People's Republic of China
|of these articles is concerned with the People's Republic of China. For other meanings, see China (term clarifying).|
|office language||high-Chinese ¹|
|head of state||Hu Jintao|
|head of the government||whom Jiabao|
|surface||9.572.419 km ² (4.)|
|Number of inhabitants|| 1.306.313.812 (1.) |
|population density||136.9 Einw. per km ² (54.)|
|GROS DOMESTIC PRODUCT |
- GROS DOMESTIC PRODUCT (PPP)
- GROS DOMESTIC PRODUCT
- GROS DOMESTIC PRODUCT/Einw. (PPP)
- GROS DOMESTIC PRODUCT/Einw. (Nominally)
| 2005 (estimated) |
$8,091 billion (2.)
$2,279 billion (5.)
|Establishment||1. Octobers 1949|
|time belt||UTC+8 = MEZ+7|
|national anthem||march of the Freiwilligen|
|(¹) Cantonese and English and/or Portuguese are together with high-Chinese office languages in the special administrative zones Hong Kong and Macao.|
The People's Republic of China [ˈçiːna] and/or. [ˈkiːna], falsely also [ˈʃiːna]; (中华人民共和国 , traditionally 中華人民共和國 , pinyin simplifies Zhōnghuá Rénmín Gònghéguó ? / License) is the surface-largest state in Eastern Asia.
The designations China and Sino probably come from the Chinese word Qín. In the Chinese one Qín is the name of the dynasty of the establishment emperor of the Chinese realm. Over several stations and languages the term arrived along the silk road until Europe. The Chinese equivalent to our word “China” is Zhōngguó, which is quite well with realm of the center shown in German.
The People's Republic of China has that surface-moderately fourth largest national territory of the earth and enclosure nearly the entire as China well-known cultural-geographical area of Asia, with exception Taiwans and some small islands before the coast Fujians. The political status Taiwans is still disputed; the island populated with 23 million inhabitants is called official Republic of China. Further names for the VR China are the outdated term red China and mainland China particularly spread in the English linguistic area (Main country China). Both terms exclude the special administrative zones Hong Kong and Macao which were because of the coast , since 1997 and/or. to the national territory belong to 1999.
The national territory is divided into 22 provinces and 5 autonomous areas (see administrative arrangement of the VR China). Of it the largest 3 provinces constitute 45% of the state surface: Xinjiang and Tibet in the west as well as internal Mongolia in the north. However these areas with a portion of 4% of the population of the People's Republic are very thinly populated.
The People's Republic of China was classified into the 1990er years as developing country, develops however since its partial opening after the “culture revolution “increasingly to a great power. It represents internationally the “in China politics”, whose official acknowledgment intersperses it since beginning of the 70's also in the west. Economically China exhibits high dynamics at present, so that the current five-year plan already plans a throttling against a possible overheating.
In order to contain the rapid population growth, apply in child politics, which were moderated however in the last years. In the last decades the increase of the population of over 3% on under 1% settled down.
situation and geographical arrangement
the People's Republic of China does not border on 14 States of, a state has more direct neighboring countries. In the clockwise direction is this: India, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Tadschikistan, Kirgisien, Kasachstan, Russia, Mongolia, North Korea, Viet Nam, Laos, Myanmar, Bhutan and Nepal.
Mainland China is with 9.5 million square kilometers about as largely as the USA or whole Europe up to the Urals. The physical surface, the climatic conditions and thus the roominess of the individual regions of the country differ very strongly. China is separate by a number of natural borders from its neighbours: in the east and southeast by seas (yellow sea, eastChinese sea and southChinese sea), in the south, southwest, the west and northwest by high mountain massifs, in the north by steppes and deserts and in the northeast by rivers (Amur and Ussuri).
the north south expansion of China amounts to approx. 4,500 km; the east west expansion 4,200 km. The coastal length of all sea-borders of China amounts to 14.000 km. The longest river of China is at 6.300 km of the Jangtse (pinyin: Chángjiāng), the highest mountain of the Mount Everest with 8.844 m and the largest lake the Qinghai lake with approx. 5,000 km ².
One can divide the territory roughly into three ranges:
- The east of China is coined/shaped by four large, closely populated washing levels. At the coasts is the Deltas of its largest rivers. The southeast coastal strip is gebirgig, while the south is rather hilly. The area has a height of maximally 500 meters over the sea level.
- West to the levels numerous mountains with Hochebenen and large basins follow : the Mongolian Hochebene, the Tarimbecken, the itself SCN basin, the release plateau or the Yunnan Guizhou Hochland. The mountains have here heights of approximately 1,000 to 2,000 meters.
- West China has an expressed high mountain character also between them lying Hochebenen. The largest mountains are: Himalaya, Tianshan, Pamir and the high country of Tibet. The total region lies on the average 4,000 meters over the sea level and belongs thereby to the high-altitude levels of the world. The west is together with internal Mongolia also the driest region, for whose pronounced desert climate the Gobi and the Taklamakan .
most important - and longest - rivers the Jangtse and the yellow river, followed situation of China of Mekong , are Perl river, Brahmaputra and Amur. The rivers flow the geographical conditions following from the west eastward, D. h. from the high regions with snow and glaciers, but little precipitation, into the levels with much precipitation.
The capital of China is Peking.
The climate is as various as the Geografie: In the west, the north and northeast pronounced continental climate with very cold winters and hot summers prevails. In the south the climate is however subtropical to tropical. Tibet has a special high mountain climate.
the east of China , in addition, the southern provinces and the Himalaya are frequently affected by earthquakes particularly. From soil erosion the danger of landslides results. At the rivers Jangtse and Huang He (the red and the yellow river) come it frequently to inundations. The building of the three-ravine dam brings completely new dangers for the environment with itself, extensive changes to the landscape and destruction of natural habitats by flooding, in addition, floodings river downward strongly to limit will be able. The coasts in the south and the east of the country are frequently exposed to Taifunen.
China is the most densely populated country of the earth, and many of his regions belong to at the closest settled the world. In the history of the country population of over and the associated problems were with the nutrition of humans a cause for deep political and economic crises and hunger emergencies. The People's Republic of China goes therefore in the population politics of ways, which are world-wide singular and release inland like foreign country controversies.
major items: Peoples of China
91.59 per cent of the population of China are Han Chinese, and although the 55 officially recognized national minorities have some privileges in relation to the Han majority, China is accused to the government of the People's Republic by many sides to suppress particularly the Muslim minorities. One of the focuses is east Turkestan Xinjiang, which is the homeland of the Muslim Uiguren and Kasachen. Already since conquest by imperial China there is a strong Chinese immigration after Xinjiang, in order to relieve on the one hand the over-populated eastChinese areas and to open on the other hand the Bodenschätze Xinjiangs. Also the atomic test area of the Chinese military is in the thinly settled region, whereby it came with the native population to radiation damage.
the People's Republic of China exhibits a population density of approximately 136 inhabitants per square kilometer. The fact that this number is not very large is above all because of the fact that for instance west China exhibits a very low total population on large territory; this territory cannot accept however due to the climate also a great many humans. In Tibet, that at the thinnest settled part of the country, on the average only two humans live on a square kilometer.
The by far largest part of the population lives in the coastal regions. About 115 million humans, thus nearly 10% of the Chinese population, concentrate on a surface of only 50,000 km ². About half of the population lives on 10% of the surface, which corresponds to a population density of 740 persons per square kilometer; and 90% of the population live on a third of the state territory, which means that 90% of the population in areas live, which are as closely populated with on the average 350 Einw. /km ² as of Europe most closely populated countries.
During the establishment of the People's Republic in the year 1949 only one of ten Chinese in cities lived. Until today is the urbanisation degree with scarcely over 30% relatively small. This has its cause above all therein that the influx was not possible into the cities most time, and also today hardly prevails to liberality. Besides it gave to the 1960er years large campaigns to relieve with which humans by the cities on the country was resettled, partly around the overcrowded cities with high unemployment partly from the ideological requirement to waive class differences and thus differences between city and land inhabitants. The urbanisation degree remained the same therefore in the 1960er and 1970er years to a large extent, occasionally sank it even.
Since 1949 planned resettling from closely settled areas were accomplished again and again into hardly settled regions of north, northeast and west China. There were such actions however already during the Kaiser era. The motivations were strategic (development of new areas, Sinisierung by areas, those of ethnical minorities were inhabited predominantly) or economic nature (modernization of the agriculture and development of the economy in remote regions or fight of unemployment in over-populated regions), frequently the resettling took place also as punishing or reeducating measure against political opponents.
A concrete example of the procedure with the extension of the habitat of the Chinese people is Tibet: To 20. All parties of the German condemned June 1996 of Bundestag “the policy of the Chinese authorities, which leads in the result straight also regarding Tibet to the destruction of the identity, in particular by means of settlement and Zuwanderung of Chinese in large number, obligation sterilizations of women and obligation abortions, political, religious and cultural pursuit and the assumption of the country under a Chinese controlled administration. “(Resolution for the improvement of the human right situation in Tibet, Bundestag print 13/4445)
Since end of the 1970er years are not there these obligation resettling any longer. Nevertheless is the possibility of selecting the domicile and job reduced. This is because of the strong migration pressure from the poor provinces of west and central China into the coastal regions. Besides a complete liberalisation would cause a strong migration from the land, and it is feared that this would destabilize the cities. It becomes estimated already now that several millions migratory workers live and work to a large extent illegaly and undeclared in the Chinese cities.
The science advice of the Chinese academy of the sciences, Zhou Ganzhi, explained 2005 in the westChinese city Xi'an in September 2005 at the yearly meeting over planning for Chinese cities that the urbanisation rate will lie in China in the year 2020 between 50 per cent and 55 per cent. With fast economic growth the urbanisation rate rose in China in the past 10 years from 20 per cent to 40 per cent. The continuous increase of the urbanisation rate is to be attributed to it that numerous farmers flowed into the cities and large sums of money were invested into the town construction, said Zhou.
After the establishment of the People's Republic in the year 1949 lived in China about 540 million humans. Into the 1950er years rose the total population despite low life expectancy strongly. The political guidance around Mao Zedong was the opinion that a powerful state needs a high total population. Only at the end of the decade one began zögerlich with campaigns to birth control.
The total population of China sank temporarily during the large jump forward, which released a large hunger disaster with. Since the population of over was an additional reason for the hunger emergency, into the 1960er years numerous birth planning campaigns were accomplished. Abortions were from then on permitted and Verhütungsmittel, where available, free of charge available. The culture revolution brought the campaigns again temporarily to the stop.
After the culture revolution the activities were again strengthened. Apart from campaigns the marriage age were increased and introduced a restriction of two-child. Starting from the end of the 1970er years applied measures intensified again: In times of the restaurant liberalisation and the opening of the country in relation to the foreign country the population of over applied as main obstacle for the economic progress. The rules valid since 1979 plan in child family and immediate abortion with not approved pregnancies. Control of the birth delimitation is accomplished however for a quite low administrative level and is not checked by the centre government, so that there are substantial differences in the handling of the regulations: In some areas drakonische punishments threaten, in others massive exceptions are made with each offence. Particularly outside of the cities families with two or three children are not a characteristic. Higher child numbers were entitled to the national minorities, likewise farmers, whose first child is a daughter, and twins were regarded as special luck, since in this case also Han Chinese were allowed to keep both children and also both children got the full national achievements. Sanctioning of not approved births reaches from withdrawal of social security benefits over fines up to dismissal threats. Altogether the execution of the policy might become difficult, one proceeds from a high dark number at secondary births, which is made possible for money and shortage of personnel as well as corruption by.
It becomes estimated nevertheless that by birth control between 300 and 340 million births were prevented. Despite these measures the population will continue to grow, whereby for approximately 2030 with 1.5 billion humans of the summits one expects. Afterwards a decrease of the number of inhabitants is prognosticated until 2050 on 1.3 billion. The current population growth is with approximately 0.6% per year.
In child politics are also in China not undisputedly. However is the problem of the population of over like that engraving that the government does not think for the time being of a moderating of the measures. As alternative a fiscal disadvantage of families with several children is in the discussion. That would be also a possibility of preventing the problem of the obsolescence of the society, which already appears. Another alternative suggested at the beginning of October to 2004 the boss of the population commission of China: birth control is to be loosened up in favor of two-child politics. First a second child is to be permitted starting from 2010 women over 35 years and in the following each year the age limit around one year to be lowered.
Due to abortions female Föten about 120 boys come into China on 100 girls. Therefore the determination of the sex was placed by ultrasonic in the People's Republic under punishment, in order to manufacture natural equilibrium.
In the following the numbers of inhabitants of the People's Republic of China from 1950 to 2050 are indicated. The numbers from 2010 to 2050 are prognoses.
the data are based on the following source: 
major item: Religion in the People's Republic of China
the People's Republic is officially a atheistischer state. There are no official statistics over religion. Statements about the spreading of individual religions, poured in figures, are all together problematic.
Common religions are Buddhismus, Islam, Christianity and Lamaism (in Tibet and internal Mongolia), besides old Chinese people and superstition are very influential. The Konfuzianismus and the Daoismus, which are actually rather Sozialethiken as religions, affect to today the moral behaviors of the Chinese.
Still strict borders are set to the faith practice, even if the relevant regulations much of liberals are handled as still into the early 1980er years. The tolerance of the authorities depends on the other hand also strongly on the general political situation. Thus temples and monasteries experience for some time again strong inlet, which stands particularly with larger the social uncertainty become since the reforms in connection. In the same context numerous new religious movements are to be seen, which developed since the late 1980er years and which were first ignored by the authorities. The most well-known of these movements is Falun gong.
Particularly the Chinese government faces the Christianity sceptically, which has not least historical causes. Only, are permitted to the State of subordinating “patriotic” churches , for instance the Chinese catholic-patriotic combination. These recognize the Pope, but the communist party on as the highest instance not. Further areas of conflict result with the Muslim minority, which lives particularly in northwest China, as well as with the Lamaistic current of the Buddhismus, particularly in Tibet.
major item: History of China
after the end of the Second World War ended the Chinese civil war between the communist party of China and the Kuomintang with the fact that the communists control of the mainland had, whereas the Kuomintang held the island Taiwan, on which it had briefly before fled. At the 1. October 1949 proclaimed Mao Zedong the People's Republic of China and established a communist state. Thus of China was repaired independence, however those partly cost the life to the branch rose politics Maos of dozens of millions of humans, like for example in the large jump forward or the culture revolution.
After Maos death took over the more pragmatic Deng Xiaoping the guidance. The KPCh remained at power, control of the personal life of humans was however gradually loosened. In the political life the loosening are less strongly pronounced. The central administration economy is gradually reformed to create with the goal, a socialist free-market economy.
However China of many western observers becomes as also from its neighbour in India, whom evaluates humans in Taiwan and of oppositionals in the own country further as authoritarian dictatorship. Also in the year 1999 an indication was set: In that year a new series of notes appeared in the People's Republic. Where only the 100-Yuan-Schein counter-protect Maos before showed, its face is now on all new cash notes.
Nominal the highest state organ is the national congress of people (NVK), the parliament of the People's Republic of China. He selects the president, the Council of State (the government of the VR China), the highest people's court, the center military commission and the highest public prosecutor's office. But everything this only on suggestion of the communist party, whose organization penetrates the state apparatus on all stages and often hardly from it to to be separated is.
The actual political guidance of the People's Republic of China is at a close circle of Politbüro and military leaders, which itself in each case around the chairman crowds, which combines the highest offices in state, a party and army on itself. These are the office of the Secretary-General of the communist party of China, president of the People's Republic of China as well as the chairman of the centers military commission. At present Hu Jintao holds these positions, which began the follow-up of Jiang Zemin. The delivery of the offices takes place however generally within a longer period. Thus Hu became already 2002 Secretary-General, but only 2004 chairmen of the centers military commission. In contrast to western democracies the party offices are general in the a party state China (e.g. that of the kp Secretary-General) more importantly and than more powerfully regarding than the public offices (e.g. that of the president).
The People's Republic is officially a centralistic unit state, whose centre government has the absolute control over it subordinated the provinces. In the reality the relationship between center and region is however less clear: Particularly those economically prosperierenden coastal provinces have partially a considerable political negotiation power. Thus there is just as little for example to today no uniform system for the distribution of the tax receipts between provinces and centre government, as a balance program for the support of poorer provinces. In crisis situations the government has its will however nevertheless necessary power to intersperse; so it can shift for example members of the province governments at least theoretically as desired.
Although the People's Republic of China was governed during its entire existence in each case by only one party, humans experienced several deeply seizing political circulations, which were caused by the different currents within the KPCh and their struggles for power. On the one hand the Maoistic current tried to develop China to a powerful and wealthy state which prosperity planned by state property at means of production, and resources distribution, which abolishment should be marked by social differences and absolute control of the working population. Opposite stood the Pragmatiker Liu Shaoqi and Deng the Xiaoping, which wanted to use free market mechanisms, private property and the promotion of employers for the reaching of the same goal. At the beginning of the fifties up to the end of the seventies the Maoists had usually the over hand. They caused revolutions forward like the large jump or the culture revolution . Since the reign of Deng Xiaoping is China on a course toward socialist free-market economy, although it cannot be regarded within many ranges for a long time any more than socialist state. This is a new important cut into the social order - away from the collectivism to the free-market economy, which intensifies the class differences developed again.
Provisional high point of the free market course was the resolution of the congress of people to 14. March 2004 to cancel the abolishment of the private property and to embody the protection of the private property in the condition. On the other hand the order above ground and soil remains further impossible by a private property-legal regulation.
the resistance against out western view the diktatorische guidance of the party is hardly organized. Against the party resistance to organize is punishable. Each kind of organization formation, which does not subordinate itself to the party, is punishable. In addition smashing the democracy movement belongs after the massacre at the place of the Himmli peace. With punishment forbidden is also the establishment of independent trade unions. Oppositionals are not however only kriminalisiert and are arrested, but as the further threat works also the Psychiatrisierung of oppositionals, who are instructed with standard-deviating behavior “to their own best one” into psychiatric hospitals.
Apart from the restrictions of the opposition, which are existence-threatening for each supervisor of opposition formation, in addition culturally caused reasons for the lack of resistance are stated: A frequent culture-critical explanation beginning refers to the fact that it is the konfuzianische tradition of China, which orders to the people not to question the existing rule system because does not know it, what for the people is good. Konfuziani ideal is the rule by way (or through of ways advised leaders). Resistance against rulers was quite brought up for discussion, as separation of malfunctioning leaders by better leaders, never however in the confidence on the assumption the Führerschaft by the people. This culture-historical background can tempt to the acceptance that democracy is not intended also today from the people in China or even that the Chinese for a democracy are not suitable. One should hold however before eyes that this beginning will represent frequently from groups, in their interest it lies itself: thus of the circles of the ruling powers and those, who profit from their stable exercise of power (e.g. also western entrepreneur circles), while it encounters among Chinese themselves also contradiction. The thesis reminded of some years ago also the debate around the “asiatic values” (Asian VALUEs), led in other parts of Asia, in the eyes of neokonservativer representatives “for the Asian” allegedly unsuitable make for the democracy, also at that time the Konfuzianismus as demokratiehinderlich in the play one led. The development of the democracies in Taiwan and South Korea and brought these voices elsewhere however to growing silent.
the development of the right in the past of the VR China reflects to today the efforts of the communist party to receive their power monopoly. When 1949 the People's Republic was created, transferred the communists power over the juridical system in the conviction that they need power over the right for political power also. Later, while the culture revolution, the written right became so far repealed set that not even the formal head of state before the arbitrariness of the red guards was safe.
With beginning of the restaurant reforms it became soon also obvious that laws and right security for the free market development are fundamentally important. Since then the People's Republic got an impressing number at laws and new institutions. The laws at the beginning after Soviet, later after European and North American model formulated, whereby the possibility of transplantieren right from the western environment into the Chinese environment naturally limited is.
As deeply the right and right consciousness already verwurzelt are, 1989 became visibly, when the demonstrators on the Tiananmen - carried place transparency fully with legal symbolism with itself, whereas the martial law was officially therefore imposed, in order right and order to restore.
It is important to clarify that in the Chinese one the term “right nationalness” can be laid out differently. The Slogan of the kp is “yi company zhi guo”. Western observers pointed out that this Slogan is often better translated in Chinese practice than “rule assistance of the right” (rule by law) as in the western-democratic sense than “rule of the right” (rule OF law). Also the right is in the People's Republic of China for the moment only one of the instruments, with which the communist party governs the country. For the party and government it is important that the laws and decisions genehmen it results show. At the same time right consciousness grows with the citizens and requires the modern free-market economy, which aims at China, genuine right security. It is an area of conflict, in which right and laws in China move. For the appointment of judges still the party membership is an important criterion, and training in the jurisprudence is only since center of the 1980er years obligation. Nevertheless there is meanwhile also law, which limit the omnipotence of the bureaucracy, up to a law, which it permits citizens to sue the state if they were damaged by illegal decisions of the administration. Also there are efforts to improve the criminal law in such a way that the possibility for arbitrary punishment is eliminated.
While the quality and number of laws rose also owing to foreign consultation strongly, there are large lack in practice the iurisdiction. The number of professionally trained judges is still too low. For this reason a high meaning comes to a formal conciliation, which is an intermediate thing between the traditional conciliation by outstanding laymen and a decision of a tidy court. At the same time the political influence of the courts and judges is locally enormous by the “court commissions in such a way specified”. In these commissions above all party cadres sit, often give them to the judges the judgement, and not only with politically delicate processes, but also with procedures, which affect powerful economic interests.
Human right situation
China is a country with death penalty. Absolutely and relatively (executions per inhabitant) to be seen in no country in the world as many humans exekutiert as in China. After parallel to the restaurant reforms for the 1980er years also problems became such as drug and gang criminality as well as corruption acute, a campaign was started on behalf of “hard reaching through”, quite with approval of far parts of the population. The death penalty stands therefore on a multiplicity of crimes, to which also drug offenses, corruption, white-collar crime and the killing of Pandas belong - in addition, to passing on of “state secrets” (Tiananmen PAPER, January 2001), which and. A. one interprets very generous. In the past z became. B. the publication of actual AIDS, SARS or bird flu spreading as injury of a state secret punished.
Organizations as amnesty internationally indicate that in the year 2004 at least 3400 humans were executed and 6000 death penalties were imposed. The dark number is however importantly higher, then 2004 statements of Chen Zhonglin, a delegate of the national congress of people and director of the institute for right of the University of Chongqing, in March, became public according to which annually about 10,000 humans were executed. All death sentences must be confirmed by courts on province level. They are executed usually immediately thereafter to which to few provinces (for example in Yunnan) special a Exekutionsbusse with poison syringes it was introduced. Since the handling of the death penalty between the provinces takes place very differently, on the part of many intellectual it is demanded that the highest Court of Justice of China must confirm all death sentences. Much points besides on the fact that with the organs of executed trade one carries on.
After to today unpunished Tian'anmen massacres of 1989 and the associated seizure of power of Jiang the Zemin (江泽民) and become in the People's Republic millions of humans, under it thousands of political these simmering ducks became, in labour camps imprisoned held. Among them groups pursued by the party are such as democrat, Falun gong (法轮功) practicing, Qigong (气功) schools, human rights activist, trade unionist and many more. From at the time of the Tian'anmen massacre arrested humans today (2005) still 250 sits in prisons and camps.
Now and then disappear oppositionals, who express themselves critically in relation to the regime. Like that at the beginning of of June 2004 is an army surgeon Jiang Yanyong, which criticized the procedure of the government in the February of the same yearly 1989 at the Tian'anmen place and to which it is to be owed that the true extent of the SARS epidemic disease arrived at the public, without trace disappeared. One assumes he is now in Polizeigewahrsam.
Internet is strongly censored in China (see Web on the left of) and supervised. Internet cafes must install a monitoring software, for discussions in the Internet stand under constant observation. It comes again and again to arrests of citizens, who demand more democracy and human rights. An AIDS activist was kidnapped for example without legal proceedings on indefinite time into a labour camp, because he made an AIDS scandal in the province Henan, which the government at farmers had been to blame for public. The province government had opened in the middle of the 1990er years donation of blood hospitals, in which many farmers donated blood plasma - and with the rear virus were infected. Whole villages are today contaminated with the virus in Henan. Over years the province government concealed the scandal and left themselves the farmers, and also Peking began only 2004 to take care of the problem.
Into Germany it comes again and again with mutual state visits to discussions relating to domestic affairs. It concerns the question whether and in which form the violations of human rights are to be addressed. Largest contradictions are accepted on the part of the European foreign policy, in order to secure for example business in China. So French president Jacques Chirac could lock a contract over the sales of airbus airplanes in China, whereupon a Chinese representative announced that the contract had come only therefore, because France and Germany China are “come to meet” in the human right question. Germany had in the same year on the 58. UN-Menschenrechtskommission no resolution against China brought in, as the USA, which were not allowed to participate at that time, had done it usually.
Furthermore by the Red-Greens government a submarine supply was prevented at Taiwan with the reason that one does not supply weapons to crisis areas. In contrast to it Federal Chancellor Schröder assured however end of the yearly 2003 of the People's Republic of China support for the abolition of the European Union weapons embargo, although China did not threaten two weeks before Taiwan with an invasion. The European Union weapons embargo was imposed after the Tian'anmen massacre against China.
To 23. March 2004 came it in this affair to a conflict with the USA. The US-American Ambassador was in-ordered to insert in order to condemn against the plans of the USA, the VR China during the yearly meeting of the UN-Menschenrechtskommission into Geneva, protest.
The Chinese national congress of people (NVK) has to 14. March 2004 large changes of the Chinese condition decided. Thus since establishment of the VR China the attention of human rights and the private property in the condition were taken up for the first time. It is called literal in the new condition:
„The legal private property is inviolable. “
„The state respects and protects the human rights. “(In official announcements from a human right term with one „Chinese characteristic “one proceeds.)
the old condition was still until March 2005 valid and is to be replaced starting from then from the new. The constant committee of the national congress of people wants to examine approximately 60 bills in the next 5 years, among them laws for the responsibility with law breakings, for the social security and for the social welfare assistance as well as a law over the work contract. Altogether a paging of the Chinese right and social system appears.
Also cases of exploitation of workers become again and again admit, then a female worker died after a four-and twentieth and EN layer without interruption at exhaustion in November 2005. The conditions of work in Chinese factories are regarded of human right organizations as catastrophic and earlycapitalistically.
the most important aussenpolitschen goals of the People's Republic of China are above all the world-wide penetration of in China politics, the acknowledgment of Tibet and Xinjiang as parts of the Chinese territory as well as the fight against separatism and terrorism. For this purpose together with Russia and to unite the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO ) developed centralasiatic states based, which was directed against separatism and terrorism first only, in the meantime however to a power bloc in the fight for political influence and the raw materials in central Asia.
the People's Republic of China is administratively in 22 provinces, 5 autonomous areas, 4 government-direct cities and the special administrative territories Hong Kong and Macao divided. Beyond that the Chinese guidance regards Taiwan as “abtrünnige” province of the People's Republic, however the island arrived since the existence of the People's Republic never 1949 under their rule influence.
the traffic infrastructure in China is constantly improved. High sums are invested into the building by roads, above all also in the cities, railway lines and new airports. Particularly in the concentration regions there are already many traffic routes, which correspond to Central European standard. In remote areas there is usually still only an insufficient traffic route.
The Chinese Eisenbahnnetz actual before India - the longest of the world and takes all provinces off, whereby Tibet was attached as the latter with a railroad line after Lhasa to the Eisenbahnnetz. Courses are used generally only in long-distance traffic, Vorortzüge give it nearly none. Still new distances are built and on most distances cannot not complain the course about extent of utilization lacking, why constantly new courses and connections are introduced. The Servicequalität is quite zwiespältig: While regionally already international standard and is also high-speed distances is reached in work, there are also regions, where old locomotives and car drive large cities, which possess nearly no course binding over marode tracks and. Accidents are, regard one the size of the route network and the number of the courses, relatively rarely. A characteristic of sale of course tickets in China is the missing possibility course tickets for distances to buy those from the momentary place of residence do not drive off. In principle course tickets are only available starting from 10 days before the departure.
With the road system it behaves similar to as with the railway system. For travelers remote touring buses are frequently an useful alternative to the course, above all, where the traction network is not well developed or if course tickets are not to be had no more. Luxuriös equipped touring buses are in demand, whereby however the number of accidents is quite high.
The number of airline connections of and to China is understood, ever more Chinese large cities for instance from Europe is approached directly strongly in growing. Many cities possess new airports and/or. build straight which, usually with enormous dimensions. There is a large number of airlines. Only few of it are internationally active, most concentrate on the inland traffic. The tickets are usually favorable, that offer lie usually easily over the demand and security in the last ten years strongly improved. Still it gives to China and Taiwan no regular airline connections between the People's Republic.
In traffic political regard in China on the traditional vehicle operated with fossil fuels one sets. Since the end of the 1980er years a higher priority is granted to the development of the motorway net than the development of the Eisenbahnnetzes (contrary to the years before). This meant however that itself China, as also the remainder of the world, into which dependence on oil goes, which is shrinking resources. In addition the assumption of städteplanerischen concepts from the west means, where cities for the car are created that despite enormous invested sums back-up and smog will belong further to the townscape of large Chinese cities.
after in the year 1949 the People's Republic of China was proclaimed, interested abroad above all the question, as the country wanted to probably ever nourish its enormous population. More than 50 years later the world is faced with a country, which does not only nourish its population, who doubled itself since that time more than and to the largest export nations of the world heard. The economic policy under Mao Zedong was coined/shaped of the introduction of a planned economy after Soviet model. A plan should replace the market with the distribution of resources and investments. The goal was to achieve a fastest possible industrialization and a highest possible economic growth. The planned economy within some ranges was adapted crucially to Chinese conditions. On the one hand China was not in the position to apply enough planerische and administrative forces in order to introduce a planned economy after strictly Soviet model. In place of its into the 1950er years measures were already met for decentralization and given the responsible persons on province and operating level more free space for the conversion of the defaults. On the other hand Mao attached great importance to self-sufficient development. China, but also individual provinces or regions should not only be able themselves to supply. Thus the country isolated itself from the remainder of the world straight in a time, when other developing countries experienced an economic catching up process by active promotion of the integration into the world market.
The third difference to the Soviet restaurant model lay in it that Mao in the economic development set on mass campaigns, for instance the large jump forward or the culture revolution. These two above all politically motivated movements threw the country however around many years back, to historians estimate today that the large jump forward cost (1959-61) up to 30 million humans the life: most verhungerten, because Maos politics led to enormous harvest failures. The culture revolution (1966-1976) paralyzed China for a whole decade practically: Schools and universities were closed, one had in the Maoistic Slang to be “red” (thus politically correctly) and no “expert” (thus technically or economically able).
The economical inheritance Maos is thus zwiespältig: On the one hand the gross domestic product grew between 1952 and 1975 by 6.7%, the possibilities for education (in particular for women), medical supply and social security annually on the average reached a level, it in the history of the country had before never given and the portion of the industry of the resource of approximately 20% 1952 on 45% 1975 was increased. These successes were based however to a large extent on the mobilization of additional resources, the investments increasingly more inefficiently and the relatively high economic growth could only to a very small portion in higher consumption of the population be converted. Last end had Mao also to admit itself that his economic policy led by utopian visions was in a dead end. It brought the economically pragmatic politicians Deng Xiaoping and Zhou En-Lai into the early 1970er year back to power, although they were fallen before already in disgrace.
The death of Mao 1976 opened the possibility for reforms. It is improbable that a continuation of the economic policy, as it was made under Mao would have been possible nor for a long time. Deng Xiaoping concerned the most urgent problems therefore first and permitted local party leaders gradually to take the collectivization back of the agriculture. The farmers had from then on vested titles at its products, Landbesitz were further not possible however. Agricultural products were acted soon the freely accessible, rural markets. Starting from center of the 1980er years became certified also non-governmental enterprises in the industry and the state enterprises had on the developing markets with private business to compete.
Later it was permitted to foreign enterprises to invest in China and the foreign trade was liberalisiert. Also institutional reforms at national investments or the control system became necessary. In the political basic conditions however first nothing was changed, why the economic system was called state communism or officially as „socialist economy of Chinese coinage “. In the year 1995 white the economy a stable high growth up, the before isolated country was the seventh-largest participant in the international trade and the standard of living grew fast, whereby the consumer expenditures of the households led to constant price increases around annually more than 7%.
Since then the question arises, how long the Chinese economy can grow still in this speed. Meanwhile there are market segments, which one could liberalisieren easily, in order to produce thereby a fast and above all large and lasting economic growth in China hardly still. In addition there are some economical problem fields, to whose solution it requires painful cuts. In addition belong state enterprises, which were not denationalized and which partly high losses to make. By the state banks 9 always new credits are put to these state enterprises at the disposal, in order to hold it alive. Thus the dominating national banks accumulated high sums on putrid credits, whereby the bank system became illiquid. If the banking customers should suddenly reclaim their inserts in a bank storm, then the demands could not be served. A reform of the national sector is however zögerlich turned on by the government of the People's Republic only very, because it is to be feared that a locking from unprofitable state enterprises would lead to strongly rising unemployment in the cities.
The today's phase is often designated in view of the increasing weight of the private sector in China of foreign industrial leaders and politicians as of China transition from the flat to the free-market economy. China experts like the German politics policy Sebastian welfare man point out however that in China by any means the free free-market economy does not govern, on the contrary speak it of an authoritarian “cadre capitalism”: Usually entrepreneurs with good relations with the powerful ones, corruption are economically successful are a large problem. Nevertheless the country reached a growth rate of 9,9% economically also in the year 2005, overhauled with a gross domestic product of 18.23 trillion Yuan and/or. converted 1.83 trillion euro France and Great Britain and ascended thereby for fourth largest the economic power of the world. China thus still belongs to the most dynamic restaurant regions of the world. The GROS DOMESTIC PRODUCT per head is calculated to 1700 US Dollar and in the year 2010 to 2500 US Dollar will probably rise. For 2006 a growth between 10% and 11% is expected. Besides admits given that the commercial surplus rose 2005 to 101.9 billion dollar and the exports rose substantially more strongly than the imported goods and the foreign exchange reserves would amount to now 818.9 billion dollar, with which China possessed the second largest reserves of the world to Japan in this connection. Thus it hardly surprises that in the west increases protectionist calls become loud.
Despite the nationally promoted free market economic system the KPC gave its goal up, communism as all areas of life (including also the economic system) comprehensive social order, never. The present free market system is only regarded by the political power apparatus as inevitable transition order. Communism, so the doctrine, can be achieved only by means of the capitalism, which in a next phase the Vergesellschaftlichung of the capital will follow. In the cadre schools of the communist party this “inevitable” dialectic is taught. Taken in view of present successes of the Chinese economy the transition character of the valid order possibly too few to the knowledge, above all also on the part of the western investors.
China as producing state
a comparison of available data struggled shows the fact that China within many ranges of economic production sectors does not only occupy meanwhile top positions frequently already took over but an unquestioned leading position. The following table is this on the basis many examples from the ranges agriculture, mining industry, industry as well as energy industry illustrates (by clicking on the products one arrives often at the detail tables):
| Struggled China in the world production: Agriculture |
source: Trade paper the world in figures (2005)
|Product|| rank |
(the USA/D ¹)
| production |
|product|| rank |
| production |
|Grain||1 (2/8)||422,6 millions t (2004)||Wool (unwashed)||2 (-/)||0,52 millions t (2004)|
|Wheat||1 (3/6)||91,33 millions t (2004)||Bananas||3 (-/)||6,22 millions t (2004)|
|Apples||1 (2/9)||20,5 million t (2004)||Wood||3 (1/13)||286,1 millions m ³ (2003)|
|Rice||1 (11)||186,73 millions t (2004)||Cattle (existence)||3 (4/20)||106,5 millions (2004)|
|Potatoes||1 (4/7)||75,05 millions t (2004)||Beef||3 (1/11)||6,27 millions t (2004)|
|Cotton||1 (2)||5,2 millions t (2003)||Sugar||3 (4/9)||11,1 million t (2003)|
|Pigs (existence)||1 (2/4)||472,9 millions (2004)||Soy beans||4 (1)||17,75 millions t (2004)|
|Sheep (existence)||1 (-/)||157,3 millions (2004)||India rubber||5 (-/)||0,55 millions t (2004)|
|Meat||1 (2/4)||72,64 millions t (2004)||Weintrauben||5 (4/12)||5,34 millions t (2004)|
|Schweinefleisch||1 (2/3)||47,75 millions t (2004)||Oranges||6 (2)||1,89 million t (2004)|
|Sheep meat||1 (-/)||1,94 million t (2004)||Milk||7 (1/4)||18,85 millions t (2004)|
|Fish (catch yields)||1 (5)||44,06 millions t (2001)||Lemons||8 (7)||1,89 million t (2004)|
|Chicken meat||2 (1)||9,46 millions t (2004)||Cheese||16 (1/2)||0,23 millions t (2004)|
|Corn||2 (1)||131,86 millions t (2004)||Butter||- (3/5)||-|
|Struggled China in the world production: Mining industry|
|Zinc||1 (5)||2,2 millions t (2003)||Gold||6 (2)||170 t (2001)|
|Tin||1 (-/)||55,6 millions t (2003)||Silver||7 (6)||1200 t (2003)|
|Lead||2 (3)||0,67 millions t (2003)||Copper||9 (3)||0,55 millions t (2002)|
|Iron ore||3 (7)||109,4 millions t (2001)||Platinum||- (4)||-|
|Bauxite||6 (-/)||8 millions t (2003)||Diamond one||- (-/)||-|
|Struggled China in the world production: Industry|
|Iron||1 (4/7)||202,3 millions t (2003)||Cement||1 (3/14)||725 millions t (2003)|
|Steel||1 (3/6)||220,1 millions t (2003)||Artificial fibers ³||1 (3/9)||7,9 millions t (2001)|
|Aluminum||1 (4/10)||4,3 millions t (2003)||Paper & pasteboard||2 (1/5)||37,9 millions t (2003)|
|Fertilizer||1 (3/14)||23,6 millions t (2002)|
|Struggled China in the world production: Energy|
|Hard coal promotion||1 (2/10)||1315,2 millions t (2003)||Oil promotion||6 (3)||169,4 millions t (2003)|
|Energy production||2 (1/19)||1,22 million t ÖE (2002)||Brown coal promotion||7 (5/1)||52 millions t (2003)|
|Generation of current||2 (1/7)||1.640, 5 billion a KW/H (2002)||Uranium promotion||- (9)||-|
¹ numbers in parentheses: Ranks that of USA/Germany to the comparison; Example: (11) = the USA: Rank 11, Germany: no or no considerable production
² year for comparative figures were present ³ on cellulose - and Synthetikbasis
public expenditures for health, education and defense
by the rapid industrialization as well as the rise of the standard of living rose the power requirement strongly. In the year 1985 about 13 times as much energy was used as in the year 1957. The per-capita consumption of energy lies however in the international comparison low, i.e. with approximately half of the international cut and with for instance a tenth of the per-capita consumption of the USA. Therefore further strong rising of the power requirement can be prognosticated. The year 1990 marked a first turning point in the power supply: China became the net importer of energy. At the end of of 1993 became China also the net importer of crude oil. The largest portion of energy is however still won from the coal, which has a portion of approximately 70% of total energy consumption.
The substantial dismantling of coal demanded a high price again and again. The pits are considered as erbärmlich equipped and bury again and again buddies under itself. 80% of the deadly accidents in world-wide coal mines happen in China.
In order to open further energy sources, numerous atomic power plants are in building, first in Qinshan (province Zhejiang) are since 1991 in enterprise. Also the numerous hydro-electric power plant projects, for instance the famous three-ravine dam are not energy-politically motivated last.
Serious energy bottlenecks and regular power failures and/or. planned current disconnections are in the large cities, particularly in the boom regions, at the agenda; Citizens like also enterprises are constantly called to energy saving measures.
China wants the production from atomic current to 2020 from momentary approx. 6.5 Gigawatt on approx. 36 Gigawatt increase. The portion of the atomic current of the Chinese generation of current becomes thus from at present approx. 1.2 per cent to approximately 4 per cent rise.
Public health service
with the establishment of the People's Republic was the life expectancy at approximately 35 years. In addition contributed lack nutrition, medical supply lacking and with it connected the high spreading of transferable and parasitic diseases. The life expectancy of the Chinese is meanwhile over 70 years, i.e., nearly on the level of the western industrial nations. (The life expectancies of intellectual ones are surprisingly in the cities far under this level, then the state State of at the beginning of of 2005 announced, the life expectancy of intellectual ones in Peking lies at on the average 56 years. Under the term “intellectual one” in China usually all university graduates with a study conclusion.) this
remarkable development is summarized the rising standards of living of humans to attribute in addition, efforts of government toward the improvement of the medical supply. Particularly the system of the barefoot doctors , thus persons with only most fundamental medical training, introduced during the culture revolution, which the most common diseases treated the outer country, brought large progress for the Landbevölkerung.
The health service is momentarily in a large change phase. While in former times all medical achievements were free of charge furnished by the state or its enterprises, it became visible since the beginning of the economic reforms that itself also private people and - enterprises in the costs to take part must. A health insurance system is aimed at by the government after western model.
The challenges, which come to the Chinese health service, appear already: By environmental pollution released diseases such as allergies, stress, asthma bronchiale and bronchitis, in addition, cancer, accumulate themselves up in the cities. In addition come about 300 million cigarette smoker (63% of the adults of men and 4% of the women) and the propagation of HEAVE/AIDS. The HIV epidemic disease has, beside the well-known infection ways, also a cause in practices of the Blutspendens in the rural area, which does not correspond to the modern hygiene.
See also: Traditional Chinese medicine
- Taiwan: The People's Republic of China is ready to prevent a formal independence from Taiwan with military means. The care and the development of the military impact force necessary for it have the highest priority during the armament of the armed forces. The “anti-splitting off law “became to 13. March 2005 discharges. The vice-president of the congress of people Wang ZhaoGuo described the law to 8. March 2005: China will use “non-peaceful means”,
- if the independence forces in Taiwan try a splitting off Taiwans in any form or under any name,
- if larger incidents in this regard occur,
- if all means for a peaceful reunification are exhausted.
- SouthChinese sea: The largest territory stressed by China are however large areas around the Spratly - and Paracel islands (Chinese names: Nansha and Xisha islands) in the southChinese sea. Here a conflict between the States of China, Brunei , Indonesia , Japan , Malaysia , the Philippines , Taiwan and Viet Nam exists. Principal reason: Oil. At present non-military beginnings outweigh to regulate the conflicts. Armament for the preservation and modernization of the military option is continued.
- Tibet: Since the People's Republic of China occupied 1950 the Tibet independent since 1912, it wants to secure their power there, also by suppressive measures. The justification is that Tibet was for 700 years a part of China. Gatherings of people than splitting off organizations are partly suspected and smashed, often also militarily. Tibeter, which use themselves for liberty and human rights, are partly arbitrarily arrested, tortured or condemned to death. The Tibetan religion and its monks are suppressed and the Dalai Lama as their head is often driven out indirectly in the exile to India. Han Chinese Zuwanderung is operated substantial; for more details compares: Tibet section status.
- Russia: China laid also claims on some Russian territories in the Far East. Thus it came 1964 to a military conflict with the Soviet Union around two islands at the river Amur. 2004 surrendered to the Amur close Chabarowsk to Russia China two contentious islands .
the Ministry for public security (Guojia Anquanbu) the VR China is as tautly more organized, but civilian service for the foreign clearing-up as well as for internal security responsibly. It is subordinate to the Council of State. Residenturen of the Chinese foreign clearing-up are in the messages and/or. Consulates (in Germany e.g. in the Chinese message in Berlin).
The military intelligence service (Zhong Chan it le) maintains likewise representations abroad; he collects information and know-how from the arms range in the countries of the German linguistic area above all.
Lu Jianhua of the Chinese academy for social sciences calls the recent generation Fly generation: a generation, which takes off like a flier and hardly more white, what their parents during the own youth in the culture revolution to experience had.
China is famous also for its garden architecture, which completely differs from in Europe the developed.
- Chinese art, Chinese literature, Chinese painting, Chinese film, Chinese dance,
- Chinese kitchen, Chinese Astrologie, traditional one Chinese medicine,
- Chinese philosophy, social behavior in China,
- Chinese music, skirt music in China
in the People's Republic of China momentarily more are printed as 2,000 daily and weekly papers, it give more than 3,000 radio and Fernsehstationen and over 550 publishing houses. The medium scene changed itself for the 1950er years several times rapidly. While the years of the campaign against rights or the culture revolution the medium life practically to the announcements of the communist party was limited, those is as never large medium variety today as.
The media have to support the communist party after Leninistic view during the conversion of their politics. For this reason and censors the propaganda department of the kp controls press contents, so well it with the almost quantity of the publications goes. The degree, to which the party controlled medium contents in the last 20 years, was not always alike. Into the late 1980er years some very much liberals daily papers were tolerated, whose editorships were closed however after the protests at the Tiananmen place. On the other hand the media are used also in order to fight against corruption in the own rows. Numerous publications are published also of the kp themselves.
Control of the media functions over the press agency new China (Xinhua), which has the monopoly over messages. In the editorships of the publishing houses there is a party secretariat, which is awake over the fact that the party line in the media is converted. The journalists are obligated to a membership in the journalist federation and must be today as into the 1950er years firm in marxism Leninism and Mao Zedong thinking. Nothing the defiance came it several times to arrests of journalists, who did not see themselves obligated to the party line.
The Chinese government tries to supervise the Internet activities of their citizens and censor contents. More provider are committed to Internet to the installation of a software, over which certain web pages can be blocked; also the Wikipedia became already several times a goal of a blockade. This kind from censorship is not country-wide uniformly and also under the Internetprovidern gives it to offerer, who as liberal is considered as others. Which technologies are used for monitoring in the detail, is naturally not well-known, and to which extent the government really succeeds in to pursue and making Internet critics, is article of speculations. It has however repeats spectacular arrests of citizens given, who had called political changes in in Internet panels.
The People's Republic of China operates one of the world-wide largest broadcast foreign services with radio China international. The transmitter produces programs in dozens of languages, under it a German-language program, which can be heard over short - and medium wave in Europe daily.
in the first twenty years of the existence of the People's Republic of China environmental topics were practically ignored, although the first nature reservations were already furnished 1956. During the large jump Mao called forward to a war against nature , in order to conquer resources. In this time numerous forests were cleared, in order to have for the steelmaking enough wood available. Sumps, moorlands and damp meadows were drying-put, in order to win field. Only for the 1970er years there is beginnings for environmental policy, whereby real efforts are only undertaken for approximately five years, particularly since then Peking the addition for the olympic plays 2008 received.
Generally China sees itself confronted with two large problem areas, i.e. the fact that natural resources disappear or is gotten dirty.
Many regions of China are affected by disappearing natural resources. That concerns for instance groundwaters, whose mirror in the dry areas of the north partly sinks annually around a half meter. The vegetation covering of the surface decreased/went back in the last years, about which above all the forests are concerned. As consequence it comes to erosion, particularly minted the release loosening of central China. Through to intensive treatment is lost to field, whereby the Desertifikation of field with a speed of approximately 2,400 km progresses ² per year. Illegal trade with endangered animal and plant types, which are used particularly for (pseudo) medical purposes, dezimiert many kinds threatened by becoming extinct still. With numerous projects (e.g. Of “China the Green wall “) is tried to stop the Desertifikation and erosion; whether these projects were successful or not, in some years will however only show up. Besides there are nearly 1,000 nature reservations, which cover over 7% of the territory of the People's Republic, whereby some these reservations only after the name exist.
The environmental pollution in China accepted partially devastating extents. Depending upon study are from the ten dirtiest cities of the world sieve to nine in China. By the high portion of coal as fuel the load with sulfur dioxide is very high, the rain is sour in far parts of the country. In the last years was the THEN 2 - output easily declining, whereas the load with nitrogen oxides, particularly from the traffic, increased strongly. The growth potential at vehicles is besides very highly. The contamination does not only concern the cities, also on the country the environment heavy damage is added. On the one hand boom-end TVEs most time were outside of any control, on the other hand one in the agriculture the double quantity of fertilizers is used as in the world average. The Ministry Of Agriculture estimates that the dirty fields could supply enough food for approximately 65 million humans. About half of the rivers is so dirty the fact that they do not even keep the lowest Chinese environmental standards and not even for the irrigation can be used.
Meanwhile China is to the USA a world-wide largest producer of greenhouse gases, whereby it is still quite far reduced with the pro head output from greenhouse gases. It produces more than 36% of the world-wide pollutant emissions, does not have however as developing country according to Kyoto minutes its CO 2 - output to throttle. The environmental pollution is responsible for a strongly rising occurrence of lung diseases and cancer. That China human development report 2002 comes therefore in the end the fact that China at the crossroad stands and for a green reform must decide. Otherwise threaten the environmental degradation to obstruct or again destroyed make the reached social and economic progress.
the national congress of people decided at its meeting in March 2006 in its new Fünfjahresplan that it does not want any more growth at any price. The energy consumption based on the restaurant achievement is to be reduced until 2010 by 20 per cent, the water consumption is by 30 per cent, the pollutant output by 10 per cent to fall.
However China wants to increase its Kohleförderung of 2006-2010 by 18 per cent, from 2000-2005 increased it by precarious 70 per cent. Filters of the ten cities with the world-wide highest environmental pollution are in China. And ecologists make the promotion and burn of the raw material world-wide responsible also for the problematic climatic change.
to 15. October 2003 started China its first manned space flight. The Taikonaut Yang Liwei flew 21 hours and landed to 16. Octobers again probably-keep. China was thereby to the Soviet Union and the USA the third country, which could accomplish a manned space flight.
Of 12. to 16. October 2005 started the “Shenzhou 6 “, the second space flight manned by the space center in the desert Gobi, to. With the recent space mission of China by the two Taikonauten, protect Junlong and never Haisheng, among other things their reactions in weightlessness tested. The technical bases for further Chinese space programs should be put.
The Chinese press agency Xinhua communicated, the government considers the building of a further starting point for space missions on the island Hainan in the southChinese sea. This could become the starting point for a new generation of rockets, quoted Xinhua rocket farmer the Liu Zhusheng.
- cities in the VR China
- list of European designations of Chinese places
- Wenyan - to something over the language
- Chinese kitchen
- social behavior in China
- north China and south China
- Karl H. Pilny: The asiatic century. Hamburg: Campus publishing house, 2005. - ISBN 3-59337-678-4 (see in addition also: Ascended China: World power „of the asiatic century “ - interview with the author, Eurasi magazine, 31. July 2005)
- Jacques Gernet: The Chinese world. Island, Frankfurt/M. 1979 (ISBN 3-458-15503-1); New edition: Suhrkamp, Frankfurt/M. 1988 (ISBN 3-518-38005-2); Original: Le Monde chinois. Arm and Colin, Paris 1972.
- Laurenz Awater: The political restaurant history of the VR China: From the Soviet model to the socialist free-market economy. LIT publishing house Münster 1998, ISBN 3-8258-3221-X
- Johnny Erling: China - the large jump in the uncertain, 2002, ISBN 3451279959
- Weigui catch, Internet and China - digital its, digital its in the realm of the center. Hanover, Heinz Heise publishing house o.J. ISBN 3-936931-20-8 (Telepolis - book)
- Lutz money setter, Hong Han thing: Bases of Chinese philosophy, 1998, ISBN 3150096898
- Sebastian welfare man: The political system of the People's Republic of China. Wiesbaden, West German publishing house 2002. ISBN 3-531-13572-4
- Gregor Paul (Hrsg.), Caroline Y Robert-on-whom-sourly (Hrsg.): Traditional Chinese culture and human right question, 1997, ISBN 3789054828
- Charles Reeve, Xuanwu Xi, hell on ground connection: Bureaucracy, hard labour and Business in China, Hamburg: Edition Nautilus 2001
- Colin A. Ronan: The Shorter Science and Civilisation in China: At Abridgement OF Joseph Needham's original text. ISBN 0521292867
- investment and location leader China, Institut for external trade (Hrsg.), 2006 - ISBN 3-937992-00-6
- information for political education: China number 289, Hg. Federal center for polit. Education, 4/2005, ISSN 0046-9408. Very informatively, 70 S. and 4 maps (also on-line: www.bpb.de)
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- human Rights in China - one of chin. These simmering ducks created combination (hrichina.org)
- China focus topic side of human rights in China - project group Model United nation, Munich 2000
- politics and human rights in China
- Internet censorship in China: List (English)
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- press statement of the statistic federal office of 18. November 2005 for the meaning of China for the German foreign trade
- German China company registered association. (DCG, publishes the “China journal “)
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47 asiatic UN member states:
Afghanistan | Armenia | Azerbaijan | Bahrain | Bangladesh | Bhutan | Brunei | China, People's Republic | Georgien | India | Indonesia | Iraq | Iran | Israel | Japan | Yemen | Jordanian one | Kambodscha | Kazakhstan | Qatar | Kirgisistan | Kuwait | Laos | Lebanon | Malaysia | Maldives | Mongolia | Myanmar | Nepal | North Korea | Oman | Osttimor | Pakistan | The Philippines | Russia | Saudi Arabia | Singapore | Sri Lanka | South Korea | Syria | Tadschikistan | Thailand | Turkmenistan | Turkey | Usbekistan | Combined Arab emirates | Viet Nam | Cyprus
other one, disputed states:
Abchasien | Republic of Bergkarabach | Palestine | Südossetien | China, Republic of (Taiwan) | Turkish Republic of north Cyprus
other areas (z. B. Colonies):
Hong Kong | Macao | Tschagos archipelago | Tibet
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Coordinates: 18°-54° N, 74°-135° O