a sign is an indication of the old person ration of a natural of a music piece or within the same from a certain clock . It stands directly behind the Notenschlüssel before the pulse specification. Thus it differs from the Versetzungszeichen (also pl. Akzidentien), which only for a certainClock validity has.
Such signs can shift naturals upward or down around or two half-tones. In addition there are special signs for the disalignment around quarter, Sechstel, eighth and twelfth tones, which find in the new music as well as Transkriptionen of ethnical music use.
The signs leaverecognize the kind of clay/tone with tonal music.
The number and kind of signs can be read off from the Quintenzirkel: On the basis of C Dur (kind of parallel clay/tone A Moll) have the kinds of clay/tone in clockwise direction to the right in each case a cross (♯) as sign more, against the clockwise direction to the left in each case in(♭) more. Can occur up to seven signs, since the scale has 7 different tones.
To table of contents
kinds of clay/tone and clay/tone names
- C major and A-Moll: No sign
- G major and e-Moll: 1♯ - Fis
- D major and h-Moll: 2♯ - Fis/Cis
- A major and fis Moll: 3♯ - Fis/Cis/Gis
- E major and cis Moll: 4♯ - Fis/Cis/Gis/Dis
- H major and gis Moll: 5♯ - Fis/Cis/Gis/Dis/Ais (speak: A-is)
- F sharp major and this Moll: 6♯ - Fis/Cis/Gis/Dis/Ais/Eis (speak: Ice)
- F major and D-Moll: 1♭ - B
- B major and g-Moll: 2♭ - B/Es
- E flat major and C-Moll: 3♭ - B/Es/As
- A flat major and f-Moll: 4♭ - B/Es/As/Des
- D flat major and b-Moll: 5♭ - B/Es/As/Des/Ges
- Ges Dur and it-Moll: 6♭ - B/Es/As/Des/Ges/Ces
parallel kinds of clay/tone (like C major andA-Moll) have same signs, kinds of clay/tone of the same name (as C major and C-Moll) differ around 3 signs.
the cross before a note increases these by a half-tone. On the note names the final syllable is hung “is”.
- ♯ + c -> cis
- ♯ + d -> this
- ♯ + e -> ice
- ♯ + f -> fis
- ♯ + g -> gis
- ♯ + a -> ais
- ♯ + h -> his
thatb before a note degrades these by a half-tone. On the note names the final syllable “it” is hung.
- ♭ + c -> the ces
- ♭ + d ->
- ♭ + e ->
- ♭ + f -> fes
- ♭ + g -> ges
- ♭ + a -> as
- ♭ + h -> b
rules apply for linguistic usage in German:
- With the increase by a cross the name of the natural becomes without exceptionaround the syllable “- is” extends. Thus cis, this, ice (speak ice), fis, gis, ais (speak A-is), his.
- Reduction is in most cases marked by the syllable “- it”. Exceptions make here the naturals e, A and h. In detail: ces, it, fes,ges, as, b (instead of hes).
- Double increase supplies cisis, disis, eisis, fisis…, doubled reduction of ceses, deses, eses, feses, geses, ases, heses.
In the English and Roman linguistic area the natural names themselves are not extended but get (placed behind) the attributes:
- ♯: English. sharp, franz. dièse, ital. diesis
- : English. flat, franz. bémol, ital. bemolle.
see for this: To Anderssprachige one clay/tone designations
the programming language C♯ carries the Erhöhungszeichen in the name.