Viktoriasee

Viktoriasee
Viktoriasee
data
sea-kind: To artificial lake
converted nature lake
situation: East Africa
states: Tanzania, Uganda and Kenya
total volume: 2,760 km ³
artificial lake volumes: 204.800.000.000 m ³
total area 68,870 km ²
maximum depth: 81 m /85 m
height over NN: 1,134 m
main supply: Kagera Nile
Discharge: Viktoria Nile
large cities on the bank: Entebbe, Mwanza,
Jinja, Kisumu
characteristics: largest lake in Africa,
basin lake

of the Viktoriasee (also Victoriasee, Victoria Nyanza, in former times Ukerewesee) lies in east Africa in the States of Tanzania, Uganda and Kenya.

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geography

the lake is in the East Africa nichesHochebene on the border of the states specified before, about which its largest portion to Tanzania and the second largest are allotted to Uganda. It is the leftover of a lake, which was years still much larger before many millions, as it its current extentsto suspect leave.

While the Viktoriasee in the west is fed by the Kagera Nile, its discharge is in the north - this is the Viktoria Nile (therefore the lake is regarded as its source, not however as the source of Nile). The largest island is at 560 km ² Ukerewe before the south bank. Width distances of its bank are gesäumt by expanded papyrus sumps.

from the natural lake to artificial lake

at 68.870 km ² surface is the Viktoriasee the largest lake in Africa and after that Kaspi sea and the upper lake also the third biggest lake (and the second largest fresh water lake) of the earth. Thus it is about as large as Ireland.

Its former actual size became however by the building of the Owen case dam, that1954 with Jinja at the Viktoria Nile finished were artificially increased, so that the natural lake was flooded by the water of the artificial lake - “Victoria reservoir” mentioned -, resulted from it. Since then somewhat its former north bank Owen lying exposed up to then are also northern- and Ripon of case floods. The lake, whose water surface lies with full back-up 1,134 m over NN, is according to different data maximally 81 m or 85 m deeply.

After in the year 2002 Uganda a second hydro-electric power plant in this area in enterprisehad taken, reached in the year 2006 the water level of the lake record low conditions, which were measured to the last mark before 80 years [1].

history

Inseln vor Muansa
islands before Muansa

of the Viktoriasee is a very young lake, it is earth-historyonly about 500,000 years old. Before 14,700 years it drained the last mark completely. Despite or because of this small age he has to exhibit an amazing diversity of species.

The Viktoriasee became 1858 of the British discoverer John Speke for the western worlddiscovered and after the queen at that time designated by Great Britain Victoria. 1875 bereiste Sir Henry Morton Stanley the lake with a ship, whereby he orbited it once completely.

fauna and Flora

beside the river horse give it in the Viktoriaseeapprox. 550 different, well-known fish kinds in twelve families and in 28 kinds. In contrast to this only somewhat more than 200 fresh water fish types live in completely Europe.

A large part of the diversity of species concerned Buntbar (Cichliden), based on thatexhibited relatively short time since the last drainage an extraordinarily high diversity of species. This was therefore also a popular research object of evolution biology. For the 1970er one estimated the number of the Buntbarscharten on approximately 500. Many kinds were at that time however stilldescribed or only provisional names had not received. Each year were added at that time new kinds, until then the Nilbarsch extinguished into the 1990ern of always fast kinds, before they could be described scientifically. To 1995 more than 400 Buntbarscharten became inViktoriasee described.

ecological disaster

of the Nilbarsch was inserted into the 1960ern consciously into the Viktoriasee, in order to have a commercially well usable food fish in the lake. Its rapid Vermehrung led at first to an upswing of the fish industry, turneditself however soon into a disaster over, when one noticed that the Nilbarsch is responsible for becoming extinct a majority of the Buntbarscharten. The Nilbarsch is today available as Viktoriabarsch in the fish trade.
See also: Neozoen

a further problem is thoselikewise not naturally in the Viktoriasee occurring water hyacinth, which over-rampantly grows today far surfaces. 1995 were covered 90% of the ugandischen coast with this plant.

By the close settlement on its banks the lake has today with substantial environmental problems like e.g. Contaminationto fight and oxygen deficiency. These crisis features induced global the Nature find to explain the Lake Victoria as „the threatened lake of the yearly 2005 “.

literature

  • Tijs Goldschmidt: Darwins dream lake. Message from my Forschungsreise to Africa. Munich, C.H.Beck1997

film

  • Darwins nightmare “, documentary film; Book and direction: Stroke ore sow by, shows the devastating consequences of the settlement and commercial breed of the Nilbarschs in the Victoriasee; Koproduktion of „Mille et une productions “(Paris), „Coop99 “(Vienna) and „Sagafilm “(Brussels), 2004.FSK: Released starting from 12 years; 107 min.

Web on the left of

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to the fauna

sees also


coordinates: 01° 04 ' S, 32° 52 ' O

 

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