Vincent van Gogh

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Vincent Willem van Gogh [vɑnˈxɔx] (* 30. March 1853 in Groot Zundert with Breda, the Netherlands; † 29. July 1890 in Auvers sur Oise, France) was a Netherlands painter and one of the most important founders of the modern trend.

Table of contents

personal record

Vincent van Gogh (Selbstbildnis 1886-1887)

youth and turn to the art

Vincent van Gogh was the first son of the minister of the Netherlands-reformed church Theodorus van Gogh (1822 - 1885) and the book binder daughter Anna Cornelia, geb. Carbentus, (1819 - 1907). Vincent had five brothers and sisters: Anna Cornelia, Theodorus (Theo), Elizabeth Huberta, WilhelminaHuberta and Cornelius Vincent van Gogh. It visited of 1861-64 the village school in ignition ore and changes then into the boarding school of January Provily in Zevenbergen, where it learns French, English and German and makes its first indication attempts. 1866-68 is itPupil of the boarding school of Tilburg. 1869 begin Vincent training in that Hague branch that Paris art action Goupil & Cie, with which its uncle cent of one is the partner.

He lives in Hague to the subtenancy and maintains one movesContact with the relatives of its nut/mother living in the city. Since the director/conductor of the branch with the achievements of its apprentice is very content, Vincent is shifted in the summer 1873 with a good certification into the larger Londoner branch. After oneAttendance with its, in the meantime after Helvoirt in Brabant parents moved, drives Vincent to Paris. Deeply impressed of the painting collections of the Louvre and other exhibitions he continues to travel to London, where he itself in the quarter Brixton a room in onePension rents. Its Zimmerwirtin is the Ursula Loyer there with its daughter the Eugenie originating from Southern France lives and an early form kindergarten operates. In its spare time it visits the art museums of the city and is occupied with the picturesof Gainsborough, Reynolds, Constable and Turner. Different designs develop after Londoner motives. In the summer 1874 he spends a short vacation with his parents, to who for the first time a nature change in its son is noticeable. The cheerful and optimistic life attitudeto a rather serious and grüblerischen kind of nature changed itself. Vincent tells its parents of its unfortunate falling in loveness to the daughter its landlady. Back after Londen it drives with his sister Anna, who would like itself to look for in London an employment.They change the dwelling within of London which however no mind clarification with Vincent cause. It begins to be occupied intensively with the Bible and can in October 1874 into those Paris branch be shifted. Since the transfer does not cause change,if Vincent travels at the end of the yearly again to London, returns however in May 1875 finally to that Paris principal firms. Here it is noticeable to customers and colleagues by one of religious structures affected radical view of art negatively. At the beginning of of 1876 changesin its company of the owners. The artistic philosophies between Vincent and the new owners prove as incompatible, which leads to Vincents of own notice in April 1876.

Again it returns to England. In the Privatschule of the Reverend Stokesin RAM gate, later in Isleworth, he receives an unpaid employment than auxiliary teachers for the fan French, German and arithmetic approximately freely food and Logis. He finds a badly paid place with the Methodist minister Jones as teacher and Hilfsprediger.Its first lecture held with large enthusiasm in November 1876, marks Vincents compromiseless turn to the gospel. At the same time its interest in the painting strengthens. After the Weihnachtsurlaub with its, after Etten shifted parents, persuade them it, no more afterTo return England.

A three-month stay in Dordrecht follows, where Vincent hires itself as an assistant in a bookshop. In the spring 1877 it drives to a discussion with its parents to Amsterdam around itself on the entrance examination of the theological facultyto prepare. He lives with its uncle Johannes and receives instruction in latin, Greek and theology. Since it the studies fall very heavily and it the opinion is that many theological Formalien for the spreading of the Christian faith in humansare redundant, terminate he the attempt to study theology. Instead it travels in July 1878 to Brussels and visits a three-month seminar for Laienprediger, however in the final examination as unsuitable is classified.

Starting from December 1878 it lives in the Borinage, a southBelgian hard coal district, in which humans live in extreme poverty and poorest living conditions. It establishes itself first in Pâturages with Mons, later lives it Wasmes and Cuesmes. It helps patients and reads out to mountain workers from the Bible.Since he means to have not the right to better living conditions as humans cared for of him it gives away all dispensable one to still needier ones and lives by July 1880 under extremely ärmlichen conditions. Develop many designs of thatMiners and their conditions of work. Although its brother Theo, in the meantime successful art dealer in Paris, disapproves his way of life, it sends money starting from the summer 1880 regularly to living costs. It is maintained it up to Vincents end of life. In the autumn 1880 decidesVincent van Gogh finally to become artists.

the Dutch period

in October begins Vincent a bi-annual study in the subjects anatomical and perspective drawing at the academy of arts Brussels.

It turns in April 1881 to its parents inthe parsonage building after Etten back. In summer holidays the family gets attendance of Kee Vos, Vincents cousin. Over several weeks the planned attendance ends itself prematurely with the departure from Kee and its son to Amsterdam, there Vincent into itfallen in love and it to unreturned approximation attempts for his part comes. Over the reproaches of its family to extract Vincent visits itself his uncle, the painter Anton Mauve, into the Hague and asks it for support of his artistic goals. This leads Vincent inthe technology of the water color painting and gives it the materials necessary for it.

Back in Etten a set of water colors and further designs develop as well as the first oil painting. It drives in December 1881 to Amsterdam in the futile attempt, Kee Vosto meet again.

In January 1882 it pulls after the Hague and studies intensively with its uncle Mauve. The training ends abruptly in March, since Mauve insists in old tradition on the fact that Vincent improves its abilities on the basis Gipsmodellen,this however the opinion is that only drawing in nature and according to living models helps it. Its uncle Cornelis orders twenty feather/spring designs with city opinions of the Hague and sells her successfully in its art action. Vincent learns Clasina MariaHoornick know, which it only calls “its” and with which it longer time lives together. In the summer it returns to the studio from Mauve. It concerns itself with the technology of the oil painting and the problems of the color theory. Its pallet is as in the whole Dutch period with dark, erdigen colors intersperses.

In order to dedicate itself completely to the painting, it separates from its and pulls themselves into the northDutch province Drenthe into the moorland village Hoogeveen. The lonely landscape oppresses andfascinates it, just like the German painter max dear man, who worked often here.

Overwhelmed by the isolation Vincent turns in December to its parents after Nuenen back where it by November 1885 remains and where nearly two hundredsPaintings develop. It refers a studio beside the parsonage building, where it implements the order of the Goldschmiedes Charles Hermans from Eindhoven, which would like to adorn its dining-room with six pictures. Starting from October 1884 it has also some amateur painters from Eindhoven asPupil. An affair with Margot Begemann is terminated after an attempted suicide of the young woman. The mourning pulls to 26. March 1885 with the death of the father into the parsonage building and loads Vincents mind on the heaviest. In April develops alsothe painting the Kartoffelesser the Hauptwerk of its Dutch period. In the shop window of the color dealer Leurs into the Hague works are issued for the first time by Vincent.

In November 1885 it pulls to Antwerp, where it itself in January to the Ecole of theBeaux kind in the entrance examinations participates. Since in the meantime those became attentive Paris world of art on the pictures Vincents, he decides, to take in Paris studios of remote and the Cormon instruction and leaves, still before the publication that, for him negative, examination results inMarch 1886 Antwerp. It does not return no more to Belgium and Holland.

Paris

only after its arrival in Paris informs Vincent its brother Theo of its intention of establishing itself in France and becomes from it into its,dwelling anyway already restrained taken up. Theo is director/conductor of a gallery of the company Boussod & Valadon, the successors of the company Goupil.

It immediately takes up its studies in the studio of remote and Cormon. Here he learns its painter colleagues Toulouse Lautrec and Berne pool of broadcasting corporations know.By Theos contact finds Vincent entrance to the Impressionismus and the most important representatives Renoir, Pissarro, Degas, victory NAK, Sisley, Monet and Seurat. Under its influence its earthindustrial union-dark pallet becomes brighter and sunnier. Develop into thatthe following two years over two hundred paintings with motives from the city life of Paris, the Seine and the rural surrounding field. A high point are numerous self haven advice, which arrange generations from psychiatrists to variation-rich interpretations. A central meeting place of the Impressionisten is besidethe business of the artist need dealer Julien” Père “Tanguy „the Café you Tambourine “at the boulevard de Clichy, with whose owner, Agostina Segatori, Vincent has an affair and from which it paints haven-guessed/advised. It places pictures in the Café with some colleagues durablyout. One the artist is Paul Gauguin, who lived before in Pont Aven in Brittany. Gauguin, which is equipped as Vincent with just as difficult character, rejects the Impressionismus as artistic erring, however Vincents painting praises as„honest and true art “and prophesies that „the world will talk about its pictures “. The differing artistic opinions lead to heated, discussions between the artists, lasting into the late night hours. Also Vincent experiments with new mark techniques. Thus develop somePaintings in the style of the Pointillismus, of Gauguin as „Wissenschaftskleckserei “scoffed, are recognized however of Vincent as way wrong for it. The attempts with „Japonaiserien are more promising “, paintings after Japanese color woodcuts. It is particularly fascinated of thatPictures Katsushika Hokusais. From Tanguy it receives 1887 two orders for haven guessing in the spring, so that one could call that Paris stay lucky and fruitfully, if not some problems in living together the brothers van Gogh would cloud the picture.

Outthe close dwelling move they in June 1886 into the Rue Lepic 54, where Vincent its own studio is available. He accuses Theo to strive not sufficiently for the sales of its pictures. A surely unfair reproach,because despite all attempts is the current art taste Paris public against Vincents art like also the pictures of the Impessionisten being predominantly rejected. This is to be left one of the reasons, which cause it, Paris in February 1888 toward Provence.Also the influence of Gauguin, that of a later removal into the alleged Paradies of the South Seas dreams and over the vitality of the sun philosophy ore, contributes to it. A further reason lies in the fascination those the Japanese art on Vincentexercises. The bright, colored woodcuts inspired him to look for a “Japanese” landscape and in its conceptions of the south believe he them to find.

Arles

its first intermediate objective is the old Roman city Arles, it however notwith the glow of the south separate with snow and cold weather receives. Similarly to a winter Japanese woodcut of the Fujijama painting of the snow-covered Arlenser landscape develops. Against its original intention to Marseille further to iron, is directed Vincent in the spring 1888 toward onelonger stay in Arles. With the increasing warmth its enthusiasm for the light of the south and it becomes larger increases into an unparalleled work intoxication inside, which is made possible by a constant financial support of its brother Theo. It is Vincents most fruitful creative period with the emergence of its today most famous pictures. Thus it today still paints the series of flowering fruit trees in April, us with its light and chroma berauschen. To the memory of its a short while before in Holland the deceased teacher AntonMauve, he marks its well-known picture flowering Pfirsichbaum with the additive „souvenir de Mauve “.

Although Vincent sends numerous pictures to its brother to Paris, the camp possibility is soon exhausted in its room and it rents the right wing in Maydue to its exterior paint “yellow house” the building mentioned with four rooms. To it however at money for the furniture and the areas are missing by September only as stockroom for its pictures are in such a way used. On the limited funds is to lead back also the intensified indication activity starting from the summer.

Travels into the environment Arles lead it also into the place of pilgrimage Saintes Maries del la Mer where the sketches to its Fischerbooten at the beach of Saintes Maries develop, which it as collecting main for in the studio the paintedPainting uses. The bridge of Langlois reminds it reliably of its Dutch homeland. In the meantime it has inhabitants available also to some the city a closer contact and it to place itself it gladly than model. Thus e.g. develop. the masterpieces The Zuave, L'Arlésienne: Madame Ginoux and the land messenger Joseph Roulin. In August Vincent paints the picture series of the sunflowers, which will enter at the end of the twentieth century history of the art auctions.

At the end of July dies its uncle Vincentin Holland and Theo leaves a considerable sum of its fortune under express ignoring Vincents, acquired in the art trade. Theo transfers nevertheless a larger sum of this inheritance, which puts Vincent starting from September finally into the position, to it the furniture of the yellowTo lock house. Thus its dream steps to create with its friendly colleagues from of Paris an artist colony, a “studio you Midi”, again into the foreground. The resonance of its Paris friends is however negative and falls Vincent again into a depressive crisis.Only Paul Gauguin, who lives again without means in Pont Aven, assures after longer hesitating, if Theo takes over the travel expenses after Arles.

Vincents of pictures visibly changed in September. , In partly threateningly working colors the Nachtbilder terrace develop of theCafés at the Place you forum in Arles in the evening, the Nachtcafé to the Place Lamartine in Arles and star night over the Rhone. Also its, Selbstbildnis dedicated for the forthcoming arrival of Gauguin painted and it participatesits cool colors a little life-gladly.

In the yellow house Vincent falls itself hectically into the change for Gauguins arrival. It paints the room intended for him again and hung its sunflower pictures on around a harmonious atmosphere to create. However is it shownalready briefly after Gauguins arrival to 23. October that the mutual views are not compatible both in artistic questions as well as in the range of human communication. The days in that accurately two months lasting living together of both often are with violentDiscussions, filled out with controversy and Verbitterung. To the final break it comes to 23. December. After a violent abendlichen controversy Gauguin with the threat, Arles leaves the house on the next day too abandoned, briefly after it followed from Vincent. Very many laterGauguin will state, he was threatened by him with a razor, however he mentions this alleged circumstance with no word on the following day. Vincent returns home and adds themselves, in one, possibly by desperate Agression against itselfaccumulation even arranged, an injury at the ear too. It cannot itself around the complete separation that, of several Arterien supplied with blood, cap to act, because it would hardly have survived this injury due to the high Blutverlustes which can be expected. With whatVincent after its self injury of a prostitute in a handkerchief presented, possibly concerns it a part of the Ohrläppchens. Alarmed by this woman, the police Vincent finds bleeding and unconscious in bed and arranges its admission into the localHospital. Theo van Gogh is informed by Gauguin before its departure and drives immediately to Arles at Vincents patient bed. It experiences from the treating physician that apart from mutilating also several thrusts were treated by accumulations not defined more nearand that Vincent on the way of the recovery is.

Since there are apparently neither for the kind of the self injury nor those the illness of Vincent contemporary, secured certifications, since long time in different theories and theses one speculates. Vincentspeaks in some letters of epileptischen accumulations, in addition, high consumption of Absinth could have contributed to the disease picture.

Vincent still several times up to its departure from Arles in May 1889 treated with success in the hospital whereby itselfits condition increasingly improves. Trip of this departure is a Petition of citizens to the mayor with the request to intern Vincent due to the events from December as well as its “uncanny” behavior in the hospital. Although its friends hold to it, leavesVincent deeply insulted the city and goes on the recommendation of its physician, into those, not far from Arles lain, mental hospital Saint Paul de Mousole in Saint Rémy de Provence.

Saint Rémy

the small place Saint Rémy is distant some kilometers from Arleson the half way to Avignon. In, from the twelfth century coming monastery, is accommodated a hospital, in which patients are treated, who apply with the knowledge conditions at that time as spirit ill.

As Vincent there to 8. May 1889 asPatient of two rooms refers, diagnoses doctor Théophile Peyron in a first diagnosis a form of epilepsy. According to the opinion outweighing today it must have concerned however a Psychosomati illness. It furnishes itself in a room a studioand it paints some pictures of the garden lying before the window in the inner court of the building. This activity improves its condition clearly. At first in company of its male nurse Georges Poulet Vincent may leave the hospital, over in the beautiful environment of SaintTo paint Rémy in the open air. Pictures of fields in strong yellow colors, Olivenbäumen, sword lilies and Zypressen develop. Interrupted of smaller accumulations and occasional suspending of its memory he works untiringly without more intensive contacts to humans outside of thatHospital.

In June it paints the star night valid as Hauptwerk of this period. So dynamically and unusually the mark technology of this picture that occasionally the opinion is to be heard, is in the picture is already a Vorahnung in July of the taking placeTo read off relapse. During a phase of mental Umnachtung it tries to swallow colors from its Farbtuben and solvents. This collapse with terrible hallucinations and a following deep depression prevents for the next six weeks any far activity outside of the hospitalization sector. Afterfading away the symptoms Vincent is afraid the isolation during its work in the landscape and leaves the hospital area no longer. Before the depressing impressions of the dark courses and meager rooms with its vergitterten windows he flees himself into the self-chosenIsolation in its patient areas, which it fills with copies of its works and a series of six Selbstbildnissen, painted in former times, which are for Psychoanalytiker a valuable source for the diagnosis of its soul condition.

The following months by May 1890 develop pictures alsoreligious topics as well as copies according to pictures and designs of rem Brandt, Delacroix and Millet. In February 1890 Vincent of the first, longer article experiences over its complete work in a renowned art magazine. The art critic Albert Aurier had in expenditure for Januarythe magazine “Mercure de France” an article with the title “Les Isolés, Vincent van Gogh” written. Vincent keeps the message simultaneous over the sales of its picture the red vineyard to the painter Anna Boch in Brussels. On the sixth 'salonthe Independants' in Paris it is represented with ten paintings, which are discussed with much well-meaning attention. Possibly due to this messages Vincent suffers a new, heavy accumulation, which continues this time for two months by April.

Friends of Theo vanGogh make it on the physician and art collecting tanks Dr. Paul Gachet in Auvers sur Oise in close proximity to Paris attentively. This physician is ready to worry about Vincent which is firmly decided after fading away the heavy accumulation, the hospitalTo leave Saint Paul de Mousole. Over Paris Vincent travels in May 1890 after Auvers sur Oise.

Vincent its new

learns the last months in Paris, since April 1889 with Theo married sister-in-law Johanna (Jo) Gesina van Gogh Bonger and its nephew VincentWillem, born to 31. January 1890, know. They spend harmonious days together, visit artist colleagues and friends and go into some exhibitions. After only three days Vincent is however by the hectic activity Paris lives overtaxed and it travels rushed intoafter Auvers further.

It refers its first room in the hotel Saint Aubin of where it after short time into the house the family Ravoux moves. The small, rural place at the edge of Paris gives it the necessary peace over to oneto find the way back creative championship. Immediately after its arrival it takes its work in a undreamt-of intensity. While in the year in Saint Rémy over one hundred forty paintings developed, were in it still remaining three months in Auvers overeighty pictures and just as many designs. In its work intoxication it seems, as if it would have felt that only a limited time for the completion of its life's work remains for it. Many Impressionen of the village, its houses, the church and haven advice developsome inhabitant. With doctor a friendly relationship develops Gachet, which care for it affectionately , as well as its daughter Marguerite and the son Paul. Informative haven advice of the physician belong to the Hauptwerken its time in Auvers. Beyond this friendly contacthe succeeds in in addition, in Auvers not feeling domestic. It comes to no more intensive meetings with other humans. Nevertheless these weeks are the luckiest time of its last years. In addition probably also the increasing admitting heating degree and one carryrising acknowledgment in art circles. Here in Auvers Vincent thinks even about a constant dwelling and a new edition of the “yellow house of Arles”. Its illness-conditioned accumulations are missing and doctor Gachet are convinced to be able to heal it durably.

To6. July visits it its brother Theo in Paris. He comes to a conceivablly unfavorable time. There are differences between Theo and the owners of the art action, its nephew Vincent Willem is heavily gets sick and Theos dwelling, also caused throughan immense number of unsold paintings Vincents, again once too closely. After a controversy Vincent breaks its attendance off and turns deprimiert after Auvers back. The optimistic joy of life of the past weeks yields again more depressive courses in its letters and pictures. ItsChanges in mood and phases of deep sadness strengthen. Beside pictures with ever more darkly colored rain clouds such as wheat field under a thunderstorm sky or Heuschober on one rain day live-NSF-rawer pictures stand like at the national holiday the developed the city hall of Auvers, to 14. July 1890. But despite some setbacks there are no signs for the coming dramatic events apparently. In its last letter at Theo of 23. He still asks July for the forwarding of colors and canvas.

In the evening 27. July turnsVincent in the evening home back. Its landlord people, the family Ravoux notice the fact that Vincent suffers obviously from strong pain and calls Dr. Gachet and a second physician. It is soon stated that a pistol ball in Vincents chest is and thatit is not possible to remove it. Beside the emergency supply the physicians are limited to the attempt of a Linderung of the pain. A letter Dr. Gachets at Vincents brother is brought by a messenger to Paris and Theo follows immediatelyAuvers to the dying bed. The brothers with the exchange of memories spend the day to the common time in Holland. With the words „I wished, I could die in such a way “separated Vincent van Gogh in the first morning hours 29. July1890.

Burying took place on the cemetery from Auvers in presence of friends and artist colleagues. The coffin was covered with Dalien and the loved sunflowers. The grave speech holds Dr. Gachet, is prevented however by its tears from talking and breaksits Hommage to the friend prematurely off.

Theo van Gogh outlives its brother by six months. After its death in Utrecht its body is umgebettet in the year 1914 and transferred to the side of its brother after Auvers.

Over the suicideVincent van Goghs gives it countless speculations, myths and legends. Strongly in the sea protest writers participated such as Irving Stone, art historian such as Julius Meier Graefe and also Vincents sister-in-law Johanna van Gogh Bonger, those apart from their deserving activity as main deduction administrator and Herausgeberinthe first expenditure of the letters Vincents, some to the legend formation contributed. Vincent was near-brought to a broad public with all plates before all by the film Vincent Van Gogh - a life in passion by Vicente Minelli. Are appropriate for the suicide Vincent van Goghssurely a number of different trips at the basis. By the marriage Theos and the birth of the nephew Vincent wanting Ems was afraid Vincent increasing problems in its economic affairs. Theo had it in the past ten years with countless deliveries of material and money transfers the intensiveOccupation with the painting only makes possible. A misalignment of the priorities to Theos family would have made more difficult or would have prevented a further artistic activity from Vincents view. No realistic prospect stood for allowances of the brother on a reconciliation through to the timethe sales of its pictures opposite. The mental load by the continuous Erfolglosigkeit was a frequent topic in its letters. In some its letters suggested it to its hope achieving after its death nevertheless still another substantial increase in value of its paintings,as with one of its models Jean François Millet had been after its death in the year 1875 the case. The ascent to the painter of the most expensive paintings of all times should begin only in the next century.

success tooLifetimes

time of its life had van Goghs works - up to its last Lebensjahr - only little acceptance. The statement, it is disproved only one picture (the red vineyard, Arles, November 1888) sold: Numerous one Letters with Vincents brother Theo occupy clearly more sales, even if van Gogh time remained dependent its life on allowances, which he received in particular from Theo. Like that it is proven that he sold „highway with Zypressen “. However it could of proceedsonly colors for five new pictures buy. After its death its pictures became only really estimated.

painting

Van Gogh admired the painter Paul Gauguin. Its motives were landscapes, areasand persons, atmospheres. Also many Selbstportraits exist.

At the later works are typical pasty color order (paint with thickly laid on, paste-similar colors) and its spontaneous Pinselduktus (brush guidance), the strong coloredness and color symbolism. Of some as “wrong colors” characterizes, therethey “realistic” exterior image of the painted objects do not represent, are them rather to expression for van Goghs perception of the world, the nature of the things. The colors correspond to emotional tendencies and conflicts, probably also more intensive color feeling, as it often occurs in Manien.Also otherwise light its night cafe of passion and restlessness to tell, the pictures road with Zypressen or star night appear “chaotically” and to full dynamics, structured in circles of full movement. In addition, Van Gogh belongs to the first painters, those the complementary contrastfrom colors purposefully began, which shows up for example in pictures such as boats of Saintes Maries. It imitated the coloredness and form, transformed it however into its kind of the observation of the world. One is able also styles of a bipolar disturbance and its tornTo see personality in such consciously strong color contrasts. Pictures such as view of Arles underline its relationship to the expressionism. One of its last pictures, the Getreidefeld with the Raben works inharmoniously, dissonance and in its strong and nevertheless not merry colorednessparticularly worrying, which could refer to its psychological condition in view of its approaching Suizids.

see also

to literature

  • Stefan Koldehoff: Van Gogh - myth and reality. DuMont, Cologne 2003. ISBN 3-8321-7267-X
  • Stefan Koldehoff: Vincent van Gogh. RowohltPaperback publishing house, Reinbek 2003.ISBN 3-499-50620-3
  • Matthias Arnold: Vincent van Gogh: Biography, Munich (Kindler publishing house) 1993, ISBN 3-463-40205-X.
  • Kay Redfield Jamison: Touched with fire. One-IC-depressive illness and the artistic temper, New York 1993, ISBN 0-684-83183-X
  • D. M. Field: Van Gogh. Publishing house EDITION XXL, 2005. ISBN 3-89736-330-5
  • Irving Stone: Vincent van Gogh. A life in passion. Herbig publishing house, 1990 (new edition). ISBN 3-7766-0798-X
  • Vincent van Gogh. All letters, six-restrain total expenditure, Henschel publishing house, Berlin (GDR) 1965
  • Ingo F. Roll ago, RainerButcher:Vincent van Gogh. All paintings, two-restrain expenditure, Benedikt bags publishing house, Cologne 1989. ISBN of 3-8228-0396-0

films

  • Vincent Van Gogh - a life in passion (original title: Desire For would run), the USA, 1956, direction: Vicente Minelli also Kirk Douglas and Anthony Quinn among other things Turned after the novel of Irving Stone. Anthony Quinn received a OSCAR for the best Nebendarsteller.

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