Violin

violin
ital.: violino, frz.: violon
to classification
choir-dope-hone
caper instrument
Tonumfang:
used instruments:
Viola, Violoncello
musician
Liste of well-known Violinisten
category: Violinist

the violin or violin is a stringed instrument manufactured from different woods. Their four strings become with one Elbow painted (caper instrument). In the tradition of the classical European music the violin plays an important role, many composers to her an important part of the work dedicated. Violins are manufactured by playing the violin farmers.

Table of contents

work on

] name origin the designation violin „small Viola “. The original designation was Viola con tre corde senza tasti (three-lateral Viola without federations). Around 1523 is in the Frenchthe term Vyollon proven. The term violin originates from the German linguistic area. The Italian term Violino emerges for the first time around 1540.

structure and function

the most important construction units

Teile der Violine im Querschnitt
  • the neck with a length of approx.13 cm
  • with the Griffbrett of approx. 27 cm length, which approx. 14 cm over the Korpus (approx. 35 - 36 cm) outside rises up, out of black ebony.
  • The snail at the end of the neck, often by special organization distinguishing feature of a goodGeigenbauers.
  • The Korpus:
    • The cover; , the curved top, nearly always from two halves, glued together provided with the F-Löchern, manufactured from fir wood, in the center. Ideal way is used fine-year old wood, which grew on nutrient-poor soil in high mountain regions slowly.It is struck in the first half of the winter with Neumond, if if possible little juice in the trunk is, and afterwards still several years for further drying process is stored.

The cover functions as swinging diaphragm, the one loudspeaker comparably.

    • The backand/or. the soil; usually from maple manufactured (in addition, Pappel, pasture cherry tree or similar hardwood comes to the use), likewise curved, contrary to the cover however sometimes from only one piece manufactured, which at the grain of the wood very well toorecognize is.
    • The trims; the side parts of the instrument between soil and cover and with these glues, usually from the same wood as the soil.
  • The bar is touched down on the cover (not glued or differently not fastened), over it runsthe strings, whose oscillation it transfers to the Korpus. It consists of fine-year old maple.
  • The bass bar, importantly for good sound balance (particularly for the low frequencies), transmission of the oscillations on the cover and stability the same. It runs directlyunder the bar foot, which transfers the vibrations above all the two lower strings to the cover.
  • The being correct stick (the soul), whose precise placement affects and adjusts the sound of the violin substantially. It is only wedged between cover and soil, easilyshifted to the bar foot, which transfers the oscillations above all the two upper strings.
  • The lacquer protects the wood of the instrument against environmental influences, conserves its oscillation characteristics and can the sound also still clearly with expert application improve. Likewise can stümperhaft laid on lacquer also “kill the sound of an instrument”. (see playing the violin lacquer)
  • a special glue, which bone glue, used for the glueing of the individual construction units. It consists of proteins, which are won from animal bones or - skin. Its special characteristicit consists of the fact that it is water soluble and at a temperature from approximately 50 to 60 degrees Celsius softly and so the instrument will be taken apart problem-free at any time is, without wood or lacquer takes damage.
  • The strings

function modeand play techniques

the violin is with four strings in the Quintenabstand (g - D' - A' - e'') covered, which is fastened at the lower end the Korpus to the Saitenhalter, to the upper end of the neck on eddies in the eddy box. In the centerthe Korpus rest upon the strings on the bar , which serves as bridge between the swinging string and the resonance body. By it the oscillations of the strings will transfer to the Korpus. The violin rests on the left Schlüsselbein of the violonistand easily by the left hand one supports; the fingers of the left hand seize the strings, which right hand leads the elbow, with which the strings are painted.

On the Griffbrett are no federations. Therefore the Violinist must,in order to change the clay/tone of a string, which meet place which can be depressed exactly. With the technology of the double grasp several strings can be painted at the same time and it are possible to play mehrstimmig. By the place of the suggestion (closer at the bar or toGriffbrett) can be affected the tone quality extensively. On the bar an absorber can be put (sordino). Depending upon kind of the absorber the volume of the violin is nearly very strongly decreased easily to, in addition an absorber causes a nasalenSound of the violin. A Flageolett can be played, as the fingers of the left hand are put in certain places only easily on the string, whereby them sound flute-like. The strength of the suggestion determines the volume. By moving back and forth of theFinger and/or. the wrist can a Vibrato of the clay/tone be produced.

During the Bogenführung there are numerous different kinds of line. With the Staccato the tones with the elbow are played hard, fast and briefly. One plays the Détaché, by one thoseTones individually, by up and reduction hardly noticeably separately paints. With the Legato, several tones in an elbow line are interconnected. There is the Pizzicato apart from painting, (ABC pizz.) the strings are brought by pulling to swinging.In addition there is the Tenuto, with which one alludes the individual tones very strong. To paint one calls the strings with the wood of the elbow col legno.

Violin from different points of view

used instruments

smaller ones and handier modifications of the violin are miniature violin (Pochette) and Violino piccolo.

A larger and more deeply sounding design of the Violinarten is the viola, also Viola mentioned. To the same instrument family the Violoncello belongs, however in oneother attitude one plays, i.e. with the neck upward and the player of turned away front sitting on a chair. The retort bass has both structural characteristics of the Gamben, among which it was once also ranked, and the playing the violin family. Itstanding one plays.

history

first forerunners of the violin 8 originates from the Spanish maurischen area in. Century. As further forerunners is the Rebec and the Fiedel to in 16. To call century easily.

The first documentary mentionthe violin took place around 1523, as in Turin to yards of the duke from Savoyen “les trompettes et vyollons de Verceil” (trumpets and violins from cellos) a fee received. The oldest illustration of a violin is a violinspielende finery on thatAltarpiece in the church S. Cristoforo in cellos. The first violins were only equipped with three strings.

To today essentially unchanged form of the violin is common for approximately 1540 and originates from upper Italy. Admitted Italian playing the violin farmer were Andrea Amati, Nicola Amati, Gasparo there Salò, Guarnerius del Gesu, Antonio Stradivari. The alps are northern Jakobus Stainer from Absam, its violins up to the end 18. Century as the best applied. The families block from center forest and the families Fichtl from feet worth mentioning. The instruments manufactured at that time are called today baroque violins and used for the 1950er years increased for the performance age music. Using the original music instruments makes a historical performance practice possible, us the sound ideals 17. and 18. Century more near brings.

Stradivari violin in the Palacio material in Madrid

in the course of the time was subject the violin unites structural changes, which affected the sound. The designs 19. Century havea longer and diagonal set neck and a stronger bass bar than the violins in the old Mensur. Owing to longer strings and that now stretching concave elbow increased the volume and corresponded thus that to ever more largely becoming concert halls and orchestras. In France it was above all Jean Baptiste Vuillaume, whose copy of a Guarneri in the box is to be seen on the top right the crucial impulses gave. Likewise it concerned itself with the search for the secrets of the Stradivari and GuarneriViolins.

Inexpensive Manufakturgeigen already gave it at the beginning 19. Century from the German and French centers of building of playing the violin. The industrielle building of playing the violin had his origin in Japan by Masakichi Suzuki (1859 - 1944), the father of the famous Violinpädagogen Shinichi Suzuki. Its enterprise busy already after short starting time over 1000 coworkers and manufactured within a monthly up to 400 violins and 4000 elbows.

one

knows Pädagogik small violin

in the case the Violinspiel already in the early infancylearn. So that the children can notice the names of the strings (G-D-A-E), have themselves teacher a “donkey bridge” invented:G eh D u A of lter E sel. Paedagogues are the conviction that for a successful career the earliest possible start, approximately inOlder of 3 or 6 years essential is. Therefore numerous child-fair “Violinschulen” exists. A far-broad example for early learning of the playing the violin play is designated the Suzuki method, after its developer Shinichi Suzuki.

small ones play the violin

for the early beginningthe playing the violin play with small hands and short arms there are adapted instruments, so-called 7/8 -, 3/4 -, 1/2 -, 1/4 - or 1/8 - play the violin, even 1/10 -, 1/16 - and 1/32 - instruments is manufactured. Here one may not judge a 3 / 4 however from the break in the designation the material size , actually is smaller - violin about 6% than one „whole “,a 1/2 - violin approx. 12% ...

history of the Violinpädagogik

as important educational work applies for Leopold Mozart attempt of a thorough Violinschule of 1756. Mozart Violinschule is today one of the important sources for the study that historical performance practice. Still earlier training works originate from baroque time, then Daniel Merck made themselves , Michel Corrette or Francesco Geminiani earned around the Violinpädagogik. Giuseppe Tartini overwrote 50 Etuden in its comprehensive „L'arte dell arco “the first training workthe Bogenführung.George Philipp Telemann created pupils for its “methodical Sonaten”, in which the slow sentences are suspended with baroque ornament additionally.

More modern and systhematische training works originated in in early 19. Century in France, after the establishment Paris conservatoires.Some considerable authors of such works are Pierre Rode, Pierre Baillot, Rodolphe Kreutzer, Charles Augusts de Bériot, Carl Flesch and in Germany Ludwig Spohr.

use in the music

the violin is with thatDevelopment of the European music of the modern times closely connected and was presented accordingly richly with literature. In the following only a short outline can be given over its various tasks:

Solistisch

important one of works for solo violin (without company) gavethere in the baroque time zuhauf, worth mentioning is here as composers beavers, Telemann and brook. Here particularly with double grasps the possibility was expenditure-provoked of letting on a violin several voices sound. In the classical period and romance was thisKind (just as solo works for other instruments, apart from piano or organ) less spreads, in 20. Century experienced it with compositions of Bartók, Stravinsky or Hindemith a new spreading.

The first Violinkonzerte developed first from the occasionalStep out the concert master from the baroque caper orchestra (see also: Concerto grosso). Soon first developed as such defined Violinkonzerte, like those from Torelli, Vivaldi or brook. All three large Viennese classical authors wrote Violinkonzerte, likewise the importantromantic master (Spohr, Mendelssohn Bartholdy, Schumann, Brahms or break) and also many later composers such as beautiful mountain, mountain or Stravinsky. Starting from the end 19. Century became also some works for solo violin with orchestra companycomposes, which were formally freer and itself of the pure concert - to take off wanted kind, like „the Symphonie espagnole “ from Lalo or Ravels „gypsies “- rhapsody „Tsigane “.

chamber music

hardly a work caper-he or mixed chamber music comes withoutViolin (n) out: The most important kinds are the Violinsonate, the Triosonate, the Streichtrio, the Klaviertrio, the caper quartet, the piano quartet, the string quintet or the Streichsextett. In many of these occupations the violin has the most important melody voice.Their often konzertanten tasks let it play thereby the proverbial „first violin “.

orchestra

in the orchestra gives it since the baroque time (as in the caper quartet) to two different Violinstimmen, which are however mostly chorisch, thus several times occupied: In onelargely occupied romantic symphony play generally 16 first and 14 second play the violin, occasionally also more. Both groups are usually led thereby of or several being correct leader (n ) at the front desk. In the first group of playing the violin the concert master sits completely in front,that Soli to play sometimes has and a special responsibility for the whole orchestra carries.

traditional music

in many regional forms of traditional making music is used the violin. It is among other things a typical instrument of traditional music outIreland, Scotland, Norway, Sweden, Poland, Hungary, the alpine countries, the Slovakei and the Auvergne, in addition, from Egypt and Sansibar.

jazz, Crossover

also in the newer maintenance music plays the violin an important role: In the Tango - orchestras just likein „gypsies “- chapels or into some jazz - formations (Stéphane Grappelli, Joe Venuti, Didier Lockwood). Many modern violonists make whether from musical or financial interest, trips into Crossover projects (Nigel Kennedy, Anne Sophie nut/mother). Over itoutside one can find the violin also in volume, which stylistic in the directions Middle Ages skirt or Folk Metal/Folk skirt move. Here Fiddler's Green, Subway ton of Sally would be to state violating muzzle and Skyclad. The use of the violin leads itself here outthe background of the use in the traditional music off. In the remaining U-music the violin is used rather rarely as solo instrument. One however produced strike ago passages gladly electronically used here around a romantic tendency to produce.

bend volume

Rarely a violin in one bend volume played. By use of an electronic violin one knows the violin well in bends volume to integrate. There it can play even as solo instrument over the Bläserstimmen away. By use of a Verzerrers the sound of the violin can be very well varied. The tone quality goes from “classical sound” up to the complete distortion as with a E-guitar.

article used

list of well-known Violinisten, Violinkonzert, baroque violin, elbow (caper instrument), Playing the violin farmer, list of playing the violin farmer, kind of line, caper instrument, music instrument making, playing the violin note,

literature

  • Paul O. Apian Bennewitz: The violin. The building of playing the violin and the elbow producing, Simon & choice, Egweil 1998, ISBN 3-92-3330-34-0 (Repr. D. Expenditure. Weimar1892)
  • Otto Möckel: Playing the violin architecture, Nikol, 2005, ISBN 3937872094, 8. Aufl.
  • Stefan Drees (Hrsg.): Encyclopedia of the violin, Laaber publishing house, Laaber 2004, ISBN 3-89007-544-4
  • walter Kolneder: The book of the violin. Building, history, play, Pädagogik, composition, Atlantis music book publishing house,Zurich 2002 (6. Aufl.);ISBN 3-254-00147-8
  • Eduard Melkus: The violin. An introduction to the history of the violin and the Violinspiels, bulkhead, Mainz 2000 (3. Aufl.), ISBN 3-7957-2359-0
  • Yehudi, William prime rose: Violin and Viola (Yehudi MenuhinsMusic leader), edition Bergh in the Ullstein, Frankfurt/M. 1993, ISBN 3-7163-0175-2
  • Leopold Mozart: Attempt of a thorough Violinschule, bear rider, Kassel 2005, ISBN 3-7618-1238-8 (facsimile)
  • Hugo Pinksterboer: Pocket info. violin and Viola. Practically, clearly and up-to-date, bulkhead, Mainz 2003, ISBN 3-7957-5535-2

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