weaknesses revealed, loyal behaved. Only Domitian, Vespasians second son, saw itself obviously neglected, behaved however nevertheless faithfully oppositeits father.
Vespasian was conscientiously and industriously, if it concerned the Regierungsgeschäfte, beyond that in addition, with the people likes. It was considered as citizen near and bodenhaftig, particularly since it reacted to criticism not with the Paranoia usual with its predecessors, butthis mostly left accepted, although it came straight resistance from philosophical circles, which particularly the recognizable centralistic tendency of the state displeased. The opposition manifested itself particularly in the person of the Helvidius Priscus, that (certainly in the meantime anachronistische)Ideally that res publica libera high-held. It was first only banished, executed later however (either 71, than several kynische philosophers from Rome were expelled, or 74, as it to a general classification from Rome and probably completelyItaly came). Possibly this execution goes on the account of the Titus, which was not particularly weighed Helvidius. Vespasian promoted also numerous scholars nevertheless. Thus in its reign the first chair for Rhetorik in Rome was furnished. Altogether is from VespasiansTime also only a conspiracy admits, which had the goal of eliminating it. This was uncovered however 79. Also in the private life, which differed clearly from the Neros or Caligulas, it was considered as a zurückhaltener and modest man.
by enormous public investments, particularly on the building sector, set Vespasian in motion the economy of the Roman realm, particularly since by one princeps building projects were expected within the capital. Thus it let the Kapitol rebuild, during thatFights 69 destroyed was, as well as a peace temple build, which Plinius the older one incorporated under the world miracles. Most well-known however the flavische Amphitheater might be, whose building he initiated and which today as Kolosseum admits is. In addition, into thatVespasian an active building activity unfolded provinces, where new roads and bridges were put on.
death and follow-up
Vespasian were in various regard different than its predecessors, and differently was also its end: It died a natural death.It stayed 79 straight in Kampanien, when it got sick and went to the cure into a therapeutic bath close of its hometown. There it suffered to 23. June 79 a bad failure, which let it become almost ohnmächtig. He triedstill to put up (quotation:imperatorem stantem mori oportere ait; „… a Imperator must die in standing “: Sueton, Vespasian, 24), which did not succeed to it however any longer. Successor became without difficulties its son Titus, which was soon already considered as exemplary rulers -similarly as its father, who had again stabilized and had strengthened the realm after confusions of the four-emperor year.
Sueton and Tacitus, the two most important telling sources for Vespasians reign, describe him as a modest man of middleSize and strong feature with all time a strained face expression. With his rule also the illustrations of the rulers changed. While still the 70-jährige Augustus in fixed images could be illustrated as a juvenile hero, the images Vespasians show substantially more realism andless idealization. Vespasian was considered as native and people near, besides as humorous up to the cynicism, which him by Sueton attributed the quotations clarify. When Vespasian noticed first signs of a serious illness, which should finally cost him the life, he made himselfover the Divinisierungswahn of the Romans merrily (Divinisierung = collection of a dead one under the Gods) and said:
- Vae, puto deus fio! („Blows, I believes, I becomes a God! “: Sueton, Vespasian, 23).
thosemost important sources to the life Vespasians are Suetons Biografie over Vespasian, histories of the Tacitus, the books 63-66 from Cassius Dios historical work, which treat the time of the Jewish rebellion up to Vespasians death, the Jewish war of the Flavius Josephus as well asremained inscriptions receive.
- Hermann Bengtson: The Flavier. Vespasian, Titus, Domitian. History of a Roman emperor house. Beck, Munich 1979, ISBN 3-406-04018-7.
Informative overall display.
- Karl Christian: History of the Roman Kaiser era, 4. aktual. Aufl.Beck, Munich 2002, S. 243ff.ISBN 3-406-36316-4.
German-language standard work to the Kaiser era.
- Miriam Griffin: The Flavians, in: The Cambridge Ancient History 11. The High Empire, A. D. 70-192, hrsg. of Alan K. Bowman, Peter Garnsey and Dominic Rathbone,Cambridge University press, Cambridge 2000, S. 1ff., ISBN 0-521-26335-2.
Overview representation on the newest conditions of the research.
- Barbara Levick: Vespasian (novel imperially Biographies). Routledge, London and New York 1999, ISBN 0-415-16618-7.
Relative knappe, but clear Biografie from thatRoutledge Biographies lines up. For the entrance outstanding suitably.
Web on the left of
|Wikiquote: Vespasian - quotations|
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| | * Literature of and over Vespasian in the catalog of the DDB
- specializedscientificKurzbiografie (English) from De Imperatoribus Rome anise (inclusive Literature data)
- Sueton, Vespasian (Latin and English)
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|ALTERNATIVE NAME||Titus Flavius Vespasianus; Imperator Caesar Vespasianus Augustus|
|SHORT DESCRIPTION||of Roman emperors|
|DATE OF BIRTH||17. November 9|
|PLACE OF BIRTH||Falacrina|
|DYING DATE||23. June 79|
|DYING PLACE||Aquae Cutiliae|