The voters citizens in a tuning decide popular vote with a popular vote (lat. Referendum - tuning by an opinion poll) over a condition - or law esänderung. It decides here the simple or a qualified majority on acceptance or refusal of theBill. Sometimes also the termPlebiszit is synonymously used (lat. plebs = quantity, in addition, Pöbel and patriating and), with which however mostly only popular votes are meant, of “above”, thus by the executive, to be introduced.

Short status up: People legislation(also information about Austria contains)

to table of contents

arguments to the popular vote

pro popular vote

  • satisfaction: Popular votes serve the autonomy of the citizens.
  • Party absolutism solve: The democracy became the spectator democracy. The people is reduced to acclamation with elections.
  • People opinion unequally politician opinion: Many citizens feel insufficiently represented by the parties.
  • Strengthening the democracy: The lobbyism of influential organizations the soil under the feet is pulled away. By far more with difficulty a people is to be affected than individual persons.
  • Good examples: Popular votessuccessfully in many states are practiced (z. B. Switzerland).
  • Right conformity: Popular votes do not contradict the statement of the Basic Law.
  • Force from topics: The people can force topics, which seek to avoid politicians by a people initiative.
  • Wechselhaftigkeit of parliamentary opinions: ThoseOpinion of the people is not changeful as, as changing parliamentary majorities.
  • Education: The political interest and thus the political education grow, since the citizens must argue with certain topics.
  • Political ripe ones: The people can even politically meaningfullyact (z. B. peaceful revolution in the GDR)
  • promotion of syndicates: Syndicates are promoted by Plebiszite, since they have an indirect influence in the political forming of an opinion normally only. They can organize however Plebiszite and operate thus directdemocratic policy.
  • Incompetencethe politician: Although parliamentarians are professional politicians, they do not know always about, about what they decide.
  • Fewer wrong decisions: By means of popular votes on the way to bring lasts reforms longer, but no unausgegorenen high-speed shots develop.
  • Fewer prestige projects: ThoseCitizens are inclined to to be correct against senseless prestige projects, which are much money to cost and the fame of individual politicians mehren, what leads to more effective employment of funds.

versus popular vote

  • Populismus: The people is unable to make meaningful political decisions(emotionalisierter Unverstand, Populismus).
  • Ignorance: The knowledge for decisions is missing to many.
  • Minority: The minor citizen needs a guardian.
  • Missing specialized authority: The people is not competent to make meaningful political decisions.
  • Medium influence: Decisions become by mediaaffected.
  • Continuous arguments: Constant political arguments are caused.
  • Responsibility: To the parliament succeed an escape from the responsibility („you wanted it nevertheless in such a way! “). Laws are made over the plebiszitären detour, in order to deliver the responsibility.
  • Pluralismus does not represent: Popular votescontradict the pluralistischen society (only black-and-white, Yes-No etc.)
  • radicalization by polarization: The almost selection between “” or “no” leads to extreme positions in the people, from which a radicalization results.
  • Dependence: The citizens are on associations with the usedependent by popular votes and straight through democratically did not legitimize patronized.
  • Minorities does not consider: Minority opinions cannot be considered in the popular vote
  • tendency democracy: The exit of the popular votes depends on momentary, manipulatable, changing feeling situations.
  • Missing participation: The participationat populars vote, approximately in Switzerland, is small with more unimportant questions.
  • Missing alternative: International contracts (example European Union condition) under the governments prepared after the sample “for none ideally, but for everyone portable”. To the people be missing this compromise readiness.
  • Delegate: can the voters nevertheless select, these are qualified for passing the interests of the people on to the parliament
  • active minorities win the popular vote, while the opinion majority of the tuning remains far.
  • Efficiency: The process of the popular vote needs naturallyrather for a long time, from the referendum to the tuning and thus very inefficiently [
work on] popular votes

are in Germany

in Germany are the popular vote on federal level, except during a reorganisation of the federal territory, z. Time. not intended. On regional level it givesit however in all Lands of the Federal Republic. In the local range direct citizen decisions are possible in all Lands of the Federal Republic, owing to a popular vote on regional level, also in Berlin. Particularly large directdemocratic elements are in the Land of the Federal Republic Bavaria. There is among other things the logging-offthe parliament by a popular vote possible. (Kind. 18 exp. 3 Bavarian condition) (see also: Citizen-desires)

in article 20 of the German Basic Law means it, the government authority by the people “in elections and tunings” is exercised. Populars vote on landand federal level thereby in principle on the same stage as elections are placed. For the actual execution of popular votes on federal level the Basic Law would have to be amended however again, there as a legislator so far only the Bundestag (together with the Upper House of Parliament) specifiedis. The FDP has an appropriate suggestion on the change of the Basic Law to 25. January 2006 brought into the Bundestag (Bundestag print 16/474). Therein she suggests, the Basic Law by the introduction of the direct citizens' participation in the form of people initiative, referendum and popular voteto change on federal level and/or. to supplement. Also the left wing party and the Greens plead for a long time for the addition of the legislation for federaleven by direkttemokratische elements. In parts of the SPD for it support is to find - the majority that Such steps do not consider large coalition however necessary.

Also after the First World War in some areas popular votes had been accomplished over the whereabouts of the areas with Germany, whose results could not be converted however always.

popular votesin the USA

in the United States popular votes in the legal orders of individual Federal States play, e.g. It suffers California, a large role, however from very small participation of the state people in the tunings why it after possibility on the day of a choiceby more general interest to be put. Thus 2004 163 populars vote took place to the most diverse topics in 34 states in connection with the US president shank choice. Popular votes are different in each case in the countries and it give alone in the USA up to 56to accomplish different kinds of popular votes.

popular votes in Switzerland

Switzerland, as a democracy with representative and plebiszitären characteristics, direct in the special measure, has an expressed culture of popular votes. Such find on federal level in two casesinstead of:

  • With a people initiative: 100 ' 000 citizens can require a change of the condition or a law with their signature, on which mandatorily must be co-ordinated (kind. 138 FF. the Swiss Federal Constitution).
  • With a referendum: A mandatory or a fakultative Popular vote over a law passed by the parliament or a constitutional amendment or over important international-law contracts (kind. 140 FF. the Swiss Federal Constitution). In Switzerland a fakultative popular vote is accomplished, if this by at least 50,000 citizens is required. In oneone says such case also that against a certain bill the referendum was seized. Demand less as 50,000 citizens a tuning, applies a law than accepted, passed by the parliament.

Comparable popular votes take place also in the cantons; these have inthe details however all it own system. It occurs in particular that they know large people rights, e.g. a fakultatives referendum also over expenditure resolutions (so-called financial referendum).

No actual popular vote, but the practice of a traditional political right of the particulars is likewise those Petition: Each person has the right to address a desire or a suggestion to authorities; you may arise from it no disadvantages. The authorities are obligated only to take a desiring to the knowledge it are however neither obligatedthe Petition to treat in addition position to still take (which however practice is). See kind. 33 FF. the Swiss Federal Constitution.

See also: Political system of Switzerland

popular votes in other states

in most European countries popular votes becomewith people initiative and referendum introduced. The Mindestbeteiligungen necessary for execution (quorums so mentioned) are quite differently regulated, i. D. R. restrictively, around the abuse of populars vote z. B. to prevent for campaign politics. Possible in principle, although in most conditions notintended, would be it also that parliaments give specifics question to the state people for tuning (parliamentary quorum).

see also

right to vote, referendum, popular vote



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