Württemberg

data in the year 1925
state capital: Stuttgart
surface: 19,508 km ²
inhabitants: 2.580.235
population density: 132 Einwohner/km ²
Kfz characteristics: III A, C, D, E, H, K,
M, P, S, T, X, Y, Z
map
Württemberg 1810-1945

Württemberg was a historical territory, itself in the 11. Century from the rule areathe aristocracy sex of the Württemberger developed. Starting from that 12. Century until 1495 was Württemberg county, thereafter duchy. 1806 were raised it to the kingdom. Württemberg was in the east of the today's Land of the Federal Republic Baden-Wuerttemberg; besides it gave to 1793 linksrheinische areas in Elsass and around Montbéliard.

Württemberg designates also a German area of cultivation of wine - see Württemberg (area of cultivation of wine) and Württemberger crying race.

Table of contents

naming

castle Wirtemberg around 1600

the name Württemberg leads itself from the Wirtemberg in Stuttgart red mountain (urban district Stuttgart Untertürkheim) off. This again is possibly, celtic origin local after in Luxembourg, the possible homeland of the sex of the Württemberger, convenient mountain designated or (*Wirodunum). On the Wirtemberg the former master castle Wirtemberg stood to 1819 from that 11. Century, in whose place 1824 a grave chapel for queen Katharina of Württemberg was established.

history

the house Württemberg stepped for the first time in the second half of the 11. Century up. First documentary designated representative is 1081 Konrad I., which was probably also a designer of the castle Wirtemberg.

county until 1495

in 12. The Württemberger the office for count attained century. With the end of the Stauferherrschaft in Swabia around 1250 were the conditions forthe territorial extension of the county Württemberg production. By the marriage of the count Ulrich I. with Mechthild of bathing in the year 1251 the later capital Stuttgart came to Württemberg. Further enlargements of the rule became mainly under count Ulrich III. (1325- 1344) and under count Eberhard III. (Eberhard of the mildness) (1392 - 1417) reached. Thereby the acquisition of the county Mömpelgard is outstanding by the marriage promise of the later count Eberhard IV. with Henriette of Mömpelgard to 13. November 1397. To 25. January 1442 became the Nürtinger contract between Ludwig I. and its brother Ulrich V. closed. This split Württemberg into two parts. The Stuttgart part under Ulrich V. covered the cities CAN place, Göppingen, Marbach, Neuffen, Nürtingen, Schorndorf and Waiblingen; to the Uracher part under Ludwig I. belonged the cities Balingen, Calw, gentleman mountain, Münsingen, Tuttlingen and Tübingen. Mömpelgard became after the death of the nut/mother of the two counts Henrietteslammed shut by Mömpelgard 1444 first the Uracher region.

With the Münsinger contract of 14. December 1482 and the Esslinger contract of 2. September 1492 succeeded it to the count von Württemberg Urach and later duke Eberhard in the beard, the division Württembergsto waive again. Childless Eberhard in the beard became exclusive ruler of the reunited country. The follow-up became on the acting count of Württemberg Stuttgart Eberhard VI. specified, that the country however together with a Zwölferausschuss from the so-called respectableness, the representativesthe noble and non-noble conditions in the country, to govern should.

duchy from 1495 to 1806

Grab Herzogs Eberhard I. in der Tübinger Stiftskirche
grave of duke Eberhard I. in the Tübinger pin church

to 21. July 1495 was raised Württemberg to the duchy. Still in the same year Eberhard gaveI. (Eberhard in the beard) the duchy its first national order. After its death 1496 and the Putsch of the respectableness against Eberhard II. 1498 were the first half 16. Century under duke Ulrich by crises and military conflicts characterized, those onlyunder duke Christoph their conclusion found. To tax increases it came 1514 to rebellions of the farmers („poor Konrad “), who struck down Ulrich bloodily. After it attacked 1519 the free realm city Reutlingen, it became from the troops of the Swabian federation underStating of George Truchsess of Waldburg Zeil (mentioned „farmer Jörg “) from Württemberg drove out. Only 1534 succeeded it to it with the help of the hessian land count Philipp I.to back-conquer, its country. After its return from the exile it led the reformation starting from 1534 inWürttemberg. Here the Reformatoren Ambrosius Blarer , Johannes Brenz and Erhard Schnepf stood for it to the side. The württembergische reformation the attempt of a switching was initial between the zwinglianischen and the lutherischen adjustment. With the dismissal Blarers 1538 was howeverthe way freely for a purely lutherisch coined/shaped prince reformation, which accompanied with the secularization of church property. Duke Christoph continued the structure of the national structures consistently, those already under Eberhard I.one began. A great many sets of rules and laws became underits regency compiles. Thereby the large church order of 1559 , which codified and extended all past national and church regulations , is outstanding. After Christophs son duke Ludwig 1593 deceased childless, the rule went on Friedrich I. from the collateral line Württemberg Mömpelgardover. Its politics were aligned to lead back the privileges of the respectableness and the aristocracy strengthen. This and its noticing anti-reading tables economic policy prove Friedrich clearly as representatives of the early absolutism . Under its building master Heinrich Schickhardt developed many buildings in the stylethe Renaissance.

In the dreissigjährigen war 1618 to 1648 Württemberg belonged to one of the regions usually-concerned at all. Starting from 1628 the country stood more or less durably under control of strange troops. By the restitution edict emperor Ferdinands II.Württemberg lost abouta third of its territory. To the battle with Nördlingen 1634, with which the württembergische army on the side been subject Sweden had fought, it to plunderings and plundering came in the country. Duke Eberhard III. fled in the exile to Strasbourg. In the future the country was depopulated by poverty, hunger and the plague epidemic disease 1637 (approx. 120,000 inhabitants 1648 after 350.000 in the year 1618). With the Westfäli peace 1648, with that the württembergische envoy Johann Konrad Varnbüler the territorialRe-establishment of the country within its old borders negotiated, began the reconstruction and the re-establishment of the economic and administrative structures of the country. These aligned themselves strongly at the conditions of the Vorkriegszeit, strengthened however again the position of the respectableness.Ende of the 17. Century Württemberg was pulled in into the military conflicts of the German Reich with France, the Pfälzer succession war, the fifth Austrian Turk war and Spanish the succession war. In the west of the country it came through thereby to larger devastationsthe marodierenden troops of the French general Ezéchiel de Mélac (for example 1692 during the destruction of the lock and the monastery plants in Hirsau).

the regency of duke Eberhard Ludwig, whose father died only nine months after his birth,were a strong contrast and at the same time fertile soil for the developing württembergischen Pietismus. To it above all the splendid building of the lock Ludwigsburg belonged starting from 1704, where Eberhard Ludwig with its influential Mätresse of many years Wilhelmine of Grävenitz established itself,while its wife remained further in Stuttgart. A provocation of the dominant circles and moral conceptions was probably also the settlement of the 1700 from France refugee Waldenser in Württemberg and the transfer of the capital 1724 frequent into that at that time sow-Irish as „rag castle “designated Ludwigsburg. Successor Eberhard Ludwig, whose only son and grandchild already deceased before him, was 1733 the Karl Alexander from the collateral line Württemberg Winnental, converted to the catholic church. Karl Alexander, that already at the age of twelve years in the imperialMilitary service occurred and with 33 years the general field marshal was already appointed , had by its also after its assumption of office persisting military commitments and its aufwändigen höfischen style a very high financial requirement there and closed therefore the Jew Joseph sweetly Oppenheimerits financial adviser with large powers of decision in the economic and financial policy of the country. After unexpected death Karl Alexanders to 12. March 1737 was arrested Oppenheimer diffamierte as „Jud sweet the “still on the same day. The following process against it, inthat the accumulated envy and hate of the Evangelist württembergischen Oberschicht against Oppenheimer and the catholic duke unloaded themselves, ended with his execution to 4. February 1738 and had strongly anti-Semitic courses.

with death Karl Alexanders was itsSon and successor duke Karl Eugen straight only nine years old. It buildup in Brussels and from 1741 to its actual assumption of office 1744 at the yard Friedrichs of the large one in potsdam and Berlin was educated. Of its assumption of office inYear 1744 to around 1770 was Karl Eugen a strongly absolutist coined/shaped the-poetic ruler, who did not bear free expression of opinion and opposition. The tyrannische kind of its government in this time became also born in the early works of the 1759 in Marbach Friedrich Schiller reflects. Politically Karl Eugen in the seven-year-old war Habsburgi Austria followed against Prussia . The defeat with regard to foreign policy with end of war 1763 and the associated how/as-those-strong relating to domestic affairs the respectableness as well as the finances of the state zerütteten by its splendid government style forcedKarl Eugen for reorientation. To its 50. Birthday 1778 he proclaims the new beginning and the reversal. Disarmament of the army, restraint with regard to foreign policy and the feedback of the public expenditures on the one hand as well as on the other hand the promotion of the training system and the culture were thoseCornerstone of the second part of its government up to its death 1793. This turn attributed the people to its until today in the country still admired in morganatischer marriage with it married second wife Franziska of high home. After its death governedits two brothers Ludwig Eugen and Friedrich Eugen the country in each case for two years, before the regency on the later king Friedrich I. turned into.

End 18. Century stood Württemberg before large territorial changes. In Paris contract of 20. May 1802 was finally transferred the 1793 of the revolutionary France annektierten linksrheinischen possessions Mömpelgard and Reichenweiher to France. At the same time however territorial extensions were assured, which were converted 1803 and 1806 to the realm deputation main conclusion. Numerous small rule was dissolved and the duchy Württembergincorporated, which was raised at the same time to the cure principality. To Württemberg thereby the realm cities Ulm , Heilbronn , Esslingen at the Neckar, Reutlingen , Ravensburg , Swabian Gmünd, came beaver oh to the tear, Swabian resound, Rottweil, Aalen, Isny in the general-outer, cheeks in the general-outer, Giengen at the Brenz, because to the city, bake-strike, book horn and Leutkirch in the general-outer. Further increases were parts of front Austria after the peace of press castle to 26. December 1805, the area of the German medal around bath Mergentheim, most hohenlohischen areas in the northeast, which to Benediktinerklöster Comburg with Swabian resound, ox living, wine garden, Zwiefalten, the Prämonstratenserklöster Schussenried and red at the red, the Cistercian interior monastery Holy cross valley and the German-medal-coming old living. Württemberg gave Exklaven in the middle Black Forest (office horn mountain with property oh, Kirnbach, scold oh and. A.) at bathing off. That before purely and strictly lutherische Württemberg received a considerable catholic minority by the territorial increases.

kingdom 1806 to 1918

the Württembergi king crown
flag of the Kingdom of Württemberg

at the 1. January 1806 was raised Württemberg to the kingdom. The area increases of the country were according to international law confirmed by the Viennese congress 1815 . The first king Friedrich I.allied themselves starting from 1805 with Napoléon and took part 1812/13 in its war against Russia, from which from 15.800 württembergischen soldiers only about 300 returned. Its alliance loyalty with Napoléon secured large freedom of action in the home policy, of them for itA goal the consistent modernization of the state and the abolishment of the privileges of the respectableness in Altwürttemberg as well as the noble ones in the gained areas was.

With the assumption of office of his son king William I. to 30. October 1816 came it to a politics policy.William issued an amnesty, lowered the taxes and interspersed 1819 a comprehensive administrative reform on the basis of a new modern condition . Together with his Mrs. Königin Katharina, a daughter of the Russian Zaren Paul I.the policy was thatfirst years strongly aligned to the Linderung of the economic emergency of broad population circles. Katharina, to 9. January 1819 at the age of only 30 years died, dedicated themselves with large commitment of the social welfare. Thus go the establishment of the Katharinenstifts as Mädchenschule,the Katharinenhospitals, the Württembergi national savings bank, the University of high home and further institutions on it back. On basis of the condition of 1819 and the local autonomy a civil liberalism in Württemberg developed, that itself frequently in the establishmentfrom singing associations manifested. As Protagonisten of this movement Ludwig UHL and and Friedrich Silcher are to be called. With regard to foreign policy William pursued the goal of settling and of limiting on six states the national structures in Germany further. Means to this goal never achievedwas a strong connection with Russia. Successor to the throne Karl married logically to 13. July 1846 the Zarentochter Olga.

Karl, who began the government 1864, was however an advocate of the education of a German national state, the 1871 with the establishment of the Empire one carried out. The political power loss of the country and the ruling family, which accompanied with the establishment of realm, was compensated by a strong meditation on the württembergische identity. Württemberg was organized as consequence of it already in the monarchy more democratically than Prussia andother German Federal States. The last württembergische king William II. was therefore after his resignation to 9. November 1918 in the population very outstandingly.

republic and third realm 1918 to 1945

after the First World War and after thatOffice renouncement of king William II. became to 9. November 1918 the republic Württemberg proclaimed. Boss of the provisional government was the Social Democrat William Blos. The new condition became to 26. Discharged , out of the first elections went to April 1919 the center, the SPD, the democratic people's party, as the strip packing in Württemberg was called, and civil regional parties as strongest parliamentary groups out. Up to the seizure of power of the national socialists 1933 the country was governed by civil coalitions. The SPD remained in the opposition;Opposition leader starting from 1924 was briefly Schumacher. The following overview shows the results of all elections of the federal parliament in Württemberg during the Weimar Republic:

Year SPD Demokra
of tables
people
a party
center WBP
starting from 1924:
DNVP/WBP
1932:
DNVP
WBB USPD WBWB German
people
a party
KPD VSB CSVD NSDAP
1919 34.5%
of 52 seats
25.0%
of 38 seats
20.8%
of 31 seats
7.4%
11 seats
5.8%
of 10 seats
3.1%
of 4 seats
2.7%
of 4 seats
- - - - -
1920 16.1%
of 17 seats
14.7%
of 15 seats
22.5%
of 23 seats
9.3%
of 10 seats
17.7%
of 18 seats
13.3%
of 14 seats
- 3.4%
of 4 seats
- - - -
1924 16.0%
of 13 seats
10.6%
of 9 seats
20.9%
of 17 seats
10.4%
of 8 seats
- - 20.2%
of 17 seats
4.6%
3 seats
11.7%
of 10 seats
4.0%
3 seats
- -
1928 23.8%
of 22 seats
10.1%
8 seats
19.6%
of 17 seats
5.7%
of 4 seats
- - 18.1%
of 16 seats
5.2%
of 4 seats
7.4%
of 6 seats
- 3.9%
3 seats
-
1932 16.6%
of 14 seats
4.8%
of 4 seats
20.5%
of 17 seats
4.3%
3 seats
- - 10.7%
of 9 seats
- 9.4%
of 7 seats
- 4.2%
3 seats
26.4%
of 23 seats

with all realm tag elections remained the result of the NSDAP clearly behind the total resultin the realm back. After the seizure of power of the national socialists to 30. January 1933 set the realm government to 8. March Dietrich von Jagow as a Polizeikommissar for Württemberg. Thereupon many oppositionals were arrested and brought in the concentration camp hay mountain at the cold market. To 15. March was selected the gau leader of the NSDAP William Murr to the president. The enabling act of 24. March and „the law for synchronising the countries with the realm “of 31. March led to the actual Bedeutungslosigkeit of the countries. As in the rest of realmit to pursuit and destruction of Jews, to the elimination of the opposition, came to synchronising the administration and to the emigration. Resistance fighters from Württemberg were for example George Elser, brothers and sisters Hans and Sophie Scholl, the brothers Berthold and ClausGive count von Stauffenberg, Fritz Elsas as well as the former president Eugen Bolz. In the bombardment of the Second World War starting from 1944 also the cities and municipalities Württembergs under intensified bombardments suffered; to 4. December 1944 became Heilbronn almost completelydestroyed.

postwar Germany 1945 to 1952

after the Second World War became the northern part of Württemberg part of the American, the southern part of the French zone of occupation. The south border of the American zone of occupation was selected in such a way that the motorwayKarlsruhe Munich (today's A8) on the whole distance within the American zone of occupation was. Borders were the respective Kreisgrenzen. The military governments of the zones of occupation created 1945/46 the countries Württemberg bathing in the American, as well as bathing and Württemberg Hohenzollern in the French zone.These countries became in the course of the establishment of the Federal Republic of Germany to 23. May 1949 to Lands of the Federal Republic.

The Basic Law of the Federal Republic of Germany demanded measures over article 118 for the reorganisation of the three countries. In the course its came it to 25. April 1952 for the fusion of the countries Württemberg bathing, bathing (D. h. Southbathe) and Württemberg Hohenzollern to the Land of the Federal Republic Baden-Wuerttemberg. Closer details to this topic as well as further history are specified under Baden-Wuerttemberg.

administrative arrangement

the Kingdom of Württemberg became 1810 in twelve Landvogteiendivided, which were divided into 64 upper offices. 1818 was replaced the twelve Landvogteien by four circles: Danube circle (Ulm), Neckarkreis (Ludwigsburg), chase circle (Ellwangen) and Black Forest circle (Reutlingen), which only to the 1. April 1924 were dissolved. 1938 was together seized the still existing 61 upper offices and the city management district Stuttgart to 34 districts and three urban areas.

Im Mai 1939 zählte Württemberg 2.907.166 Einwohner, davon 1,84 Millionen Evangelischeund 0,94 Millionen Katholiken. The surface of the countryat this time 19,508 km amounted to ².

A detailed representation is to be found under administrative arrangement Württembergs.

see also

to literature

  • Gerhard Raff: Hie well Wirtemberg of all ways I: The house Württemberg from count Ulrich the founder to duke Ludwig. With an introduction of Hansmartin Decker Hauff. Stuttgart 1988, ISBN 3-89850-110-8
  • Gerhard Raff: Hie well Wirtemberg of all ways II: The house Württemberg ofDuke Friedrich I. to duke Friedrich III. With the lines Stuttgart, Mömpelgard, Weiltingen, Neuenbürg, Neuenstadt at the digester and oil in Schlesien. Degerloch 1993, ISBN 3-89850-108-6
  • Gerhard Raff: Hie well Wirtemberg of all ways III: The house Württemberg by duke William Ludwigto duke Friedrich Karl. With the lines Stuttgart, Winnental, Neuenstadt at the digester, new-vouch, Mömpelgard and oil, Berne city and Juliusburg in Schlesien and Weiltingen. Degerloch 2002, ISBN 3-89850-084-5
  • Joseph Stöckle: Württemberg in word and picture: To the journey and toStudy. Publishing house Leo Woerl, peppering castle & Vienna, 1889.

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