Wandmalerei

Wandmalerei in San Cristóbal de las Casas (Mexiko)
Wandmalerei in San Cristóbal de read Casas (Mexico)
Eine Abbildung Salvador Dalís auf einer Häuserwand in Lima (Peru)
an illustration Salvador Dalís on a house wall in Lima (Peru)

Wandmalerei is a form of the mark art, with which the picture is not laid on on a timber panel or a canvas (board painting),separate directly on a wall. The same techniques as with the Wandmalerei are used also with the ceiling painting .

The colors are laid on with the Wandmalerei either on nor damp finery the wall (Freskomalerei) or or on the already dry finery (Seccomalerei). It is likewise possible to only prefabricate and then into the wall in-permit the painting on a canvas or a board, what is not considered however as classical Wandmalerei.

Either the artist tries thereby, the characteristically laminar of the wall to true (Wandmalerei)or the impression from three-dimensionality to to produce (illusionistic Wandmalerei).

Table of contents

history

early period

OldEgyptian Wandmalerei in a grave that valley of the kings

the earliest certifications of Wandmalerei are the cave painting. With the help of the radio carbon method cave pictures are dated on approximately 31,500 years.

Oldest certifications of Wandmalereien from the Neolithikum were in Catal Hüyük (approx. 6000 v. Chr.),where these painting is particularly well received and probably small chapels or cult areas decorated. Also at other places in Wandmalereien were the Near East, but keep rarely so good.

Numerous Wandmalereien kept in Grabkappellen and grave chambers of the old persons Egyptians. In the Egyptian grave chapelsseems much that was important for “surviving” in the underworld to have been represented. Among them are many representations of food preparation or of workshops. They should guarantee surviving in the the other world, when status symbol represent the prosperity of the deceased, and in the long run were garden representations religious symbolsfor the Wiedergeburt of the dead one. Often these Wandmalereien had also religious and ceremonies meaning and also partly replaced the writing (particularly for the readunaquainted).

Also the housings and palaces in Anterior Asia were painted, but are, from some coincidence finds (Mari) apart, from it onlyfew receive. A special bloom finally experienced the Wandmalerei also in the ägäischen area (off approx. 1650 v. Chr. to 1250 v. Chr.), where the palaces (Knossos on Crete) and houses (Akrotiri on Santorini) were often color-gladly painted.

Mansion Poppaea in Oplontis, Caldarium

classical antique ones

also the Greeks painted temple walls, but are kept from it as nothing as good, and one experiences of it only from the classical authors.

Etruski Wandmalereien were usually in the grave chambers and place the joys of the life (e.g. Flanks), thoseso that in the underworld should be surely resumed.

A special spreading, which should never have her again in the history of mankind, found the Wandmalerei in the Roman realm. Nearly each house of people of certain conditions was painted. This development already began with that , Experienced Greeks however its high point in the first after-Christian century, where even in the most remote provinces houses were painted. The development of the Roman Wandmalerei becomes into different styles (1. - 4. Style) partitions. By the outbreak of the Vesuv in the year 79 n. Chr. have themselves many Wandmalereienreceive in Pompeji and Herculaneum. In the third after-Christian century this form of the Wandmalerei experiences a fall, in order to disappear later completely. In the future Wandmalereien are nearly only within the religious range. In old Rome and Byzanz the Wandmalerei often became by the mosaicreplaced and/or supplemented.

See detailed for this: Roman Wandmalerei

Asia

also in Asia experienced the Wandmalerei, particularly with the spreading of the Buddhismus, a far spreading. Heiligtümer Buddas were often richly painted with scenes from its life, whereby one in central Asia alsonumerous painted Höhlenheiligtümer finds. This bloom ended to rather picture-hostile Islam at many places with the arising.

Fresko from the cycle of the Hl. Franziskus of Giotto di Bondone

the Middle Ages

in Roman time experienced the Wandmalerei by the Christianisierung a large upswing,because the churches were decorated for the readunaquainted with Biblical representations, in order with the gospel admit to make them. Also on castles Wandmalereien were, however rather with lay Sujets. Impressive examples are the Iwein - cycle on lock Rodenegg in South Tyrol and the oldest layWandmalereien of Central Europe on castle Gamburg in Franconias.

In the gothic the interior decoration became ever more important by glass painting with sakralen buildings apart from the Wandmalerei. Italy remained however further a center of the Wandmalerei, which experienced a renewed upswing in the Renaissance then, during north the alps already the board painting prevailed.

The Wandmalerei was thereby, particularly as forerunners of the board painting, one of the most important steps in the cultural development to our modern visual perception.

Renaissance

one of the most well-known examples of Wandmalerei in the Renaissance is the last communion of Leonardo da Vinci. It was meant for the Speiseraum of a monastery. As high point of the painting in Freskotechnik the winding and cover painting of the Sixtini chapel are seen by Michelangelo.

baroque

Sant' Ingazio in Rom
Sant' Ingazio in Rome

in the baroque took the meaning of the Wandmalereiagain now in the special form of the ceiling painting. Particularly virtuos here the representation of the sky became, with which many baroque churches at the cover were equipped. Already in the Renaissance there were individual examples of a “opening” the cover as view to the sky,so above all the Kuppelfresken of Correggio in Parma.

In the Roman baroque the ceiling painting finally became a substantial means of gegenreformatorischer church equipments. Models became the Fresken in the churches IL Gesù of Giovanni Battista Gaulli and in Sant' Ignazio of Andrea Pozzo.The winding and ceiling painting of the baroque and Rococo tried to pull the viewer completely into the spell of the religion or absolutist power.

A special local form of the Wandmalerei is the Lüftlmalerei in the localities of the alpine valleys. Some the most famous painting, in 18. andBeginning 19. As well as century were created, are in center forest , mix in under and upper bunting gau.

modern trend

Die modernste Form der Wandmalerei: Graffiti
the most modern form of the Wandmalerei: Graffiti

in socialist realism was particularly used the Wandmalerei also in the modern trend for propaganda. On large surface,for instance in operating cafeterias or at public places, plakative political statements were represented. Political messages controversies of contents are painted however in many countries also by anonymous artists on public or private walls.

In Mexico a special school of the Muralistas, the most famous developed after the Mexican revolutionRepresentatives of this school are Diego Rivera, David Alfaro Siqueiros and Jose Clemente Orozco. The Mexican Muralistas was political artists, partly the marxism obligated, referred artistically however both to native Mexican and to European traditions of the painting.

The most modern form of the Wandmalereiis the Graffiti. Wide Graffiti is called also Murals.

list of important wall painters

literature

  • briefly Wehlte, Wandmalerei,Berlin 1938
  • briefly Wehlte, materials and techniques of the painting, Stuttgart/Ravensburg 1967

Web on the left of

Commons: Wandmalerei - pictures, videos and/or audio files
 

  > German to English > de.wikipedia.org (Machine translated into English)