of these articles is concerned with the ecological system forest, further meanings under forest (term clarifying)
sour countries forest in the fog
Birkenwald with Ruovesi (Finland)

a forest is an ecological system, which durably with wood such as trees bewachsen is. The Food and AgricultureOrganization speaks of forest, if the trees

  • are high at least three meters in wintery cold
  • areas or at least seven meters in moderate climate.

Managed forests are called also forests.

As legal term forest is also legally defined:

table of contents

Forests step spreading

Laubwald mit umgestürztem Baum
of the forests hardwood forest with

umgestürztem tree world-wide as vegetation formation in areas with (depending upon temperature) determined minimum amount of precipitation up. If less precipitation falls, the forest goes into a savannah or quilts over. The same appliesfor altitudes, which exhibit a natural forest border depending upon the local conditions starting from a certain height, above those no more forest to grow can.

forest ecological systems

of forests are complex ecological systems. With optimal utilization of resources they are the most productiveLand ecological system. After the oceans they are the most important measured variable of the global climate. They place the only effective one in relation to other use forms global carbon dioxide-lower and are the most important oxygen producers. They affect compensatorily the global material household. Their diversity of species is ininestimable gene pool, whose meaning is recognized increasingly also in the industry.

form spatial

organization within the nine Zonobiome of the earth with overlay of the Orobiome (increments (ecology)) different forest forms out. In the frontiers of the life,with strong dryness or cold weather, the forests change into savannahs, tundras or deserts . The most expanded forest areas of the earth are the tropical rain forests around the equator and the borealen forests of the cold to moderate areas of the Northern Hemisphere (Finland, Siberia, Canada).

These ecological systems are nature-leave neither a temporally rigid still another spatially homogeneous thing. Against the wide-spread opinion are also the connected rezenten „jungles “, like the rain forests in addition, the domestic beech forests inMosaic from zonaler, azonaler and extrazonaler vegetation, whose individual surfaces („Patches “) are subjected to also a temporal development.

time horizons

the different influences, temporal factors as bases of the forest development, as well as a resulting conclusion forest company become in the mosaic cycle concept and the Megaherbivorentheorie discusses.

An organization can ecological be made after Sukzessionsstadien: the mosaic cycle concept describes the forms of the potenziell natural forest development. To complete kind equipment (Flora and fauna) of Klimaxwaldgesellschaften it requires centuries continuous Bestockung. Also by human useadjusted inventory forms can be arranged in naturally occurring Sukzessionsstadien.

The Megaherbivorentheorie measures a greater importance in the forest development to the large herbivores out. Like largely their influence on the vegetation would through be without Bejagung by humans, but with Bejagung in Central Europebecome extinct or exterminated Carnivoren, is disputed.

, variety

of different rain and wet forests is formed forests of the Tropics between the turning circles of the sun, in tropical Klimaten during appropriate dampness supply by rains.

An all-season growth havetropical rain forests, which are the species-richest land ecological systems of the earth. Roughly 70% of all landbound kinds of this earth live in the tropical rain forest zone. For this productivity the soil plays a crucial role. Most tropical rain forests stand on Lateritboden and thatis very unfruchtbar, because it contains and stores hardly nutrients. In spheres of influence of the sour and oxygen-poor black water (for example at the Rio Negro) black water forests prosper. There are low land rain forests and rain forests in middle altitudes.

With increasing height go in thisKlimat the rain forests in nebula or cloud forests over. In a cloud forest numerous Epiphyten grows. This sumptuous vegetation is only exceeded by genuine mountain wet forests, which are to be found the damp hot Tropics into that starting from 2000 m over the sea. Hereone finds above all skin ferns.

Above the genuine mountain wet forests tropical forests change starting from 3100 m (in Africa at the Kilimandscharo) or starting from 4000 m into the Anden into a down-forest-like vegetation. With increasing height the hochandine range begins overthe timber line, the Páramos.

In the tidal zone of the oceans natürlicherseits in the Tropics expanded Mangrovenwälder , which disappeared however to a large extent, grows. In south Australia, at the Red Sea and in south Japan he becomes from only one tree species, in Americaof only 2 - 4 and in an educated manner in south Asia from 19 to 26 tree species. Whether the Flora is very kind-poor probably due to the difficult living conditions ( Salinität , Tidenhub and surf), uses a multiplicity of animals the Mangrovenwälder.

forests of the subtropics

as transitions to the rain forests form the season rain forests, which are watered in more or less more regular intervals, not by rains. They grow in areas, which are still mostly precipitation-rich, but already oneshorter drying time exhibit.

In the subtropics the monsoon forests and trade wind forests under the influence of seasons in the proximity of the turning circles , which are watered by the downpours near-carried with the name-giving hoists, form. These rain time forests do not have a typical form,are very variable and mint themselves depending upon duration of the drynesses. They do not throw leaves off clearly under normal circumstances by drynesses.

Drying-bald forests prosper in areas with longer continuing annual drying times and throw in such completely their leavesoff. They border on trade wind and monsoon forests on the one hand and on thorn forests on the other hand. They are not managed frequently and already are by the demand at Teak and Mahagoni no more in their natural condition. The African variant of the drying-bald forests is called Miombo.

At longer continuing drying times only thorn forests can prosper in Venezuela, Brazil, India and Nepal and Africa. They consist of screen acacias, acting like eye and Caesalpinaceen kinds. The Trichterförmigen crowns of the trees stands more schütter and catches the small summer rain. SomeThorn forests are also by the human use from drying-bald forests developed

with amounts of precipitation decreasing further finally develop for Sukkulentenwälder and the savannah. Beside the Beweidung, the Brandrodung and that wood fellings of humans termites practice an influence on the forests thatSubtropics out.

forests of the nemoralen zone

to use of the forest

Waldschäden im Erzgebirge
forest damage in the ore mountains

see also: History of the forest in Central Europe

forestsmake available various functions for ecology, economics and recovery and as green lung are often designated. Historically regarded the forests experienced world-wide, in particular however in densely populated Central Europe, a strong change concerning its use and development. By thosevarious functions of the forest it with management and other uses come to conflicts between different groups of interests.

forest and agriculture

of hat forests are driven a historical, agricultural form of the Waldnutzung, with that the cattle to the pasture into the forestbecame. Depending upon use intensity the forest gets thinner up or dies. Wood, which is not gladly eaten, like Wacholder, spreads. So up-cleared, park-like landscapes and Wacholderheiden in the Middle Ages and in the modern times could develop in many places.

these spare companies decreased/went back by reforestation or intensification of the agricultural use in the existence.

Forests remained reserving partly as game enclosures as game spell forest only the herrschaftlichen hunts.

These can management be divided again in differently forms that,although, due to the forestry 19. Century, which have most humans only timber forests before eyes:

  • Timber forest from core stature
  • Niederwald from stick excursion
    • like the striking forest, an earlier forest use form. Deciduous trees became in 15 to 30 year old cyclesup to the “stick”, thus 30 to 50 cm over the soil reduced. The wood was mostly used as firewood or for charcoal production. These deciduous trees: Lime trees and Haselnuss float from the stick and can then after 15 ormore years to be again cleared. By in such a way specified develops then wood stick-drove out from soil with many impulses grows, thus buschförmig grows. To see at present still another striking forest is for example in the Lindholz in the Havelländi Luch.
    • also striking mountain compares.
  • Central forest as transition forms between high and Niederwaldwirtschaft
  • hat forest or Hudewald, pasture forests, is an old use form, as well as forest fields and/or. Forest fields, as if country and forest-economical use combined
  • forest plan days as one the agriculture similar management of schnellwüchsiger tree species (some pine species, Eukalyptus, Pappel), pure production of wood mass without Durchforstung; to find almost exclusively in the Tropics and Subtropen.
  • There is give variety of become extinct special uses, like e.g. Lohwald, those partially. only small-area arose or regionallywere limited.

Not after the Pflanzengesellschaften or the prevailing climate, but afterwards whether the forest is economically used cannot divide or not, one forests in not used jungle, which is no longer present in Central Europe, and which managed Forests.

there are herbivores and

their Bejagung over the density of Megaherbivoren in prähistorischen times nearly no data, only assumptions. According to opinion of many forest scientists and some hunters are forest economical like ecologically favourable, continuousforest-like structures without sharp Bejagung of the today's herbivores red - not to establish and Rehwild and an accordingly small game density. Some Förster and hunter argue, to high game densities the forest not only as economic goods would harm, but also the natural taper ratio of the forest throughthe selective verb-eat the game, and thus an orientation by nature development, obstruct.

The higher the bowl game density (refrained from wild pigs) is, the “poorer” is the Waldflora - which does not interest pure Trophäe n hunter. Pretty often the Megaherbivorentheorie is endeavored as argument,larger game densities should become certified, because they would create a half-open and species-rich landscape. Except deer and Rotwild there are however today no large herds of herbivore and also Raubtiere, which are missing to carnivores such as wolves. In the today's culture landscapethe continuous forest is defined as an economic and ecological goal; so that spaciously wandering herbivores economic damage arrange and therefore to be bejagt. The Beweidung with free-living Megaherbivoren is therefore as landscape conservation measure on large protected areas limited, in those a species-rich and half-open landscapeto remain is to be evaluated and economic goals smaller.

forest as if carbon-lower

in the context of the international climatic protection agreements (Kyoto minutes) also forests as climatic factors are seen. In principle forests are regarded as carbon lowering and can into the nationalCO 2 - Balance entrance find. This is however only conditionally correctly, since forests only in growth a material carbon-lowers represents, established forests however contributes to the net carbon dioxide adjustment only in small measure.
A special form of national reduction possibilities, in addition, ofJI and CDM projects, represent lowering projects. By lowering the carbon connection and storage in vegetation and soils are understood in principle. Differences becomes thereby between forests (kind. 3,3 kp), and agriculturally used surfaces (kind. 3,4 kp). Possible project types are afforestation and reforestation,Management measures on existing forest, field and grassland surfaces as well as Begrünung of wasteland. The release of carbon by deforestation must be taken into consideration however likewise. In order to examine risks and possibilities of the lowering charge, a report became with the Intergovernmental panel on Climate CHANGE (IPCC)in order given. In the year 2000 the report finished placed country use, country use CHANGEs, and Forestry (LULUCF) states large uncertainties within many ranges. Thus above all scientific ambiguity exists 2 - quantity concerning the bound CO. The absorption rates during plant growthas well as the connection periods are only difficult to determine. Together with the problem of the determination of the vegetation density on large surfaces strong uncertainties result in the case of the computer forecast of the total quantity. During storage in soils these problems are still more seriously, there thoseare at the basis lying biochemical process more complicated and additionally on stronger setting free by CO 2 and methane to be counted must. Beyond the scientific uncertainties above all control of the regulations is regarded as problematic. Exact regulations concerning quantification thatGreenhouse gas storage and the monitoring are not certain, but are to be developed and suggested by the Intergovernmental panel OF Climate CHANGE (IPCC). Despite the high uncertainties and the resistance of some Contracting States on the climate conference in Bonn (copilot 6b) one decided,To include lowering projects with the fulfilment of the obligations. To the next conference in Marrakesch (copilot 7) the first important definitions and regulations for the chargeability were then agreed upon from lowering to article 3,3 and 3,4. In particular the exact definition and demarcationthe term “forest “was specified. Here ranges for minimum surfaces (0.05 - 1 hectar) became, the minimum vegetation density (10 - 30%) and the minimum height (2 - 5 m) of the plant vegetation specified, from those the obligated parties of framework values for a national definitionthe term “forest “. to select must. Before beginning of the first obligation period (D. h. 2008 ago) the obligated states must specify, which of the management measures, D. h. Forest, field and creating land management as well as Begrünung of wasteland, for it under article 3,4 kp to be taken into account itsare. For afforestation and reforestation no definition is necessary. Lowering projects inland generate emission reduction credit notes, rem oval so mentioned unit (RMU), which will not transfer into the next obligation period can. Besides they are subject to certain restrictions in the first obligation period concerning their chargeability.So management measures can be taken into account only up to for each party an individually specified, upper limit. For Germany this upper limit amounts to 1.24 million tons carbon per year. Also for lowering projects abroad restrictions exist. Importantly in this connection it is now thatnow the negotiations for the POST-2012 period begin. And LULUCF is natural in these negotiations an important topic. Forestries of Central Europe should begin therefore now to think about how one is to consider their achievements in the next obligation periods.

Work on []

Inventory development and condition of Central European forests and forests


Die deutsche Eichen-Pflanzerin
the German oak Pflanzerin

the forest surface in Germany 11.075.798 hectares amount to, according to 31% of the state surface after the second federal forest stocktaking. Of it approximately 44% are private forest, 32% State State of (29% national forest and 3% federal forest), 19% body forest and 5% trust forest. This comparatively high forest portion is the afforestation efforts mainly 19. To owe century.

The forest surface continues to grow, in the last 15 years by on the average 3.500ha/a. In the comparison to the forest surface 25% are to be added of Germany of the settlement surface, of it are 50% completely sealed (daily increasingly by 129 hectars or 47,000 ha/a). Thus annually approximately 3,500 hectars forest are destroyed. The increase of the forest surface resultsby afforestations (main of agricultural surfaces) and the gradual Bewaldung of degenerated moorland locations.

Germany is thereby nevertheless again one of the forest-richest countries in the European Union. This succeeded among other things by the development of forestry.

However the tree species composition yields substantiallyfrom the potentially natural tree species composition. From nature 67% of the land surface of Germany would be von Buchenmischwäldern, 21% of oak mixed woodlands, 9% of Auwäldern or moisten valley forests, 2% of break forests and 1% of pure coniferous forests covered (masters and.Offenberger, time of the forest, S. 36, S. and. Literature). The current tree species distribution is with 14,8% beeches, 9.6% oaks, 15.7% of other deciduous trees, 41.2% spruces, 0.1% firs, 23.3% Kiefern and 4.5%other coniferous trees (2. Federal forest stocktaking, S. and). The large portion of spruce and Kiefer lies in the forest-economical practices of the last 150 years justified: These tree species are schnellwüchsig and undemanding and thus for the afforestation moorlands drying-put by locations degenerated such as heaths,and übernutzter Niederwälder in particular in 19. Century used. On the other hand spruce existence under wind and snow throw as well as insect damages (z particularly suffer. B. by bark beetles) and lead to an acidification of the soils.

Since spruces and Kiefern relatively insensitively approximately game-verb-eat are (usuallyif a fence of the young cultures is not necessary) and in many places the relatively high bowl game densities arising more strongly verb-eat-endangered deciduous trees and firs prevent, it falls forestry heavily the high spruce and Kiefernanteil of the German forests to lower.

Concerning the Holzvorratesfor each surface is to Germany with 319,9 m ³ /ha in the European comparison because of third place. With 3,38 billion m ³ points the largest absolute Holzvorrat to Germany in Europe to (Sweden 2.93 billion m ³; France 2.98 billion m ³; Finland 1.94 billion m ³).

SecondFederal forest stocktaking - the most important shortly


in Austria amounts to the forest surface about 47%. Two thirds are intact also after the last forest stocktaking. Problems form only the protection forests. It grows also by 30% moreWood after as is used or by wind break or game-verb-eats is damaged. Not only by afforestations, but also by quiet putting of agricultural surfaces the forest conquers again areas back. Since expensive wood bringing in the competition to cheaper imported goods stand, often becomesthe wood in the forest not struck.

Largest forest owner are the Austrian federal forests. The forest-richest district in Austria is the district lily field in Lower Austria, which exhibits forest surface to the 80%. The main part is coniferous forest, whereby the spruce over 50% of all tree species constitutes. In second place the beech stands with 10%, all other tree species is far rarer. The Land of the Federal Republic Steiermark possesses the largest forest surface of Austria.

Concerning the Holzvorrates for each surface is appropriate for Austria with 325,0 m ³ /ha in the European comparisonin second place.


concerning the Holzvorrates for each surface occupies Switzerland with 336,6 m ³ /ha the European point place.


  • smelling pool of broadcasting corporations B. Help: The forest. Forest and feasting work in history and present - first part[Reprint]. Aula, Wiebelsheim 2003, ISBN 3-494-01331-4
  • Raoul Heinrich Francé: Of the German forest. German book club, Berlin 1927
  • Heinrich yard masters: Habitat forest. A way to becoming acquainted with Pflanzengesellschaften and their ecology. Paul Parey, Hamburg and Berlin 1990, ISBN 3-490-17118-7
  • Antoine Lorgnier et al.: Forests of the world. Books, Munich and Berlin o.J., ISBN 3-765580791-5
  • briefly G. Blüchel (Hrsg.): The garden Eden may not die. Tropical rain forest. Per Terra, Munich o.J., [ISBN 3-92499-001-8]
  • George masterand Monika Offenberger:The time of the forest - picture journey by history and future of our forests. 397 sides. Two thousand-and unity, Frankfurt 2004, ISBN 3-86150-630-0 - 445 forest photos over a half century of same points
  • Albrecht Lehmann: Of humans and trees.The Germans and their forest. Rowohlt, Reinbek with Hamburg 1999, ISBN 3-498-03891-5
  • Erich horn man: The forest helps all. Its welfare effects. BLV, Munich, Bonn and Vienna 1958

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