Viceroy of India

flag of the governor general of India (1885-1947) with the star OF India in the center

the viceroy of India, also called governor general of India, was the head of the British administration in India.

Table of contents

overview

the office was furnished 1773, with the title governor general of the presidency from away William (Governor general OF the Presidency OF away William). The official had direct control only over away William, but led he also different officials of the British east India company in India.

In the year 1858 India came under direct control of the British crown. The title governor general referred to its relationship with the British provinces of India (Punjab, Bengalen, Bombay, WAD-race, the united provinces etc.). A large part British India however directly by the government was not controlled; the area consisted rather of hundred from nominal sovereigns principalities or native states, whose relationship did not exist with the British government, but directly with the British monarch. In order to express the role of the governor general as Vetreter of the British monarch to the Feudalherrschern of the principalities, the title viceroy was lent to it of India. The title was given up, when India became independent 1947. The office of the governor general existed away, until India introduced 1950 a republican condition.

Until 1858 the governor general was selected by the board of directors of the British east India company, opposite which he was responsible. Afterwards it was appointed by the British monarch (Sovereign) after consultation with the British government. The undersecretary of state for India, a cabinet member, was responsible, to train it on practice of his competences. After 1947 the monarch determined further the governor general, but now according to consultation with the Indian instead of with the British government.

The term of office of the governor generals was usually five years, them could however be already in former times recalled. Sometimes at the expiration of the term of office a temporary governor general was appointed, until the new office holder was selected. The temporary governor generals were selected from the numbers of the province governors.

history

original was governed the largest part of India by the British east India company, which acted nominal as a representative of the Mogulkaisers. In the year 1773 the British government was arranged because of the prevailing corruption in the company to take over partial control of the administration of India. In addition the Regulating act was issued. A governor general and a consulting committee were appointed, in order to lead the presidency from away William in Bengalen. The first governor general and the advice committee were designated in the Regulating act. The successors should be selected by board of directors of the east India company. The document determined a five-year term of office, whereby the monarch had power to recall everyone of them before end of the term of office.

The charter act of 1833 replaced the governor general and the advice committee from away to William with the governor general and advice committee of India. Board of directors of the east India company kept the right to vote for the governor general, but the selecting had to be confirmed by the monarch.

After the September Oy rebellion the east India company was dissolved, and India came under direct control of the British monarch. The Government OF India act of 1858 transferred the right of appointment of the governor general into the hands of the monarch. The governor general had the right to nominate for the deputy governors in India, those again the confirmation by the monarch required.

India and Pakistan were appointed 1947 independently, but further governor generals for each of the two nations, until durable conditions were issued. Louis Mountbatten, 1. Earl Mountbatten OF Burma remained still some time after Indian independence the governor general by India, but otherwise the two nations were controlled by native governor generals. India became 1950 a secular Republic of, Pakistan became 1956 an Islamic republic.

competences

the governor general had originally only rule over the presidency (Presidency) from away William in Bengalen. The Regulating act gave it however additional powers concerning the foreign policy and the defense. The other management commitees of the east India company in WAD-race, to Bombay and Bencoolen had neither the right to explain or close with an Indian prince peace war, without the agreement of the governor general and the advice committee from away William to have caught up before.

The powers of the governor general regarding the foreign policy were extended by the India act from the year 1784. The document planned that the other governors of the east India company explain neither war, peace to close or contracts with Indian princes to close was allowed, if they had not gotten for it an express instruction of the governor general or the board of directors of the east India company.

While the governor general got thus control of the foreign policy in India, it was nevertheless not expressly the head of British India. It received this status only with the charter document from 1833, which transferred it the supervision, line and control of the entire civilian and military government from completely British India. The document transferred also legislative powers to the governor general and the advice committee.

After 1858 the governor general took the powers of the highest manager of India and the representative of the British monarch. India was divided into numerous provinces, which were led in each case by a governor, deputy governor or upper supervisor (Chief Commissioner). Governors were appointed by the British government, they were directly responsible to which. Deputy governors and upper supervisors were appointed however by the governor general and were subordinated to it. The governor general supervised also the most powerful fürstlichen rulers: the Nizam of Hyderabad, the Maharadscha of Mysore, the Maharadscha of Jammu and Kashmir and the Gaekwad (Gaekwar) - Maharadscha of Baroda. The remaining fürstlichen rulers were supervised either by the Rajputana authority or the central India authority, who were led in each case by representatives of the governor general, or by province authorities.

After India had attained independence, was the office of the governor general of only ceremonyal nature. Real power turned into on the selected Indian politicians. After India became the republic, the president of India took over ceremonies the functions of the governor general.

advice committee

of the Generalgoverneur was always advised by an advice committee (Council) with the practice of the legislative and implementing powers. While many powers were entitled to it, one always called it „governor general under consultation „(Governor general in Council).

The adjustment document (Regulating act) of 1773 planned the choice of four advice by board of directors of the east India company. The governor general had a voice in the committee like the advice. With voice resembling and in the advice its voice gave however the excursion. The decision of the advice committee was obligatory on the governor general.

In the year 1784 the advice committee was made smaller on three members. The governor general continued to have a normal voice and a crucial voice. 1786 was continued to develop the powers of the governor general. From now on the resolutions of the advice committee for it did not have binding effect more.

The charter document of 1833 made further changes in the structure of the advice committee. This document was the first law, which differentiated between the executives and legislations powers of the governor general. After this document four members of the advice committee should be selected by board of directors of the east India company. The first three members should be always present, while the fourth member was allowed to be only present and co-ordinate, if it concerned planned legislation.

Starting from 1858 that did not possess board of directors of the east India company any longer the power to determine members of the advice committee. Instead the member limited to legislation consultation was determined by the British monarch, the other three members by the undersecretary of state for India.

The India advice document (Indian Councils act) of 1861 changed the composition of the advice in some points. Three members were determined now by the undersecretary of state for India and two by the monarch. This document continued to plan that the governor general was allowed to determine further six to twelve advice. The five persons, who were determined by the state secretary for India and the monarch, led the authorities of the executive. The advice determined by the governor general debated the legislation and co-ordinated on it.

1869 got the crown permission for determining all five advice that managed the executive. The number of the advice determined by the governor general for the legislation increased 1892 to 10 to 16 and starting from 1909 to 60.

1919 took over two legislative chambers for India (Indian Legislature) the legislative functions of the advice committee of the governor general. It consisted of a Council of State and a legislative meeting. The governor general kept nevertheless important influence on the legislation. It could spend funds without agreement of the legislation on church and political purposes as well as on the defense, and on all purposes during a state of emergency. It possessed a right of veto for each brought in law and could even each further debate over it terminate. If he suggested a law, for it however only in one of the two chambers he received, could a majority the law nevertheless as issued explain. A reference was then added that the law under objections of a chamber had been passed. The legislative chambers did not have powers for the foreign policy and the defense. The president of the Council of State was appointed by the governor general. The legislative meeting selected its president. This had to be confirmed however only by the governor general.

address and title

the governor general had requirement on the address as „an Excellency „and had protokollarisch the precedence right before all other government representatives in India. The governor generals of viceroys (Viceroy) were called from 1858 to 1947. One called the wives viceroy's wives. None this title was used, as long as the British monarch in India was. These titles were frequently used, although they were never created officially by the British government.

When the medal of the star was created of India 1861, the governor general became ex officio (of official routines) the large master. The governor general was also since the establishment 1877 of official routines of the large masters of the medal of the Indian empire.

Most governor generals were members of the British upper house (Peers) and belonged to the high aristocracy. Those, which were not it, were however at least noble ones of low rank, like the Baronet Sir John shore, knight Sir John Laird Mair Lawrence or the lord William Bentinck. The latter led the politeness title lord, since he was the son of a duke. Only first and the last governor general - Warren Hastings and Chakravarti Rajagopalchari - like also some temporary governor generals, had at all no special titles.

domicile

the governor general from away William lived to in early 19. Century in the Belvedere House in Calcutta. Afterwards it moved in the newly built Government House . Starting from 1854 the deputy governor von Bengalen took his seat there. Today the national library of India is in Belvedere House.

Smelling pool of broadcasting corporations Wellesley, which said allegedly once that „India from a palace should be governed, not from a property yard „, did not leave the great building of the Government House between 1799 and 1803 to establish. It served as seat of the governor general, until the capital was shifted 1912 from Calcutta after again Delhi. Afterwards the office of the deputy governor von Bengalen was revalued to the genuine governor, and it pulled from the Belvedere House in the Government House. Nowadays the building serves as seat of the governor of the Indian state of West bengal. It carries the Indian name Raj Bhavan.

After the capital was shifted from Calcutta to Delhi, the viceroy inhabited an new-arranged palace, which had been planned by Sir Edwin Lutyens. Although the building was already begun 1912, it only 1929 could be locked. The house was not officially inaugurated 1931 ago. The final costs were more than 877000 Pound, which corresponds to about 35.000.000 Pound after today's yardsticks. Thus it cost more than the double to the originally planned sum. Today this is the seat of the president of India and carries the name Rashtrapati Bhavan.

During the entire time of the British administration the governor generals withdrew themselves in the summer to the country house of the viceroy into Shimla, in order to escape the heat. The government of India followed them there.

governor generals

of governor generals from away William (1773-1833)

Office holder term of office
Warren Hastings (1773-1785)
John Macpherson (1785-1786) (temporarily)
Charles Cornwallis, 1. Marquess Cornwallis (1786-1793)
Sir John shore, 1. Baronet (1793-1798)
Sir aluminum-talk Clarke (1798) (temporarily)
smelling pool of broadcasting corporations Wellesley, 1. Marquess Wellesley (1798-1805)
Charles Cornwallis, 1. Marquess Cornwallis (1805)
Sir George Hilario Barlow (1805-1807) (temporarily)
Gilbert Elliot Murray Kynynmound, 1. Baron Minto (1807-1813)
Francis Rawdon Hastings, 1. Marquess OF Hastings (1813-1823)
John Adam (1823) (temporarily)
William Pitt Amherst, 1. Earl Amherst (1823-1828)
William Butterworth Bayley (1828) (temporarily)
The lord William Bentinck (1828-1833)

governor generals of India (1833-1858)

Office holder term of office
The lord William Bentinck (1833-1835)
Sir Charles Metcalfe, 2. Baronet (1835-1836) (temporarily)
George Eden, 1. Earl OF Auckland (1836-1842)
Edward Law, 2. Baron Ellenborough (1842-1844)
William Wilberforce Bird (1844) (temporarily)
Henry hard Inge, 1. Viscount hard Inge (1844-1848)
James Andrew Broun Ramsay, 1. Marquess OF Dalhousie (1848-1856)
Charles John Canning, 1. Earl Canning (1856-1858)

governor generals and viceroys of India (1858-1947)

Office holder term of office
Charles John Canning, 1. Earl Canning (1858-1862)
James Bruce, 8. Earl OF Elgin (1862-1863)
Sir Robert Napier (1863) (temporarily)
Sir William Denison (1863-1864) (temporarily)
Sir John Laird Mair Lawrence (1864-1869)
smelling pool of broadcasting corporations Southwell Bourke, 6. Earl OF Mayo (1869-1872)
Sir John Strachey (1872) (temporarily)
Francis Napier, 10. Lord Napier (1872) (temporarily)
Thomas George Baring, 2. Baron Northbrook (1872-1876)
Robert Bulwer Lytton, 2. Baron Lytton (1876-1880)
George Robinson, 1. Marquess OF Ripon (1880-1884)
Frederick Temple Hamilton Temple Blackwood, 1. Earl OF Dufferin (1884-1888)
Henry Charles Keith Petty Fitzmaurice, 5. Marquess OF Lansdowne (1888-1894)
Victor Alexander Bruce, 9. Earl OF Elgin (1894-1899)
George Nathaniel Curzon, 1. Baron Curzon (1899-1904)
Odo Russell, 1. Baron Ampthill (1904) (temporarily)
George Nathaniel Curzon, 1. Baron Curzon (1904-1905)
Gilbert Elliot Murray Kynynmound, 4. Earl OF Minto (1905-1910)
Charles hard Inge, 1. Baron Hardinge OF Penshurst (1910-1916)
Frederic John Napier Thesiger, 3. Baron Chelmsford (1916-1921)
Rufus Isaacs, 1. Earl OF Reading (1921-1925)
Victor Bulwer Lytton, 2. Earl OF Lytton (1925-1926) (temporarily)
Edward Frederick Lindley Wood, 1. Earl OF Halifax (1926-1931)
George Joachim Go, 2. Viscount Go (1929) (during lord Irwins absence on vacation)
Freeman Freeman Thomas, 1. Earl OF Willingdon (1931-1936)
Victor Alexander John Hope, 2. Marquess OF Linlithgow (1936-1943)
archie soon Wavell, 1. Viscount Wavell (1943-1947)
Louis Mountbatten, 1. Earl Mountbatten OF Burma (1947)

governor generals of India (1947-1950)

Office holder term of office
Louis Mountbatten, 1. Earl Mountbatten OF Burma (1947-1948)
Chakravarthi Rajagopalachari (1948-1950)

literature

  • Association OF Commonwealth Archivists and record of manager. (1999). “Government Buildings - India.”
  • “British Empire.” (1911). Encyclopædia Britannica, 11th OD. London: Cambridge University press.
  • James, L. (1997). Raj: The Making and Unmaking OF British India. London: Little, Brown & company.
  • Keith, A. B. (OD.). (1922). Speeches and document on Indian Policy, 1750-1921. London: Oxford University press.
  • “Viceroy.” (1911). Encyclopædia Britannica, 11th OD. London: Cambridge University press.
 

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