Volcanism

indication of volcanic activity: Sulfur deposits at the edge of the Halema'uma'u Kraters of the Mauna Loa on Hawaii

under volcanism one understands all geological procedures and features, which are connected with the ascending of magma from the Earth's mantle up to the earth's surface. Usually Vulkanimus is bound to tectonically active regions, like Subduktionszonen or midocean backs - magmas from larger depth step in addition, at atektonischen stationary Hot Spots (e.g. Hawaii) out. Under changes of the chemical composition (e.g. Water content) and the pressure (pressure relief) comes it to partial melting of the rock (magma). The liquid material collects thereby usually in the magma chamber in such a way specified. From this the volcanos present on the surface are fed by narrow ascent ways.

Volcanism covers all withdrawal forms of the material as firm (bomb, Lapilli, pumice stone, ashes), liquid (lava, Lahar, Geysir, Maar) or gaseous (volcanic gas, Fumarole) materials. Pretty often combinations of the eruptiven accompaniments arise like z. B. the devastating pyroklastischen rivers. The depth equivalent not to the Edoberfläche of withdrawn magmas are Plutonite.

Volcanos belong to the imposantesten manifestations of geological and geodynamic processes, not only on earth, but also on other planets and their moons of our solar system. There is well-known different active volcanos outside of the earth, then are sulfur volcanos on the Jupitermond IO, Kryovulkane on the Neptunmond triton and extinct volcanos z. B. on Mars and the Venus.

Volcanism has portion of the most consequence-fraught natural catastrophes of the earth. Many of the enormous circulations in geologic history are to be attributed to him, not least by its substantial influence on the regional and global climatic development with the consequences resulting from it. Volcanic Katatrophen can concern the human population directly and indirectly, by destruction close of an active volcano, or however by global climatic changes and case of ash. The products of volcanism at the same time represent however the base of life of far population parts, by productive volcanic soils, building material, geothermal energy and tourism. A tenth of the earth population lives approximately in the direct sphere of influence of active volcanos. Volcanic observatories observe, register and analyze the activity of active volcanos, in order forecasts and warnings to express to be able (this happens in the last decades with predominant success).


See also: Volcanic eruption, Pompeji, Pliniani eruption, Caldera, tectonics, earth's crust, lithosphere, Planetologie

literature

  • Hans Ulrich Schmincke: Volcanism, scientific book company, 2000, ISBN 35-3414-102-4
  • Carl Christoph Beringer: Volcanism and other depth forces of the earth, Franck h, 1953, ISBN B0000BGFMR

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