Warsaw Treaty

of these articles is concerned with Warsaw military alliances, further meanings under Warsaw Treaty (term clarifying)
the 8 member states Warsaw Pact (north south yardstick shortened around ~30%)

the Warsaw Treaty, of which western states Warsaw Pact calls, was 1955-1991 an existing military assistance pact of the Eastern Bloc under the guidance of the Soviet Union. Its official name was contract over friendship, co-operation and mutual assistance.

The Warsaw Pact became to 14. May 1955 signatoryly by eight states - 1 day before of Austria convention - and was the opponent of NATO in Cold war between east and west.

Table of contents

members

of members Warsaw Treaty were Albania (withdrawal 1968), Bulgaria, the GDR (withdrawal with the reunification 1990), Poland, Romania, the ČSSR(Czechoslovakia), the Soviet Union and Hungary.

prehistory

the Warsaw Treaty was 1947 tensions between the western allied ones of the Second World War and the Soviet Union, increasing a result since. In the west the expansion of the Soviet Union and the education of satellite states became as substantialThreat for the western democracies felt, which one tried to contain by the establishment of NATO 1949. When the Federal Republic of Germany was included by those Paris contracts by the 5.Mai 1955 into the western defensive alliance (Western European union), reacted the Soviet Union for its part with the establishment oneown military alliance, which was directed against NATO.

Are to be considered however that the states of the Eastern Bloc stood already before by Soviet occupation troops in the sphere of influence of the USSR, similarly as the FRG, Austria, Italy and Greece (still) under the influence of the three Western powers stood. ThoseLeaders of the Eastern Bloc countries stepped from the 11. to 14. May 1955 in Warsaw (Warszawa) together and compiled Warsaw Treaty, which was called in the consequence usually Warsaw Pact.

clauses of a contract

signing states were Albania (1968 because of the ČSSR crisis separated), Bulgaria, Hungary, the GDR (1990 in the course of the reunification separated), Poland, Romania (only limited), the USSR and the ČSSR. The actual wording of the contract is comparable to NATO in far parts with those - of the contract: The member states insured each other their will to the peacekeaping measures and tomutual military assistance in case of an attack on or several of the participating states (article 4). A common command of the national armed forces should secure the effectiveness of the alliance (kind. 5). One must confer immediately, if an attack is foreseeable (kind. 3).

However was the interpretationthese regulations of those of the NATO contract perfectly differently, so been subordinate on the one hand the troops of the Warsaw contract the united supreme command to a large extent completely, in addition the united supreme command was subordinate again completely to the command of the Soviet general staff. On the other hand the regulations were interpreted also inward restrictive and alsoAssistance of the present Treaty Soviet control of the Contracting States also with military means legitimizes.

achievements and problems

the Warsaw Treaty secured free of doubts the Hegemonialanspruch of the Soviet Union in relation to the other participating states. The stationing of Soviet troops in nearly all member states and the common supreme command underSoviet control it ensured for the fact that the rule of the respective communist party and the loyalty could not be questioned opposite the Soviet Union.

Whenever individual participating states wanted to leave the course given of Moscow, this was interpreted from the outside as attack on the socialist state systemand with a military intervention punished: In Hungary (Hungarian rising of the people, 1956) and the ČSSR (Prager spring, 1968) Warsaw contract troops struck down national rebellions and Putschversuche. Already before the signing Warsaw Treaty was the rebellion of 17. June 1953 inthe GDR von Truppen of the Soviet army struck down. Theoretically and ideologically this procedure was supported by the Brezhnev doctrine (1968).

The line and coordination Warsaw Treaty was the task of the once a year meeting political advisory committee, that itself from the party and heads of the governmentthe member states built up. In addition at most negotiations were the Secretary of Defense and outside, which take part Commanders-in-Chief of the united armed forces as well as their general staff boss. Beside the advisory committee existed different committees outside and of the Secretaries of Defense, a united supreme command, a military advice with advisory function as well as a technical committee.

The united supreme command would have transferred the complete command authority to times of war over all land, air and naval forces of the member states; in times of peace were only some parts of the armed forces, subordinated to it among them the abroad stationed Soviet troops as well as the entire NVA. This meant in case of a warContingent of approximately 6.2 million soldier, 62,000 tanks, scarcely 14,000 airplanes and about 2000 ships as well as the Soviet nuclear weapons.

dissolution

in the course of the Perestroika introduced by Gorbachev in the Soviet Union increasingly doubts about continuing the Brezhnev doctrine arose. With the agreement of Gorbachevthe reunification of Germany 1990 it became finally clear that the Soviet Union was no longer determined to suppress liberty efforts in the other Warsaw contract states by force. Thereupon the other member states began on a departure of the Soviet troops from their countries and on the dissolution Warsaw Treaty to urge.Although the Soviet leadership would have preferred a simultaneous dissolution of NATO and Warsaw Treaty, it finally gave way. The military structures became to 31. March 1991, the Warsaw Treaty at the 1. July 1991 officially dissolved. In the former GDR, Poland, Czechoslovakiaand Hungary stationed Soviet troops were taken off.

Web on the left of

 

  > German to English > de.wikipedia.org (Machine translated into English)