of waxes are a class of materials, which are defined by their mechanical-physical characteristics, since the chemical composition of different waxes is very different. A material is called wax, if it is firmly hard to fragilly with 20 °C kneadable, a rough to fine-crystallineStructure exhibits, coloured translucently to opak, but, over 40 °C without decomposition melts, little is not glasslike above the melting point easily liquid (a little viscously) is, a strongly temperature-dependent consistency and solubility exhibits as well as under light pressure is polishingable.
More than one is thatcharacteristics specified above fulfilled, is not the material no wax. (German society for fat science)
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characteristics of waxes are usually ductile at ambient temperature to kneadable, can andinflexibly its. Optically the waxlike appearance is characterised by a blunt transparency to milchige turbidity. Waxes melt usually from 35 to 40 °C. Actual Stearin melts with approximately 71°C.
Since they represent a material mixture, they have no defined melting point to usually separate a certain temperature range,Fusion interval or solidification interval mentioned.
Waxes are poorly reactive water-rejecting, burn however at higher temperature.
kinds of wax
- animal ones and vegetable of waxes (animal: Whale advice, Bienenwachs; vegetable: Carnaubawachs from the Brazilian wax palm, a fan palm, sugar tubing wax) consist predominantly of esters of higher fatty acids (howz. B.Palmitic acid) with higher alcohols (usually Cetylalkohol, Myricylalkohol). Bienenwachs is used for candles. Sheets and fruits are protected by layers of wax against loss of water.
- Geologically occurring earth wax (Ozokerit and the Ceresin made of it) and the petroleum wax are mixtures of firm paraffins and serve for the production of vaseline.
- Artificially manufactured so-called synthetic ones of waxes are partially esters, orthey are derived from polyethylene (PE) and chlorinated hydrocarbons. These kinds of wax are used for instance in candles , shoe polish and furniture polishes as well as water-rejecting impregnations.
apart from the uses for candles, polishes and impregnations ( z, already specified. B. Wax paper for packing),waxes in the foundry and because of the good mouldability for Wachsfiguren are used. Jojobaöl (a liquid wax) is used in the Kosmetik. Also for the batik - dress colouring is used wax. At the building waxes to floor - and wood coating are used. Polished waxes lend surfacesa shining appearance (Bohnerwachs) in addition, facilitate the gliding ability (ski wax, furthermore are slippery freshly gewachste soils).
Bienenwachs serves the wax moths and that Honey indicator ( a kind of bird) even as nutrient! Because of the innocuousness of the waxes they are certified also as food additive (usually as parting agents).
Sealing wax is used for sealing documents.
Particularly in that Zahntechnik finds a broad area of application to wax.
wax was already in the antiquity well-known, after the legend used the father of the Ikaros Daedalos wax feathers/springs both arms to fasten on over in such a way and as a bird fly. Ikaros came the suntoo close, which let the wax melt; it fell and drowned in the sea.
Wax boards served in Greece and Rome as write basis for notes, since the writing could be deleted again. In the Middle Ages the responsible craftsman was an occupation of high repute: the Lebzelter. It producedpurifies expensive candles (light measuring), honey and Lebkuchen.