of the Ming - emperors Wanli (chines. 萬歷, * 4. September 1563, † 18. August 1620, emperor since 19. July 1572) already attained the kite throne as a ten-year boy. At first it stood under the influence of his educator Zhang Juzheng, later under the different make-greedy Clicquen.
Its reign was coined/shaped by a the-poetic regiment, above all however prodigality and an increasing disorder of the finances of the state. Thus about on over 20.000 noble ones generous Apanagen was paid, the 45 princes of first rank obtained annually in each case the equivalent in silver from 600 tons grain. In addition considerable military expenditure comes (see below) as well as a complex yard attitude: However the grave Wanlis (Peking, Ming graves) is to have devoured the then inconceivable sum of 8 million Silbertael - as much as the realm in two years at real estate tax to pay had.
Wanli led several expensive campaigns, approximately to the pacification of different Mongolian and tungusischer trunks in Manchuria (1581-1583), to driving out the Japanese from the Chinese vassal state Korea (1592) as well as for conquest Annams (today: Viet Nam), Burmas (today: Myanmar) and Siams (today: Thailand), the latter in particular around the increasing influence of England in Hinterindien back urge.
Further loads arose from the increasing Japanese Piratentum before the centralChinese coast, from social unrests (farmer, craftsman, miner rebellions), from the collections of non-Chinese peoples as well as the activities of secret companies („white Lotus “).
To these challenges Wanli was not able to react appropriately, particularly since him actual political power entglitt toward end of its term of office increasingly: It came into the hands of a corrupt Eunuchen - to make themselves gefügig group, to which it succeeded increasingly, the national administrative machinery and instrumentalisieren it for their purposes. Hiergegen was formed resistance in the circles in particular the classical konfuzianischen civil servants (center: Donglin academy, Wuxi).
As positive aspect in Wanlis office period is to be noted the hesitating opening of China westward: it got the Italian Jesuitenpater Matteo Ricci at the Pekinger yard to 1601 and put thereby the foundation-stone for the European China mission. The interest of the emperor applied here certainly less for the strange religion than the technical achievement bring along of the Europeans, approximately in the area astronomy and time measurement. Accordingly he assigned Ricci 1613 also a calendar reform.
|SHORT DESCRIPTION||emperor China from the Ming dynasty|
|DATE OF BIRTH||4. September 1563|
|PLACE OF BIRTH|
|DYING DATE||18. August 1620|