Walter Ulbricht

walter Ernst Paul Ulbricht (* 30. June 1893 in Leipzig; † 1. August 1973 at the Döllnsee north of Berlin) was German communist (only KPD of late SED), politician and Council of State chairman of the GDR.

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walter Ulbricht Büste of the sculptress Ruthild cock, for the Ulbricht 1963 even model walter

Ulbricht had sat was a learned carpenter. 1908 it already joined the worker youth education association old Leipzig, 1912 becameit member of the SPD. During the 1.Weltkrieges it was used as a soldier into different states of Europe.

In the year 1917 it joined the USPD , a splitting off of the SPD. During the November revolution 1918 Ulbricht member of the soldier advice was its army corps. After its return to Leipzig it participated 1919 in the establishment of the KPD , for which it sat from 1926 to 1929 in the Saxonian federal state parliament. Starting from 1928 it was also member of Reichstag and shortly thereafter also in the central committee(ZK) of its party.

After the seizure of power by the NSDAP 1933 it resumed the work of the KPD in the unlawfulness. It was looked for therefore steckbrieflich and emigrierte to Paris. After work in Paris and Prague he pulled to Moscow, where it after outbreak 2. World war with the German-language program of radio Moscow worked. In prisoner-of-war camps and at the Soviet front he cared for German soldiers and tried her for the structure of a German state in the sense of the KPD toowin. Together among other things with harsh ore Wehner it requested German soldiers in Stalingrad over megaphone for surrender and for overflowing. Like that it was 1943 joint founders of the national committee free Germany (NKFD) in the USSR, an action alliance of humans,against fascism to fight wanted.

To 30. April 1945 returned Ulbricht as a boss of the group of Ulbricht designated after it to destroyed Germany and organized the reconstruction of the KPD and 1946 their obligation combination with the SPD to the SED in the Soviet zone of occupation (see combination Party Congress).

After the establishment of the GDR to 7. October 1949 it became deputy chairmen in the Council of Ministers under the chairman Otto Grotewohl. 1950 followed the appointment as the Secretary-General of the ZK of the SED, 1953 toFirst secretary of the ZK of the SED. After the death of Josef Stalin was occasionally strongly endangered his position, since it was considered as prototype of the Stalinisten. Paradoxically saved it the rebellion 17. June 1953, there the Soviet Union its plannedJoggle as weakness characters would have understood.1960 he became a chairman of the national defence council and chairman of the again created Council of State and thus head of state of the GDR, after death William Piecks. Due to its long term of office as a party and later also than head of stateit coined/shaped the GDR over twenty years completely crucially.

To 13. August 1961 began under its guidance the building of the citizens of Berlin wall. Ulbricht stood for the invasion of Soviet troops in Prague 1968 and thus striking down the Prager of springpositively opposite.

Against the profound occupation with features of the Stalinismus and person cult Ulbricht kept itself, since he saw his position endangered. Internal-party critics such as Karl Schirdewan, Ernst Wollweber, Fritz same man, Fred Oelssner, Gerhard Ziller among other things becamestarting from 1958 unyieldingly as Fraktionsbildner diffamiert and cold-posed.

Ulbricht tried since 1963 together with his economic adviser Dr. Wolfgang Berger with the new economic system of planning and line (NÖSPL) - later briefly new economic system (NÖS) - a larger effectivenessto reach the economy. The collective plan should remain existing, but the individual enterprises should have larger decision possibilities. It concerned thereby not only around the incentive through own responsibility, but also that concrete questions are better decided locallycan. One of its special hobbies was among other things stronger by means of “cybernetics “, elements of the psychology and sociology, but above all the scientific line of the economy and policy, on scientific-technical basis. The NÖS was Ulbrichts largest success - the accumulation rateas highly as ever and the growth of the national economy was not was higher during this phase than that the FRG, however it came starting from 1965 within the party to larger resistance against the NÖS. The leader of this opposition, itself, was Erich pleased Honecker, who could hope again for the voices of numerous party members of the support of Brezhnev. The NÖS planned also the connection of the economics with the science, which in practice it meant that more and more specialists thoseimportant decisions met. Many members of the SED were thus, adjusted due to the reduction of their influence in the economy, against the NÖS. Ulbricht saw socialism theoretical not as short transitional phase relative to communism, but as a “independent socialeconomic formation inthe historical epoch of the transition from capitalism to communism on a worldwide scale ", which was expressed in the term of the socialist people community coined/shaped by it, which with the Nichtexistenz of antagonistic contradictions in socialism went out; the term became after its death fast to fallleft. To disputes with parts of the party leadership within the range of the economic and foreign policy 1970 it came to the attenuation of its position in the party.

On walter Ulbricht decreases/goes back also the point of view of the GDR guidance, to which it explained that it normal diplomatic relationsbetween the GDR and the FRG to only give can, if both states recognized the full sovereignty in each case of the different state. This stood for a West German guideline, which insisted on the fact contrary to the Hallstein doctrine, that West Germany the only legitimate German stateis. This statement is in the anglo-saxon area also as Ulbricht doctrine admits become.

1971 were forced Ulbricht to withdraw “for health reasons” from nearly all its offices and - after previous tuning with Brezhnev - by Erich Honecker replaced. Ulbricht keptthe then influenceless office of the chairman of the Council of State to to its end of life. In addition it received the again created honorary office of the “chairman of the SED”.

It died during X. World festivals of the youth 1973 in the guesthouse of the government of the GDR at the Döllnsee.The world festivals were however not terminated but were only interrupted; Walter Ulbricht is to have insisted on a continuation. After its death its name was removed to a large extent already briefly and hushed up from the GDR historiography. Ulbricht nevertheless received also an honour place in thatMemorial place of the socialists in the central cemetery Friedrichsfelde.

Walter Ulbricht was twice married: starting from 1920 with Martha Schmellinsky and starting from 1953 with Lotte bold (* 19. April 1903 in Rixdorf; † 27. March 2002 in Berlin Pankow). The pair hadan adoptive daughter from the Soviet Union named Beate, which developed however problematic. It died keep-drawn after the turn 1991 in Berlin.

Well-known quotations

Ulbricht was admits for it, the binding word in all possible and impossible places in from itto integrate spoken word.

  • It must look democratic, but we must have everything in the hand. (1945 - according to Wolfgang Leonhard)
  • Stalin is not a classical author marxism. (1956 - after that XX. Party Congress of the CPSU)
  • the truth is nevertheless: The GDR will catch up and will partially exceed West Germany until 1961 in all important areas of the supply of the population with food and consumer goods. (August 1959; admits under the short formula: Catching up and overhauling, later amended into the slogan Overhaul without to catch up)
  • nobody has the intention of establishing a wall. (15. June 1961, two months before the building of the Wall) - full wording, S. Annamarie Doherr
  • that is nevertheless a beautiful building. (Over the wall)
  • is itbecause really so that we must copy each dirt, which comes from the west nu? I think, comrade, with whom Monotonie the-the-The is called, and like all this, should one conclusion nevertheless make. (1965 on that 11. Plenum of theZK of the SED directed against the western skirt music, alluding to the Yeah, Yeah, Yeah of the Beatles). See also the wav file under Web on the left of.
  • In the world it got around itself that the “German miracle”, which occurs in our republic, a “Wirtschaftswunder “has is not simple, but exists particularly in the large transformation of humans. But we are still not by far at the end of the way to the socialist people community. (1969)
  • Each man at each place,once in the week sport. Ulbricht was in the high age among other things inspired table tennis player
  • it does not say, it has time for the sport, because it so much work have. But with me is like that: Because I so much work, must I have sport absolutely drive. Ulbricht in the discussion with party officials

over Ulbricht:

  • “Loved you are honoured by the people, by the people; /See, what on a life, trueful worth living,/that its Kraft to all pass -/you are honouredby the people, loved by the people. “(Johannes R. Cup to Ulbrichts 65. Birthday)
  • “may prevent the fate it that this humans come once to the point of the party. One must look it only into the eyes, in order to know, howhinterhältig and honourless he is. “(Clara Zetkin)
  • “most people are today still fill busily to be surprised that a straight Ulbricht could become the most successful German politician after Bismarck and beside Adenauer. And one must admit,it is not completely easy to explain. “(Sebastian Haffner, 1966)
  • “the enemy cried hate and Hohn,/nevertheless because her him to hate, drum loves we him,/the enemy the call against sounds: /Walter Ulbricht -that are we all! “(Max of Zimmering)

direct successors

Literatur

Web on the left of

Wikiquote: Walter Ulbricht - quotations
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