Table of contents
of beginnings and first successes
Hugo were son 1811 of an ennobled napoleonischen general. As a child it came around with its family in the dragging rope of the father far, also abroad (among other things in Spain). Starting from 1809 it lived howeverwith its nut/mother and its older brother Eugène in Paris, where it visited the Lycée edge of Louis putting.
With 14 it began to write, its goal was to become “Chateaubriand or to nothing ". With 17 (1819) it based together with brother Eugènea literary magazine, Le Conservateur littéraire, and received an honor in a sealing competition. 1820 brought it its desert sur la mort you duc de Berry (a nephew of king Louis XVIII and potenziellen heir to the throne) one, shot by an assassinBonus.
1822 appeared its first poem volumes desert et poésies various, which expelled it as Royalisten and a royal pension of 1000 francs registered to him annually (of the one modest individual nearly to live could). After the death of its nut/motherand the remarrying of its father before-light Hugo 1822 the 19jährige Adèle Foucher, a friend from the child time. A first child died soon after the birth.
1823 came out its first novel, shower history Han d'Islande, it the furtherPension of 2000 francs brought in. 1824 appeared Nouvelles desert. 1825 became Hugo Chevalier de la Légion d'Honneur (knights of the Ehrenlegion) and were loaded guest with the coronation/culmination ceremony of Charles X, the younger brother and successor of Louis XVIII,in the cathedral of Reims.
Soon after it it changed its political attitude and mutated from the Royalisten to the oppositional liberal: 1826 appeared nose Jargal, a novel over the slave rebellion, by which Haiti became practically independent 1791 of the colonial power France.
boss of the romantic school
1827 wrote a first verse drama, Cromwell to Hugo. This proved as hardly playable, the preface however, the famous Préface de Cromwell, became the communist manifesto of the new romantic theatre and at allthe romantic school, whose undisputed boss was Hugo in the meantime and which it met in the legendary circle “cénacle” around itself.
it wrote the novel Le to 1829 more dernier jour d'un condamné à mort, a final speech against the death penalty andindirect regime criticism. 1829 he wrote the melodramatischen historical pieces of Marion Delorme, which were forbidden before the performance as regime critical, and Hernani. Its premiere to 25. February 1830 went as “bataille d' Hernani “(battle around H.) into thoseLiterature history, as loudly argument between the trailers of the klassizistischen rule theatre and the Adepten of the new romantic theatre, delivered in the public, which intended above all the “truth” of the representation.
1831 published Hugo the very successful historical novel Notre Dame deParis and the poem collection Les feuilles d'automne. In the next years he wrote mainly historical pieces: 1833 Le Roi s'amuse (forbidden after some performances), 1834 Lucrèce Borgia and Marie Tudor, 1835 Angelo, 1838 Ruy blow. Butand published he wrote constantly also poems, which he published occasionally collected: 1835 Les Chants you crépuscule, 1837 Les voix intérieures, 1840 Les rayons les ombres et.
1838 acquired a publishing house for enormous 300.000Franc the rights at the past works Hugos. 1841 he was finally selected after several approaches into the Académie française. 1843 were its drama Les Burgraves a complete failure, which always spoiled the joy in the theatre for it. 1845 appointedKing Louis Philippe it to the Pair, i.e. to the lifetime member of the Chambre of the Pairs, the parliamentary upper house (however after the February revolution the 1848 were abolished).
1847 began Hugo a socially engaged novel in manners of Eugène Sues Les of mystères de Paris, which should become finished however only 1862 as Les Misérables. During the February revolution it was first inspired, struck themselves after the June rebellion that Paris worker however on the side conservative “portion de l'ordre” and then on those of thenewly selected president Louis Napoléon Bonaparte. To the conservative delegate selected, confused he however its party friends through socially engaged and politically liberals speeches.
the years of the exile
as it against the coup d'etat revolted itself, with the Bonaparte to2. Dec. 1851 to the president on lifetime made, Hugo were arrested briefly and had in the exile. It left itself down on the channel island jersey and then to Guernsey, of where out it Bonaparte, itself to 2. Dec. 1852 alsoto the emperor, as “Napoléon le Petit” had let proclaim, sow-Irish attacked.
Also otherwise it remained enormously productive: 1862 came out successfully Les Misérables, a monumental melodramatischer novel, that with an exciting action around the risen Galeerensträfling Jean Valjean above allon the misery of the proletarisierten worker masses attentively to make should, of Paris in the meantime and/or. over-populated. Besides poem collections appeared again and again (with high portion politically and socially engaged texts): 1853 Châtiments, 1856 Contemplations, 1859 chansons of the rues et of thebois and La Légende of the siècles. 1866 published Hugo Les travailleurs de la more mer, a novel, which describes the hard life coastal Fischer, 1869 L'Homme qui guessed/advised (novel), 1874 Quatre vingt treize, a historical novel over the political terrorthe fright yearly 1793.
the last years
1871, after the fall of emperor Napoléon III, Hugo returned from the exile, but failed first its attempts to seize in the policy of the recent third Republic of foot. Only 1876he was selected in the Sénat functioning as upper house. After an impact accumulation 1878 its work strength left, but could it still some years its fame enjoy.
Although it today - with exception of Les Misérables - no longer too much readbecomes (above all his often very pathetische lyric poetry is to a large extent ungeniessbar become), Hugo for the Frenchmen represents about, which Goethe for the Germans is.
about a quarter of Victor Hugos work after 1849 is politically motivates and engages. Its attitude seems at first sight contradictory: It defends enriching and expresses themselves at the same time against social inequalities . It is liberal, but against realms, which cumulate their profits, instead of it again tooinvest. It abhors war and force, but calls to the weapons, if it applies to defend the democracy. Several of its works were set of the books forbidden by the Vatikan on the index.
- the black flag (nose Jargal), 1826
- the last day of a condemned one (Le more dernier jour d'un condamné), 1829
- Han of the Isländer (Han d'Islande), 1831
- the Glöckner of Notre Dame (Notre Dame de Paris), 1831
- of living and dying of thepoor man Gueux (Claude Gueux), 1834
- the miserable ones (Les Misérables), 1862
- the workers of the sea (Les travailleurs de la more mer), 1866
- the laughing man (L'homme qui guessed/advised), 1869
- 1793 (Quatre vingt treize), 1874
- Cromwell (with Vorrede by program) 1827
- Marion Delorme 1829
- Hernani (collecting main for the opera Ernani of Giuseppe Verdi) 1830
- Le roi s'amuse (toned as Rigoletto of Giuseppe Verdi) 1832
- Lucretia Borgia (translates of George Büchner) 1833
- Maria Tudor (translates of George Büchner) 1835
- Ruy blow 1838
- Les burgraves (the castle counts) 1843
- Napoleon le Petit (to the coup d'etat Napoleon III.), 1851
- La défense you suffer-orally
- La condition féminine
- L'enseignement religieux
- Plaidoyer contre la peine de mort
listed are some filmings worth seeing of novels Hugos. In parentheses the country of origin.
- 1923 - The Glöckner by Notre Dame - direction: Wallace Worsley (the USA)
- 1928 - The one who laughs - direction: Paul Leni (the USA) with Conrad Veidt
- 1934 - Les Misérables - direction: Raymond Berne pool of broadcasting corporations (France)
- 1935 - Les Misérables - direction: Smelling pool of broadcasting corporations Boleslawski (the USA) with Fredric March and Charles Laughton
- 1939 - The Glöckner by Notre Dame - direction: William Dieterle the USA) with Charles Laughton and Maureen O'Hara
- 1943 - Les Misérables - direction: Ferando A. Rivero (Mexico)
- 1948 - I Miserabili - direction: Riccardo Freda (Italy)
- 1950 - Les Misérables - direction: Lewis Milestone (the USA) with Debra Paget and Sylvia Sidney
- 1953 - Sea Devils - direction: Raoul Walsh (the USA) with skirt Hudson
- 1955 - Notre Dame de Paris - direction: Jean Delannoy (France/Italy) with Anthony Quinn and Gina Lollobrigida
- 1958 - Les Misérables - direction: Jean Paul Le Chanois (France/Italy GDR) with Jean Gabin
- 1966 - Marie Tudor - direction: Abel Gance (France)
- 1982 - the Glöckner by Notre Dame - direction: Michael Tuchner (England) with Anthony Hopkins and Lesley Anne down
- 1982 and 1985 - Les Misérables - direction: Robert Hossein (France) with Lino Ventura
- 1995 - Les Misérables - direction: Claude Lelouch (France) with Jean Paul Belmondo
- 1996 - the Glöckner by Notre Dame - Disney - Zeichentrickfilm (the USA)
- 1997 - the Glöckner - direction: Peter Medak (the USA) with Mandy Patinkin, Salma Hayek and smelling pool of broadcasting corporations Harris
- 1998 - Les Misérables - direction: Bille August (the USA, England, Germany) with Liam Neeson, Uma Thurman and Geoffrey Rush)
- 2000 - Les Misérables - prisoner of the fate - direction: Josée Dayan (France, Italy, Spain, Germany, the USA) with Gérard Depardieu, John Malkovich and Veronica Ferres
- 2002 - Ruy blow - direction: Jacques weber (France) with Carole Bouquet and Gérard Depardieu)
some works Hugos were very often filmed, then there are for example well 50 different filmings of Les Misérables. Details in addition are on the sides of the individual works.
- Gerda Achinger: Victor Hugo in the literature of the Puskinzeit (1823-1840). The admission of its works and its representation in the contemporary literature criticism. Cologne among other things: Böhlau. 1991. (= components for the history of the literature with the Slaven; 37) ISBN 3-412-03590-4
- Michael Backes: The figures of the romantic vision. Victor Hugo as paradigm. Tübingen: Fool. 1994. (= Romanica Monacensia; 45) ISBN 3-8233-4785-3
- Karlheinrich Biermann: Victor Hugo. Reinbek with Hamburg: Rowohlt. 1998. (= rororo; 50565; Rowohlts Monographien) ISBN 3-499-50565-7
- Norbert glass: In the indication of the Saturn.Victor Hugo - lives and shape. Stuttgart: Mellinger. 1975. (= Ways, goals, spirit shapes; 6)
- Peter Heidenreich: Text strategies of the French social novel in 19. Century by the example of Eugene Sues Les of mystères de Paris and Victor Hugos Les of misérables.Munich: Tuduv. 1987.(= Tuduv studies; Row speaking and. Literaturwiss. ; 22, since 2004 Imprint harsh ore of the Utz publishing house) ISBN 3-88073-219-1
- Thomas Hilberer: Victor Hugo. Les contemplations. Structure and sense. Bonn: Romanisti publishing house. 1987. (= papers to the language and literature; 3) ISBN 3-924888-16-7
- Rosemarie Hübner Bopp: George Büchner as a translator Victor Hugos. With consideration of the contemporaneous translations of “Lucrèce Borgia” and “Marie Tudor” as well as the admission Victor Hugos in the German literature criticism from 1827 to 1835.Frankfurt/Main and others: Long. 1990. (= European one University writings; Row 1, German language and literature; 1177) ISBN 3-631-42651-8
- Eugène Ionesco: The grotesque and tragic life of the Victor Hugo. Munich: Popa. 1985. ISBN 3-9800542-7-6
- Fritz Peter Kirsch: Problems of the novel structure with Victor Hugo.Vienna: Publishing house of the Österr. Akad. D.Wiss. 1973.ISBN 3-7001-0028-0
- Ralf Nestmeyer: “French poet and their houses”. Frankfurt/Main 2005. ISBN 3-458-34793-3
- Jörg W. Rademacher: Victor Hugo. Munich: dtv. 2002. (= dtv; 31055; Portrait) ISBN 3-423-31055-3
- Harald Wentzlaff Eggebert: Between cosmic revealing and word opera. The romanticDrama Victor Hugos. Attain: University University of attaining Nuremberg and others 1984. (= Erlanger research; Lines up A, Geisteswissenschaften; 32) ISBN 3-922135-33-1
- refuge Jürgen weighing and: Victor Hugo and the Rhine. Le Rhin (1842/45), “Les Burgraves” (1843).Bonn: Bouvier. 1982. (= papers to the art, music andLiterature science; 330) ISBN 3-416-01705-6
- Adolf game: Victor Hugo and Germany. Designs - books - documents. 6. February - 31. March 1990. Good mountain museum Mainz. Mainz: Schmidt. 1990. ISBN 3-87439-208-2
Web on the left of
|Wikiquote: Victor Hugo - quotations|
- overview to textsof Victor Hugo in the Internet
- resumption left to Victor Hugo in the Internet
- Victor Hugo museum in Vianden
| | * Literature of and over Victor Hugo in the catalog of the DDB
- articles in “names, titles and data of the French literature”(Source for the section “life”)
- Biblioweb: Biografie, Bibliografie, analysis (on French)
|SHORT DESCRIPTION||of one of the most important French writers of the romance|
|DATE OF BIRTH||26. February 1802|
|PLACE OF BIRTH||Besançon|
|DYING DATE||22. May 1885|