causes for the establishment
the Thaya is a river with large fluctuations in the discharge. During the thaw in the spring or after strong rainfalls it leads large quantities of water, in the summer however gives it to Niedrigwasser. And both had for the municipalities to the Thaya partial negative effects.
With progressive electrification requirements of electric current rose and these wanted one by water power to cover.
first power station plannings
of the Holzbildhauer novel Loos from Znaim to the Thaya submitted first considerations over the building of a power station to the Thaya. Its in former times death 1890 terminated however a continuation of planning.
Other plans saw a concrete dam between Vöttau (Bítov) and free stone to the Thaya forwards as well as a lug to a power house in Frain to the Thaya. The small downward gradient permitted however no economical enterprise.
The Frainer engineer Ferdinand Schmidt linked the problems specified above and/or. Wish and found the solution in the planning of a large memory plant, which originally consisted still of three dams. But in the course of its geological and hydrologic investigations it turned out soon that the building of a only one large concrete dam was above Frain to the Thaya the best solution.
Its planning planned that the dam should catch and to the underflow of the Thaya deliver tsunami in the kept free memory space evenly should, so that also in dry periods the municipalities had an even quantity of water available below the barrier always.
Beside its technical investigations began it also about the future financing of the project to worry. As backers should co-operate the State of, the countries Mähren and Lower Austria and private Finanziers like „Swiss bank association “.
„The Thayatalwerke for back-up and electricity plants limited company “received the building release, which became valid after objections 1914 and was limited on ten years after the official commissioning 1912.
engineer Ferdinand Schmidt could not be confused. He collected far technical data and brought again a group of financings together. However the time began to urge. Because the again created Czech state had renewed the concession 1919, but only for three years.
The concession loss would have been for it a personal disaster, because it had financed a majority of the building preparations from own bag.
1921 went surprisingly the Westmähri electricity company into action, in order with it over the purchase licensed project to negotiate. The threatening total loss of the moneys before eyes, spent by him, nothing else remained for it to agree as the too low purchase price. As optical Aufbesserung the highest line of the execution of construction was offered to it as well paid article of employment. Additionally one assured the exclusive rights for navigation and fishery to it for further marketing. To 25. April 1921 was signed the contract.
Despite the unfeinen negotiating patterns, with which one had pressurized him, engineer fought. Schmidt of far for the building of the dam.
although the building project was planned, became the commencement of construction again and again retarded. Only in February 1929 by the national office in Brünn the building of the dam Frain was written out to the Thaya.
At the end of October of the same yearly gave the Minister for public work - Dr. Franz Spina - which admits result: The addition the consortium Böhmisch Mähri share building firm (Prague) received - Lanna corporation (Prague) - Pittel & shower weather (Brünn).
Still in the last months of the yearly 1929 the necessary preparatory work was begun (workshop, living and office building, auxiliary bridges and gel ice for the material railway). , Where today the numerous small restaurants stand, the concrete machine for mixing was established as well as the Schotterbrech and the sorting equipment, which should prepare the locally won building material.
To 8. January 1930 the material railway from the building site, established as narrow-gauge railway, kommissioniert to the station of beautiful forest (Šumná , northwest course Vienna - Prague), where an own assumption stationstation assumption station one had established.
Without large ceremonies found at the 1. April 1930 the Grundsteinlegung for the dam in presence of the new Minister for public work, engineer. Dostalek, instead of.
In first build-grope the Thaya to the right bank one shifted, in order to be able to build the wall half with the four Grundablässen and the Tosbecken, which was because of the left bank. At the same time also the cascades of the water overflow were established.
The concrete dam from casting concrete was established („plastic concrete “). This was manufactured in the electrically operated concrete machine for mixing, in containers filled and by means of an aerial ropeway to the respective section transports and by means of casting gutters into the formwork filled. This plant possessed a daily performance of 1.200 m ³ concrete per day.
During the establishment of the section on the right bank the Thaya was derived by the openings of the Grundablasses. For the case of a flood a section was left somewhat lower, in order to support the Grundablass.
After the completion of the actual concrete dam still over the dam crown the road with two Gehsteigen was established over the concrete dam and the power station center was removed.
the electrical equipment
the planning of engineer. Schmidt had planned still 10 Francis water turbines in five group gradated from 3200 HP to 960 HP for each turbine -, in order to achieve by it an optimum adjustment from water level and requirements of electric current to and to let as even a quantity of water as possible happen the dam. In addition the Wasserzuleitung was in such a way laid out to the turbines that so much warm Oberflächenwasser should propel as possible the turbines, in order to cool the river down not unnecessarily.
Of these considerations much did not remain in the final execution of construction. To the use finally only two Francis water turbines, the water came were cold depth water. The third turbine was inserted only 1938.
The transport of the two Francis water turbines and the other mechanical equipment for the power station placed engineers before large problems, because neither the motor vehicles nor the local roads of the time at that time corresponded to the requirements. So several dragging vehicles had often to be clamped, in order to advance on ways often even not asphalted.
1934 were finished placed the power station house which was directly because of the concrete dam at the right bank and begun with the development of the high voltage transmission line to the kalorischen power station Oslawan with Brünn, which had supplied so far the concrete machine for mixing with the necessary river. This line was placed only 1936 finished and was first 100,000 V of high voltage transmission line in west and Südmähren.
completion and full back-up
1933 were begun unscheduled with the back-up. The spring thaw and strong rainfalls filled the storage reservoir, so that on the concrete dam a Wasserhöhe of 15 meters could be based. This water level was sufficient to remain clear in order to partly inundate a mill and also the inhabitants of the village Vöttau (Bitov), lying above the dam, became that it was no longer longer possible, in „alto Vöttau “and it high time was to move in the again established „new Vöttau “. The names were however not official „old and new Vöttau “.
Since at this time the dam was not yet fully loadable, the Grundablässe were opened. In addition it showed up that the Rodungsarbeiten necessary in the dust realm had not been accomplished thoroughly enough and together with drowned game ensured that the accumulated water transformed into a faulige and stinking Brühe.
The accumulated water had to be discharged and be begun again then with the back-up. It lasted until 1935, until the full back-up was reached. „The Znaimer newspaper “called its readers in May 1935 not to be able to be escaped the interesting play of the overflowing water.
At the 11. April 1934 was taken up the generation of current with two turbines, in addition with the disassembly of all offsites necessary for the building and the recultivation of the building site one began.
In the years 2004 and 2005 that was reconditioned meanwhile 70 years old power station.
the total costs for the establishment of the dam approximately 132 million crowns amounted to, around some more than planned were. This circumstance, paired with rapidly arising rumors around financial irregularities and bribes could have only one result.
To 9. December 1935 began before the criminal senate Brünn the process. Leading persons of the implementing building firms as well as some suppliers were accused beside the director/conductor of the building administration with the building of the dam. Charge was among other things „the crime of temptation to the office abuse of the office force “.
To 21. December was announced the judgement. The heaviest punishment removed the director/conductor of the building administration with the building of the dam: one and a half years more heavily, by one nearly day monthly intensified dungeon. Two further accused for 10 months put into the dungeon at likewise one nearly day monthly. In addition all accused had to replace the process costs and lost for three years the municipality right to vote.
during the building of the Frainer dam was original it to some alterations of by engineer. Ferdinand Schmidt took place planning come and/or. the edition to discharge a certain minimum quantity water during the dry periods not kept. That the construction supervision only later ansuchte after facts already completed were created around the permission of the changes, led to substantial protests of the municipalities concerned.
The city Znaim criticized that the power station serves not like planned the adjustment of the water regime of the Thaya, but excluding the generation of current. In addition it must be ensured that so much cold water is not discharged, since this damages the bath enterprise in the Thaya substantial (the plans of engineer. Schmidt had carried for it still providing!).
Also Frain to the Thaya brought forward a long lack list regarding the execution of construction and management of the dam.
Appropriate inputs had however no success. To 20. February 1936 took place in Znaim the negotiation over water-legal permission.
Again the arguments of the municipalities concerned were stated. The reaction of the delegation of Hardegg (Lower Austria ) was most energetic. It protested in each case with any excuses to be abgespeist.
The negotiation remained unsuccessful for the municipalities concerned.
Today still deplore both national park the water gush, which results from the generation of current, since this beinträchtigt the life of the animals in the river as well as within the direct bank range.
tourism at the dam
Frain to the Thaya had been already before the building of the dam a popular place for the summer-resort. But the tourism got now a new dimension, which wanted enormous water surface is used.
Trip boats were purchased and organized with them round travels on artificial lake. The largest of them came from the Starnberger lake into Bavaria. After also Südmähren part of the 3. Realm had become, it to a partnership between cities with star mountain had come and one of the there motorboats from star mountain to Frain to the Thaya had been transported.
Restaurants settled at the dam, where still the concrete mixer had confessed before.
During the war the tourism rested, then driving the ethnic Germans population out followed to 24. May 1945.
To the war the tourism came again into momentum, boats drove again up to the lock Vöttau. The iron curtain prevented vacation trips into the south, therefore the bank of the artificial lake the Riviera had replaced. Camping sites and holiday homes developed.
Since the Samtenen revolution in December 1989 there are no more trip boats on artificial lake. The artificial lake had made meanwhile career and was also drinking water reservoir for numerous municipalities to the Thaya (no matter whether Hardegg in Austria and Znaim to the Thaya in the Czech republic or others.) and like that had one fear that in case of an accident the drinking water was contaminated by flowed out diesel oil.
the dam and the war
the disaster happened to 16. May 1943. English bomber aircraft destroyed the poppy dam with terrible damages.
The fear that such could repeat itself again, was large. The civilian population from Frain the Thaya was instructed to deposit for the emergency clothes and documents with relatives and acquaintance outside of the Thayatals.
Computations resulted in that during a total destruction of the concrete dam was endangered by the Flutwelle the Lundenburg (Břeclav), removed relatively far, still. As a precaution therefore „a new Lundenburg was planned “on area lain more highly.
But everything that came out from these considerations, was a Flak - battery with Vierlingsgeschützen on the concrete dam. In addition a steel cable became strained between masts, which should prevent or make more difficult low flier attacks. Additionally the navy mined parts of the artificial lake.
further power station projects
than subsequent project a power station became with Baumöhl (Podmoli (?))considered. But the back pressure of this barrier would have concerned also Austrian area and due to existing agreements with the Republic of Austria to a delivery from electric current to the cost price would thus have obligated. The project was not carried out.
The gau works Niederdonau, which 1938 the line took over, planned a larger dam above Znaim to the Thaya and a smaller balancing reservoir above Hardegg. 1943 would have been the project, but the development 2. World war prevented the execution.
Already 1945 came it between the Westmähri power stations and the again created NEWAG into Lower Austria to technical discussions over the building of the mentioned balancing reservoir, since also Austrian national territory would have been affected by it. The political developments in the Czech Republic of 1948 terminated however these discussions.
1966 seized the Austrian government the initiative and wanted that 1948 failed project in the context of the borderland promotion to support. But the planned economy in the Czech republic prevented this. In addition at this time straight with Znojmo nad Dyji a small barrier was established to the safety device of the water supply of the city.
Last attempt of a building of power stations in this region was again once the project with bull rock above Znojmo nad dyji. Since in addition, Austrian national territory was concerned, the negotiations pulled themselves into the length. Meanwhile the nature protection began itself to intersperse and in place of the power station originated in to two of national park: „The national park Thayatal “in Lower Austria and „the Narodny park Podyji “in Südmähren.
the project of the Thayatalbahn from Znaim the Thaya after Raabs to the Thaya was because of the planned electrical enterprise and the electric current of one needed for it the trip for the building of the Frainer dam.
Also at this project was engineer. Ferdinand Schmidt, together with Heinrich Friedländer from Zurich, considerably takes part. They submitted a first concrete suggestion 1904 . The largest part of the distance should run in mährischen area and only a short piece in down-Austrian area after Raabs.
The agreement to this line was large, but when the project was ready to build, the First World War began. After end of war and the establishment of the new Czech state explained this to have no interest in this line close to the border.
a project of intermediate wartime was the Thayatalstrasse. On the occasion of the tourism conference for the Thayatal in September 1929 in Waidhofen to the Thaya was fired at to establish a motor vehicle route by the Thayatal in Südmähren and in Lower Austria. To connect it should follow Znaim to the Thaya and Waidhofen to the Thaya and after possibility the process of the Thaya, in order to show the traveler the splendour of the Thayatals.
Engineer. Ferdinand Schmidt, which was busy with the planning of the Frainer dam, was asked, into its planning the road section Frain - free stone to the Thaya (Podhradi nad Dyji) into its planning with to include.
In addition, this project was not carried out.
engineer. Ferdinand Schmidt
Engineer. Ferdinand Schmidt became to 18. December 1878 in Frain to the Thaya born. Apart from its occupation as an engineer it was 1923 to 1927 mayors von Frain. In addition it was a director of the Frainer savings bank. As thanks for its effort around „the Thayatalbahn “it the city Hardegg appointed 1914 to the Thaya in Lower Austria the honour citizen. He deceased to 27. September 1941 in Frain, where it is buried on the there cemetery also.
Its family was driven out 1945 as all other German-language Frainer.
At its 30. Day of death (27. September 1971) took place on initiative of the Südmähri energy works n.p., Brünn, with full agreement of the political authorities at its grave a commemoration ceremony. In addition its next members and even the visas were invited were made available.
1978 took place on the occasion of the hundredth birthday in the presence of the mayor von Vranov nad Dyji likewise a celebration. The family Schmidt was not invited to this.
Since 2001 the grave is an honour grave.
catchment area:: 2,214 km ²
wall height over middle foundation sole: 54 m
wall height over deepest foundation sole: 59.87 m
wall width in foundation sole: 41 m
wall width in crown: 7 m
wall length of the barrier crown: 296 m
storage reservoir contents: 133.000.000 m ³
back pressure length: 30 km
wall volumes: 220,000 m ³
4 basic drain pipes á 160 cm
water supply to the turbines: 3 pipes á 260 cm
turbines: 3 Francis water turbines á 5,400 KW
of yearly generation of current: approx. 25.000.000 KW/H
- Willy Anderle one - walter Schmidt: „Frain - once the bead in the Thayatal “volume I and II, 2002 in the self-publishing house
Web on the left of
- pictures of the dam
- of pictures of the navigation on artificial lake
- pictures of the Frainer dam/Vranovská Přehrada
coordinates: 48° 54 ′ 22 " N, 15° 49 ′ 10 " O