Vlad III. Drăculea

Vlad III. Draculea (after Ambras in lock) Portrait
Portrait eines unbekannten Künstlers
of an unknown artist Vlad

III. haven-guesses/advises. Draculea (* 7. December 1431 in Sighişoara (German: Schässburg); † 1476), German „small Drache “, or devil, also Ţepeş (German „the Pfähler “) were 1448, 1456 -1462 and 1476 rulers of the Walachei. The legends climbing around its person served as collecting main for Bram Stokers Dracula.

Table of contents

introduction

as a son outthe marriage between Vlad II. Dracul and the princess Cneajna von Transylvanien became Vlad III. Draculea in the year 1431 in a house in Schässburg - today Romania (at that time belonging to Hungary (Principality of filter defiency guarantee), late Austria Hungary) - born. An alleged birth house, which today asMuseum for medieval weapons and “Dracula restaurant” serves, cannot in the sources not be verified. Today Vlad Draculea is as Dracula admits remained - following the name of its father, who belonged far away to the kite medal.

Sagenumwobenen blood Auger stories, those „the head of the Vampire “, count Dracula,with Vlad Draculea in connection bring, belong definitely into the realm of the Hirngespinste and Fantasien. Vlad Draculea was a typical ruler of its time, in which it applied to provide as a war gentleman Respekt. Although many of its acts are to be classified from today's viewpoint as atrocities, is to state but that they were not by any means unusual in the time at that time.

A set of localities with the name of the prince in connection are again and again falsely brought. An example is the castle Bran (dt. Törzburg, ung. Törcsvar; Circle crowning city (Braşov)). Is historicalthe fortress to today not as homeland Draculeas demonstrably. The name Vlad Draculea does not emerge in the eventful owner list. Only in a source it is mentioned that the prince stayed overnight in the castle Bran once.

Also there is report again and again that in the graveVlad Draculeas in Snagov a corpse to find is not - so also after an opening of the grave in the year 1931. Until today it is not however occupied whether it actually concerns the grave of the walachischen ruler. However the recordings of a Romanian monk ingive a reference point to the chronicle of the Zacharias: Afterwards Vlads body is to have been brought to Sveti Georgi (holy George) by a Pilgergemeinschaft from Snagov over Istanbul to Bulgaria into a monastery with the name. So far the existence of this monastery could not even be proven.

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Historical provable

1442 turned out for Draculea with its father Vlad II. Dracul in captivity as a hostage (dungeon Egrigötz) under the osmanischen Sultan Murad II. With 14 it was forced to be the attendant to will. Father Vlad II. Dracul permitted, around its alliance with the Turksaffirm, the brothers Vlad Draculea and Radu back. The Turks gave Draculea, with the message over the murder of the older brother to Mircea II., the liberty back. On order that Hungary in the Bojari advice was alive buried the brother.

1448 fought the young Draculea alreadyover and it created the throne Walachiens, actually even if only for short duration, Vladislav II. to fall. It continued the fight of its father († 1447). Instead of using however the military support, which the Bojaren offered, Vlad Draculea called the population,to fight against the Turks engaging at the time. In the Fürstlichen advice it stressed with priority the fewer well-known relatives of the Bojaren with low or middle ranks for itself. Concerning internal-political goals tried Draculea to eliminate the corruption and by tributes more security of the roads andto ensure the goods. Its political measures were to be assigned to the central authority, which conflicts released with the noble ones under the Bojaren.

With then in the year 1456 the taking place assumption of the Walachei its first powerful official act applied for the Bojaren of Târgovişte, those opposite its fatherno loyalty had proven. Some from them had become extremely violent, when the Woiwode killed some its opponent.1458 smash Draculea a Turkish army of 10.000 men. It let the disloyal bojarischen noble ones and clerics hold in the year 1459; that older sex left it to stakesand their have and property in the people to distribute, the remaining ones were forced, the far way (approx. to march 80 km) after Poienari without stop, in order to again-establish at the river Argeş a fortress there.

Stakes with enemies and criminal ones one used. To the deterrence and containment ofCriminal offences let denounce one Gepfählte in the city, so that everyone could see, what it threatened, he should steal, lied or to kill. Convinced of the effectiveness of its legislation, Vlad on the market place Târgoviştes a golden bowl platzierte. This bowl could be used by everyone, overthe thirst to satisfy, had to remain however on the market place. According to the existing historical sources this bowl was never stolen to Vlads rule times. Crimes and corruption had disappeared to a large extent; Flourished to trade, culture, and many Romanians saw Vlad Draculea at their time as a hero onfor its inexorable persisting in honesty and order.

After it had again strengthened its internal power, the prince refused the payment of the tribute because of default of the support. This tribute should it due to in the year 1456 a specified contract with Ladislaus Postumus and the transylvanischen SaxonianSettlements pay, in which the signing Draculea in the fight against the Turks assured support. Refusing the tribute payment drew consequence-fraught conflicts with itself, so that it, again with support that Hungary, came to the immediate collection of siebenbürgischer cities. Also Draculea refused further tribute payments opposite the osmanischenRuler. The events estimate themselves off here.

Draculea let the Turkish envoys up-mirror-image-eat and began its campaign against the Turks south the Danube (1462). Famous courage attacked the Walache in a nocturnal attack the camp of the Sultans around it to kill. Although thatA goal of the attack was missed, caused it panic. In response an army of 150.000 seized men under guidance of the Sultans Mehmed II., the conquerer of Konstantinopel, the Walachei on. Its other goal was to be converted Walachien into a Turkish province. Vlad was without allied one andwas to be down-burned forced its own villages; it poisoned the wells along the Turkish war way, so that this army would not find anything, what it strengthen could - neither food nor water. Draculea withdrew itself and waited for assistance of the Hungarian king Matthias Corvinus.

As thatSultan finally completely weakens the capital reached, was offered to it a cruel sight: Hundreds of stakes held Turkish prisoners, who took Vlad so far imprisoned. This picture of hundreds compatriots demoralized the troops already weakened still more. Completely exhausted and depressed, they became on go-eat of theSultans withdrawn. (This event must have been so moving, that Victor Hugo in its Légende of the Siècles reminded of it.)

defiance of retreat of the troops was the Sultan lively, now the younger brother Vlads, Radu, to help to thrones the Walachiens. At the point of a Turkish army,by slanderers Vlads supported, pulled Radu of the again established fortress Poienari against. After the legend this was the time, on which first Mrs. Draculeas put the thought at suicide into practice and from the Zinnen of the castle into the abyss fell themselves, overby the river to be devoured. Vlad III. Draculea escaped.

It came a little later by slandering and repeated betrayal under Matthias Corvinus in shank on fortress Visegrád. This was again dissolved by a marriage from the relative circle. A last mark knew itself Draculea the walachischenThrone for short time back-conquer. During the following battle Draculea died in the December of the yearly 1476. Its body was divided and buried into two halves, head and trunk.

Over the commercial regulations set up by it Saxonen were equally unfortunate such as slanderer Vlads and did everythingin its power standing, in order to diffamieren the war gentlemen Vlad Draculea as Tyrannen. Chronicles, which were written in different countries, point out this very day that he was a man of its time. The name Ţepeş [gespr. ] („The Pfähler “) it received Zepesch only after its death.

over stakes

the Dracole Weyda - title woodcut, Nuremberg 1499

in a Turkish diary is the following description of Vlad's execution method:

... those mirror-image-eats from Holtz with Unschlitt or talc… one bindt such evil authors Sailer to the feet, pushes them the Spiessto the rear body inside… First however kneel the Delinquent also into the dust to pressed head down, the tightened thighs crossed; ... and the course sufficiently greased, the stake, but does not angespitzt, but blunted,… the organs aside, and become fifty to sixty centimeters inthe Mastdarm imported, then with the Delinquenten perpendicularly put up. And the body with its weight presses man or woman down there, and slowly the stake penetrates through the body, looks for the deadly way.

Stephanus Gerlach, which is to be arranged Vlads approximately into the time, grants herea frightening view of the methodology of the Pfählens, but do not lengthen first. The Pfählung is already for thousands of years well-known and applied.

according to

  • other sources it is anecdotes its Bojaren to the fixed meal to have invited and them plentifully wine to have offered. InDrunkennessness is it them aimed their opinion over him, as well as information about the machinations and the corruption of the well-known Bojaren to have drawn. Thereupon became those, which itself loaded and those, which were loaded, gepfählt (Vlad Dracula applied and applies still in its countryas fair adversaries of the corruption).
  • Today a Romanian saying still used, which straight on the fact relies that Vlad Dracula is considered as fair adversaries of the corruption and disorder in its country, consists of the sentence „where is you, Ţepeş (second, acquired designation Vlad Draculas- is called ‚Pfähler `), gentleman? “. This Exklamation becomes regarding chaotic conditions, putridness etc. used. Due to the current social bad states in the native country „Vlad Ţepeş “(gespr. Zepesch) and the inactivity of the politicians and functionaries felt by the people is nowadays often used this saying even very. [[Bei]]the quotation concerns it a line out of a polarize-mixed poem of the poet Mihai Eminescu (1850-1889), in which the nationalpolitical lack of interest of the Romanian Oberschicht is attacked. Eminescu requests its imaginary partner Dracula, half of the Oberschicht like once the Bojaren to stakes andto be burned the other half as once the beggars and Herumtreiber in a festival hall.
  • The 1989 fallen Romanian dictator Nicolae Ceauşescu developed the 1970er since years a special preference for Vlad Draculea and gave a monumental film over the “Pfähler” in order, the Vlad Draculea howa direct forerunner or a mental ancestor of the dictator to appear left. Although beginnings to a high wording of the Wojwoden to the national hero itself already in 19. and particularly in early 20. To prove Vlad under Ceauşescu leave, became century a pervasive figure in the literature, in thatHistoriography and not least in the school books. The Romanian historians were stopped to minimize those alleged cruelties either or as proof for the strict to praise but fair rule Draculeas. Finally even the name “Dracul (A) should be reinterpreted”, because it in the modern Romanian “devil” andnot “Drache” means. With a Etymologie most adventurous under linguistic criteria the name was derived now from a slawischen word root “dragee”, which appears about also in the Serbian first name Dragan and is called as much as “favourite”. Dracula was thus the “small favourite” of its faithful subjects -an argumentation completely in the sense of Nicolae Ceauşescu, which in the context of the person cult which celebrated around its person gladly as “the loved son of the Romanian people” let itself be celebrated. With its escape from Bucharest in December 1989 is it first Snagov, where Dracula lies allegedly buried,headed for, as if it expected advice and assistance of the “Pfähler”. The married couple Ceauşescu was seized finally in Târgovişte, where the prince had held once yard. There Elena and Nicolae Ceauşescu ended.

literature

  • Märtin, Ralf Peter: Dracula. The life of the prince Vlad Ţepeş, Fischer Tb. - Publishing house, Frankfurt/Main ² 1993.ISBN 3-596-10330-4
  • S. Lur'e - Povest' o Drakule/issledovanie i podgotovka tekstov (1964))
  • Dieter Harmening - the beginning of Dracula. To the Geschiche of stories (1983)
  • Matei Cazacu - L'Histoire you Prince Dracula ENEurope centrale et orientale (XVe sieècle) (1988)
  • Radu Florescu - Dracula A biography OF Vlad the Impaler 1431-1476 (1973)
  • Radu Florescu - Dracula, prince OF many faces his would run and his times
  • Mathiae Corvini Hungariae Regis (1891)
  • Bukoavn - Alphabetarium of the Walachen in filter defiency guarantees (approx. 1600)
  • Magdeburg - Historia like grewlich the large Mahomet, Türcki Keiser, the name that other the highly famous city Constantinopel, with four times hundred thousand one besieged, conquered, geplündert vnd finally into its force broke has (1595)
  • Wörly - so the Christians with God hilff unnd widerumb bey 500000 Türcken bey Ostrahitz beystandt inn Croatien the 29. Octobris, anno 87. Jar however-hold, unnd overcame (1587)
  • Sebastian Henricpetri - Walachi war or stories warhaffte description (1578)

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