Weber rebellion

the term weber rebellion is equated often with „the schlesischen weber rebellion “of 1844. There were weber rebellions in 18. and 19. Century however in many places. It concerned early frühindustrielle worker unrests, which became plotted both by rural house-manufacturing, and by urban guild craftsmen „“and were directed against publishers and early manufacturers. A political background was not given generally yet, for this formed only with the revolution of 1848. Partly the insurgent ones had become impoverished in such a way that it concerned hunger revolts.

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background of the weber rebellions

see also publishing house system

in the outgoing Middle Ages was common already the publishing house system than trading organisation, a term, which is common today only in the book and magazine nature. The publisher took over here owing to its capital strength, market review and adaptiveness the procurement of the raw materials, the storage and the sales of the final products. The craftsman became thereby the pure producer and the borders the pure Lohnarbeit became flowing.

The population growth 16. and 18. Century led besides to a broad layer of more landless and/or. land-poor Landbevölkerung, which had to supplement the meager income by a not-agricultural activity. To it also the Web activities belonged as order products for the publishers. The financial source had to do it contrary to the zünftischen handicraft with a relatively unprotected Landbevölkerung.

The loss of overseas markets in connection with the continental barrier and the English sea-blockade, the break-down of English manufactured goods after the end of the continental barrier, the loss binnenländischer demand as a result of agrarian crises, the progressive industrialization with their cheap products intensify the situation. The wages paid to the webers sank continuously. It came to the clash of interest of the factors of production work and capital. The publishers trachteten after a profit maximization and/or. Preservation, which should be achieved in the long run by low production costs.

The economic situation of the shifted webers was for the end 18. Century very badly, above all because they were only partly remunerated in cash. At least half of the commodity value was up-counted on raw material supplies. A massive depletion (Pauperismus) led in many places to unrests, revolts and machine storms.

Augsburger weber rebellion 1784/85 and 1794/95

Inschrift auf dem Weberhaus in Augsburg
inscription on the weber house in Augsburg

starting from center 18. Century Augsburger weber handicraft was threatened increasingly by the competition of in and foreign cheap offerers. The local resident Kaufmannschaft and Kattunfabrikanten (among other things School, Gignoux, Schöppler) bought in particular eastIndian commodity. The native commodity was increasingly displaced and bought majority only in the commodity value against expensive wool.

This situation led to substantial income losses, which led 1784/85 to first unrests. Those associate, which were particularly concerned because of their far away unsecured existence, refused the payments of dues into the associating situation and plotted a tumult. The associating strike became to 21. August 1784 peacefully settled, are inflamed however by two deaths again. It came to a demonstration course of 300 associates, which was struck down by the police. The ringleaders were arrested. Many associate left the city.

While the master craftsmen did not take part in these unrests, this changed for rapid degradation of living costs and the living situation with that increasingly. The advice of the city remained to a large extent dormant, then the webers seized to self-help measures and seized consignments of goods to the buyers.

At the 11. October 1785 came it to a compromise between the contractor, who provided however only temporarily for peace, since the manufacturers jumped over themselves over the agreements. The urban authority, which had striven heretofore for a neutral attitude, struck itself ever more on the side of the progress. In the consciousness of the existence destruction waited by the advice 29 stormed to. January of 1794 300 weber masters the city hall and implemented a Einfuhrstopp of foreign commodity. Already to 25. February 1794 repeated itself the situation, since the import ban was already again loosened. This mark was taken the office mayor of the city as a hostage. For the calming of the masses the advice issued a decree, which among other things the Einfuhrstopp confirmed again. It turned out however soon that the authority did not feel bound to the agreements developed under obligation. To 26. August 1794 came it to a new agreement between the buyers, manufacturers and webers, who were based on the compromise of 1785 and were raised to the law. To 18. November 1794 was waived this and aimed at by the advice a military solution of the conflict.

To 24. December 1794 was finally struck down the rebellion by the employment by württembergischen soldiers. These referred for 1 1/2 year accomodation, the webers had to bear the cost.

Schlesi weber rebellion 1844

the schlesische weber rebellion of 1844 was neither the first weber rebellion in the region of the owl mountains, still the most violent. It had already given 1785/1786, 1793 and 1798 partly larger revolts. The characteristic of the rebellion of 1844 lay in the attention of the public, which it obtained. Contemporary publications and literature processed and discussed the topic extensively. In this sense can do the schlesische weber rebellion of 4. June to 6. June 1844 into a connection with the 1848 using revolution to be brought, since it contributed substantially to the development of political opinions.

background of the rebellion

the province Schlesien was 1740 of the Prussian king Friedrich II. annektiert. In the consequence the new subjects remained elsewhere longer than to the noble basic gentlemen bound Häusler. Farmer release 1807 was converted only incompletely. It came to the double exploitation: the using capitalistic exploitation by the publishers met the schlesischen textile home-workers, when these were gebeutelt still of a feudalistischen exploitation. property goods were still subjected 2/3 of the schlesischen population and had to pay Feudalabgaben (ground rent, Web interest, school money etc.). The schlesischen webers tried to make up for the price purge of their goods by quantity, but even Kinderarbeit and the expansion of the daily work time did not create reconciliation, the quality of the products continued to sink in particular there. Technical innovations and more modern looms could not create remedy, since these by the home webers could not be financed. Besides the owl mountains were one of the dichtbevölkertsten districts Schlesiens. Peterswaldau had 12,043 inhabitants around the 5,725 inhabitants , Langenbielau. It prevailed a surplus of workers. Nevertheless were the cotton webers settled in Peterswaldau and Langenbielau still far better than the schlesischen linen webers, which had become impoverished already perfectly and hungerten. In June 1844 it came to the revolt.

the rebellion

at the 3. The webers of Peterswaldau and surrounding localities, which mockery song blood court singing, drew June, before which company of the brothers twenties, which were active as publishers. The manufacturers Ernst Friedrich and August twenties let the weber William Mädler arrest and believed thus again peace to have created.

With the goal of reaching the release William Mädlers and a wage increase formed to 4. June 1844 a protest course. The refusal of jedlicher negotiations brought dammed up rage to the outbreak. The quantity stormed the house of the twenties and destroyed the entire mechanism. Likewise in the administrative, in the depot and in the factory one raged. The family twenties fled after Breslau. The manufacturer car farmhand remained however unbelästigt and because of the fair wages was even praised.

To 5. The manufacturers skin man and yard judge could redeem themselves June 1844 by cash payments and liquor „“. The crowd pulled far after Langenbielau to the manufacturers Andretzky and Hilbert. These were hated, that messuages were devastated. With Dierig, which employed foreign “worker there because of that „in the visor of the Aufrührer were guessed/advised, the workers placed themselves against the moving forward webers. Besides the brothers Dierig tried to calm the quantity down by money from divisions.

In the meantime the authorities had arranged the intervention of the Prussian Millitärs and the situation went out of control. Eleven humans (under it a woman) were shot, further 24 were heavily hurt. The unit yielded first with clubs and stones reinforced the quantity, after the arrival of the reinforcement became the rebellion to 6. June 1844 depressed.

Numerous webers were arrested and to penintentiary, fortress detention and/or. Whip blows condemns.

interpretation of the weber rebellion

it concerned typical early frühindustrielle a worker unrest, for which neither an interpretation seems appropriate as machine storm or class warfare as classical hunger revolt , still. (Lit.: Testicle mountain)

hunger revolt: With the webers entangled into the revolt it concerned cotton webers. While the schlesischen linen webers had already completely become impoverished and hungerten in this time, were the cotton webers still far better.

Maschinenstürmer: The rage of the webers was directed not against the still meager „machines “, but against as an in an unfair way felt publisher.

Class warfare: The destruction was very purposefully directed against certain publishers, while others remained completely spared, or „redeem themselves “could. Neither the local Feudalherr, nor the authority generally, were a goal of the rebellion.

artistic processing

poster of Emil Orlik, 1897

further weber rebellions

literature

  • Christina of testicle mountain: Rebellion of the webers, Dietz, Bonn 1997. ISBN 3-8012-3073-2
  • Hans's E. Bremes: 140 years weber rebellion in Schlesien, Verl. Westfäl. Steam boat, Münster 1985
  • Käthe Kollwitz: A weber rebellion, farmer war, war, furrow art Verl., Berlin 1930
  • crowning mountain/locks: Weber revolt 1844. The schleschische weber rebellion in the mirror of contemporary journalism and literature, informationspresse c.w.Leske, publishing house GmbH, Cologne 1979. ISBN 3-7632-2360-6
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