Prehistory

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The discussion over this request takes place on the quality assurance side .
Here the concrete reason,why this article on the QA sides was registered: Actually would rather be me a delete request, perhaps but occurs to someone which, how one could possibly distinguish the article from others, because: 1. The article covers itself thematically as far as possible with thatclearly Steinzeit, other aspects archaeology and Hominisation are described better article in the articles. 2. The recent prehistory is hardly mentioned (Neolithikum straight times still so, metal times not at all and/or. only in the table - that would be however thatonly difference to the stone time article. 3. The text is somewhat unstructured and partially. essentially wrongly, without I want to list now here all this only times the beginning: “Prehistory… lasts… up to the Auftregen of writing certifications " (correctly) “where written recordingsare missing, carry… “and where they are are it there no more prehistory. The Steinzeit ends in Central Europe approx. 2300/2000 v. Chr., not, how in the article is located, 4000 v. Chr., also datings and designations of the early Hominiden are partially.become outdated. “In most other regions of the world it concerns with the Neolithisierung however rather a process, itself over thousands of years partly extended.” That is only right in the Orient the case, where it approximately 4000 years, to permanence, agriculture, cattle breeding and ceramic(s) together is 212.144.176.65 09:29 , 27 lasts. April 2006 (CEST) P.S. I suggest, the article by a short definition of “prehistory” and/or. “Prehistory” to replace (study of the completely writingless times of mankind history) and in the textor in a list on the individual special articles to refer (e.g. Steinzeit, copper time, Bronzezeit, Eisenzeit, archaeology, Hominisation, etc. to refer.


The prehistory or prehistory designates mankind history of the occurrence first a block factory witness approximately 2.5 million years ago up to thatfirst writing certifications, which mark the beginning of early history. Accordingly differently the end of the prehistory in the regions of the world dates. Where written recordings are missing, archaeological and scientific methods carry, e.g. the Paläoanthropologie or the geosciences, for example with the ground based radarto the knowledge of these time periods.

The period of the beginning of mankind up to the introduction of the metallurgy, (in Central Europe before approximately 4,000 years), is called Steinzeit. In Central Europe first copper, then bronze and iron are finally processed. Inother regions are missing to copper - and/or Bronzezeit.


Table of contents

temporal classification and subdivision of mankind history

the Steinzeit is arranged into sections. Mittelpaläolithikum, Jungpaläolithikum , becomes general Mesolithikum between Altpaläolithikum , and differentiated between Neolithikum, whereby the individual sections world-wide differently designated, defined and dated is. The classical distinction was the age of the “struck stone” and that of the “polished stone”. The latter is since John Lubbock a characteristic of the Neolithikums (=Jungsteinzeit), inCentral Europe approximately around 5500 v. Chr. began. However there are already both in Ireland and in Sweden in the Mesolithikum polished stone hatchets. Characteristics of the Jungsteinzeit are partial the Domestizierung of animals and plants, permanence as well as production and the use of Ceramic(s). In the front Orient there are however established farmer companies, still no ceramic(s) uses (akeramisches Neolithikum, PPN A and B). In most other regions of the world it concerns with the Neolithisierung however rather a process, thatpartly over thousands of years extends. It stands firmly that the “food-producing” restaurant way brought large socio-economic changes with itself. A similar cut in mankind history the discovery of the metallurgy (copper time, Chalkolithikum, Bronzezeit , Eisenzeit ) is andfinally the development of the high Sumer and writing cultures, z. B. in Europe Crete early history.

The table shows the archaeological organization, how it is usual for Central Europe. The oldest finds originate however from Africa, because the cradle stood theremankind. The oldest, reliably dated finds in Europe are not older than 700,000 years.

Earth-history coincides the paleolithic age for instance with the Pleistozän, the following epochs with the Holozän .

Epoch period in Central Europe subdivision in Central Europe characteristics inCentral Europe kinds of people
paleolithic age or Paläolithikum 700,000 - 8000 v. Chr. Time of the hunters and collecting tanks. At the beginning of rubble devices (“more chopper tools”) and laterFist wedges. The stone devices become increasingly more complex and more specialized. Around 35.000 first vouchers of cults and art in Europe. Hominidenarten:
Homo erectus, Homo sapiens präsapiens, Homo heidelbergensis, Homo neandertalensis, toward end of Homo sapiens sapiens
middle Steinzeit or Mesolithikum 8000 - 5500 v. Chr. Characteristic for the time after the end of the Pleistozäns in Europe. The hunters and collecting tank possess a high-standing tool culture with stone and bone tools, as well as new long-range weapons such as arrow and elbow and nourish themselves muchmore than ever before of fish.Homo sapiens sapiens
Jungsteinzeit or Neolithikum 5500 - 2200 v. Chr. The emergence of theNeolithikums with the Near East is brought in connection. From there the oldest vouchers come from cultivation of grain before approximately 11,500 years. The new restaurant way, instead of collecting and racing (“acquiring”) now “producing”, becomes generally accepted six millenia later in Central Europe. ThatJungneolithikum means an important cut with secondary products the revolution, which covers locally also the occurrence of first copper articles. Homo sapiens sapiens
Bronzezeit 2200 - 800 v. Chr. The introduction of the metallurgy in the Orient makes the production and processing of metals possible (gold, copper, bronze). First sources of writing in the front Orient/Ägäis. Homo sapiens sapiens
Eisenzeit since approx.800 v. Chr. Homo sapiens sapiens

criticism at the three-periodic system

the partitioning of history in Steinzeit, Bronzezeit, and Eisenzeit, the three-periodic system, is today still a concept valid in the fundamentals, becomes howeverin the meantime regards critically. The partitioning is considered as too rough and nonspecific, because straight at the transition from the stone to the metal use are flowing the transitions, and those distinctive periods are everything but relatively or wohlproportioniert. Thus is missing regionally inEurope existing however short Mesolithikum. In some regions the copper time is already occupied for the end of the Neolithikums.

Further critics are the creationists, those not only this partitioning, but the time computations, particularly the existence and dating of the paleolithic age, at all inQuestion ask.

Ur or prehistory

the cultural background of the people becoming is the actual the subject of the pre or prehistory. This runs off in two with one another levels: A cultural and a biological evolutionary. To different cultural epochsgoing articles are above aforementioned already for the individual subsections in the detail. Nevertheless a coherent first overview is to be given here in particular over the cultural evolution of humans. The biological evolution is treated in the article Hominisation, in individual kinds of people becomeshere therefore it only strongly simplifying received.

Paläolithikum

Homo habilis and rubble equipment industry

mankind history begins in Africa forwards approx. 6 million years with the development of the upright course by the Australopithecinen. For the causesthere are many theories. Some assume an adjustment at steppe regions, which were before wooded. The upright course would have made not only a better view possible, but the additional effect that now the hands increasingly for other things than progressive movementbecame free:

The first members of the kind Homo (Hominiden) lived forwards approx. 2,6-2 million years.

Homo erectus and fist wedge industry

toward end of the time, thus approx. 1 million years before today, arose to two substantial innovations: Humanslearned to use the fire and probably began with the active hunt for animals, after they might have fed themselves before primarily from plants and carrion. Also the Homo became habilis now finally from another kind, the Homo erectusreplaced, itself forwards approx. 1,5 million years to develop had begun (“Olduvai - Hominid 9 ", approx. 1,2 - 1.5 millions years). This kind was so successful that it could spread to substantial: Over completely Africa, small Asia, south and Central Europe(near kind Homo used heidelbergensis, 600,000 forwards today; Homo erectus bilzingslebensis before 400,000 years), and over India in today's China and to Southeast Asia (“Java human being” Pithecanthropos already forwards approx. 1,6 million years), whereby the direction of propagation northward obviously ofincreased cultural abilities depended, which could offer to the climatically more difficult conditions versus.

Homo erectus improved first the stone devices: Increasingly now also the smaller anticipated payments were used by the core stones, retouched at the edges (worked over again) and thus for other tasks usable.There was a proper technology jump forwards approx. 1.5 million years: Now also the core stones were by far more sensitivly worked on, and particularly at two sides to hew in such a way that they train a point: The fist wedges remained beside the worked on anticipated payments most important toolsthe Altpaläolithikums to approximately 130,000 forwards today.

Apart from the fire use already mentioned the hunt for animals was an important development, in order to adjust the reduced vegetable food offer outside of East Africa. Systematic hunt for large and small game developed off approx. 1 millionBefore our time, as “waste products” humans received years to the food procurement now also further raw materials:Skins, which protected against cold weather, bones, which found as tools use. Tools from wood and other passing organic material are for this second halfto expect the Altpaläolithikums, naturally archaeologically however hardly demonstrably: Exceptions confirm the rule, about two wooden Speere with an age of 370,000 years from Schöningen.

Neandertaler and anticipated payment devices

in Europe developed from the Homo erectus (possiblyout or parallel to the Homo heidelbergensis) before approximately 300,000 years of the Neandertaler, one on the specific environmental causing of the last ice age outstanding adapted kind of people.

The Neandertaler presents itself today (against earlier acceptance) as culturally developed: With them are in Central Europe for the first time ritual practices demonstrably, then are e.g. Funerals also grave-added occupied, what shows that the Neandertaler was speakable. In the Gudenushöhle (Lower Austria) even a bone whistle was found. The Neandertaler did not develop a technology of the treatment of stones, with thatmore (only) the cores of the stones the tool resulted in, but with that the anticipated payments themselves knocked off by the stone tool (blade) were and/or. were further processed.

Homo sapiens

beside (or out) the Homo erectus developed onenew people form, the Homo sapiens. Is not finally clarified, as far it developed independently from local existing people types; one tends however increasingly to understand it as a kind those, before 150 - developed oneself for 200,000 years in Africa,(after Homo erectus) from there over the world spread. The Homo sapiens refines first far the methods of the treatment of stones; they resemble partial those the Neandertaler. Whether their disappearing is to due to conflicts with anatomically modern humans, remains disputed;in Europe itself the 2 kinds could before 30.000-40.000 years meet to be, which would explain some per cent “neandertalisches” hereditary property.

The first certifications are remarkable abstract (symbolic) thinking, which expresses itself most concisely in the cave painting, their oldest on approximately 35.000Years date. As artistic products (s.auch art) verzierte bone objects made of South Africa (Blombos cave) are however already considered with engravings, whose oldest dates on approximately 77,000 years. Also they come from anatomically modern humans (= H.s.s.). The products of the art are vouchersa religion, which has the language ability as a substantial condition.

Mesolithikum and Neolithikum

the bases of our current civilization developed particularly after the end the last ice age. The climatic belts of the earth shifted northward; in Central Europe setthe Bewaldung (forest zone). After a transitional phase, innovations use of after-ice-age hunters and collecting tank ( Mesolithikum , in Central Europe about 8,000 and 5,500 years before Chr.), which brought profound socio-economic changes with itself.

Crucial characteristic of the “Neolithi revolution” is thoseChange of the restaurant way. To Central Europe the Domestikation of animals and plants arrives more than 7000 years ago. Humans are established and use ceramic(s). Also in the stone technology there are innovations; one discovers the cross section of stone.

Work on []

See also

to literature

  • Martin Kuckenberg: From the stone time camp to the Keltenstadt - settlements of the prehistory in Germany. Konrad Theiss publishing house, Stuttgart 2005, ISBN 3-8062-1446-8
  • Ernst rehearses: Germany in the Steinzeit.C. Bertelsmann, Munich 1991

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