Elementary school

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Germany

the term elementary school is historically connected with the thought of an educational facility for the people.

In the Federal Republic of Germany the elementary school to approx. marked. 1968 oneSchool form, in which one usually acquired so-called people graduation after eight school years.

After the education reform around 1968 the elementary schools were dissolved, to their place stepped the four years old primary school (primary stage). Subsequently, the pupils must after this „basic school time “ a resuming school that Secondary school I visit. The again formed hauptschule as follow-on equipment of the elementary school or (as already 1968 ago) other resuming schools offer this possibility for this time.

In addition, the term elementary school still exists after 1968 - it is used mostly for schools, the reasonand hauptschule under a roof unite (often in addition, for pure primary schools). In addition in Bavaria the public education at reason and hauptschule is among other things meant among other things by Bavarian people school regulations (VSO) regulated, those that children who can be given first schooling to become people schoolable.

historical bases

asFounder of the Volksschulwesens in Germany applies the Prussian king Friedrich William I. (1683-1740). it issued the edict to 1717 to the general compulsory schooling. It determined that children will only dismiss from the fifth up to the twelfth Lebensjahr into the school to go and should if they read andto write could. Likewise the Katechismus had to be by heart learned.

Friedrich II. from Prussia (1712-1786) the public education reformed. The duration of the school time became in „the royal Prussian general land school regulation “of 12. August 1763 on eight years fixed. The general land school regulation, which the theologian Johann Julius Hecker had considerably prepared, formedthe basis for the development of the Prussian Volksschulwesens.

Writing and read schools and the computing schools of the late Middle Ages just like küster and Sundays schools of the reformation formed the preliminary stage of the elementary school. For the first time the term elementary school is mentioned 1779, it became also elementary school, land school, Village school or arm school mentioned.

The school supervision was subordinate at this time of the church, which noticed it in the person of the minister as a school inspector.

elementary school in 19. Century

the elementary school became from the following reasons in 19. Century as unit school type for all imported: Penetrationthe general compulsory schooling, Alphabetisierung of the population, national drawing as part of the nation.

The financing was at the municipalities and the state. The churches had the school supervision to 1870.

The education goals were limited because of the costs and possibly produced discontent. For example the hour board in that sawfirst half 19. Century so out: 12 hours of vintages and letters, 6 hours of religion, 5 hours counting, 3 hours singing and church songs.

The teacher training took place via again created teacher min acres. The payment was very small and led to large discontent among the teachers.

Austria

in Austria gives it the four years old elementary school, which must be visited by each instruction-requiring child, since instruction obligation exists. Domestic instruction is legally certified in Austria, however this is taken up rarely.

The elementary school becomes into the basic level 1 (Vorschulstufe,1. and 2. School stage) and into the basic level 2 (3. and 4. School stage) arranged. There are different organization forms: einklassige schools (where several school stages in a class are informed = department instruction) and mehrklassige schools (each school stage is assigned to its own class). Each class becomes a chief instructor(= class executive committee) assigned, as a rule, excluded religious education and work instruction (textiler range) informs all obligation articles. In areas, in which linguistic minorities live, also bilingual instruction is accomplished. In all schools so-called „nut-linguistic instruction can “as noncommittal exercise for children with not-German native language (only alsoRegistration visitable) to be offered.

In Austria instruction obligation exists. Each child, up to 31. August of one calendar year completed the sixth Lebensjahr, must visit the elementary school lain in the school parish in the September following on it. Before introduction of the hauptschule the elementary school covered people-trains - lower level (1.to 4. School stage) and people-train - upper stage (4. to 8. School stage) altogether eight school stages. It was reduced by higher organization forms gradually after the Second World War to the today's four school stages. After the fourth school stage of the elementary school the option exists for the attendance of the hauptschule orthe lower level of the High School (but an evaluation with „property is very well “necessary “or „) in the main objects.

Beside public schools there are also Privatschulen with public right, those among other things also by church institutions to be led.

The teachers of the public schools are officials of the respective Land of the Federal Republic.The pupil owners municipalities are for the supply of the classrooms (school building, classes including necessary secondary rooms and mechanism) and the budgets for organizational ranges (instruction and teaching material, school control room, heating, lighting,…)responsibly. If several municipalities are summarized in a school parish, then they unite to a so-called school municipality.School parishes are defined and meant this by regulation of the respective country that all instruction-requiring children announced in an obligation school parish (when tidy domicile) have to visit the school in the parish. Exceptions (= parish-strange school attendance) require a permission by means of a procedure, into all concerning (educate-entitled,Municipalities, district administration) hearing right possess.

This paragraph is occupied with the elementary school in Austria. In Switzerland the elementary school similar to Austria is called primary school, in Germany as primary school. However the primary school as well as the secondary and/or six-form high school covers Swiss elementary school (altogether 9 (mandatory)School years, of it depending upon canton 5-6 years primary school).

historical

the term elementary school stepped isolated toward end 18. Century up and was legally embodied only 1840.

 

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