Military service

map of the world of the army forms
color key
  • green: No armed forces
  • blue: No military service (armyarmy army/regular army)
  • orange: Still military service, but an abolishment in the near future ( < 3 years) is already decided
  • red: Military service
  • grey: No data

Military service one calls the obligation, for a certain period in army or another military formation (z. B. To serve fire resistance) of a country. Whether and for whom a military service exists, is differently regulated in different countries. With the military service extends few exceptions only to the male population, yet frequently also synonymously of a compulsory military service one speaks.

Table of contents

history

armies,due to a general digging of all able-bodied men, always showed it in history, for instance the army the Roman of the republic or citizen guards in cities was set up. Also the Prussian state was with the canton system (able-bodied one of an area were for certain military units enrolliert) on the way to a person liable for military service army.

The France of the large French revolution was the first European state, which organized its army with the Levée EN mass almost exclusively due to a compulsory military service. (Besides it gavestill Freiwillige.)

Prussia copied this model and introduced to the course of the Prussian reforms also the compulsory military service. Thus was connected a fundamental revaluation of the soldier conditions, was considered to soldier so far nevertheless as socially deklassiert - now, where also citizen sons to the army, was considered military service was drawn in as honour service. Entehrende body-met were logically abolished.

After the wars of liberation the military service in Prussia was consistently maintained, with the exception that “as „one year's einjährig-Freiwillige so mentioned “could announce itself member „of the formed conditions. Into thatother German and European states under suited the examining the necessary number of recruits was determined by lot, the drawing lots could place a substitute however, why in the army rather men from poorer layers served.

In the empire that sat downPrussian against all other recruiting systems through, had impressively proven it nevertheless its efficiency in the French-German war 1870/71.

In the Weimar Republic the military service was abolished due to the regulations of the Versailler of contract, the realm resistance was one on 100.000 men limited regular army.In the third realm the military service became to 16. March 1935 led to regard in the course of the community however the “one year's one “was abolished and demanded by the officers, also the crews for the first time as comrades.

During the time that To division of Germany citizen of Berlin (west) was not subject to the military service.

German-speaking countries

Federal Republic of Germany since 1956

the military service became in the Federal Republic of Germany with the entry into force of the conscription law (WPlfG) to 21. July 1956 imported.Details for the introduction and history of the military service in the article history of the German Federal Armed Forces.

who is militaryrequiring?

Militaryrequiring are all men of completed 18. Lebensjahr on, the German in the sense of the Basic Law are and

  1. their constant stay inthe Federal Republic of Germany have or
  2. their constant stay outside of the Federal Republic of Germany to have and either
  • their earlier constant stay in the Federal Republic of Germany had or
  • a passport or a nationality document of the Federal Republic of Germany possess or itself in other way theirProtection subordinated.

(§1 sentence 1 WPlfG)

police enforcement officer carry out no military service. Their military service applies with the entrance into the police (police of the countries and police of the federation) as paid off. An exception exists, if the service relationship in the police before thatEnd of the military requiringness is terminated.

An exemption of the basic military service is possible also with an at least six-year obligation to the service in the disaster control, which with the technical welfare organization, with which Freiwilligen fire-brigade is carried out or with the German red cross.

Collection

the term collection designates the procedure, with which the German Federal Armed Forces of the person data of the people liable for military service attain knowledge. This happens with the quarter-wise transmission of the data of male young people, those 17. Lebensjahr completed, by the residents' registration office - which toConsequence has that with the residents' registration office this time ago and up to reaching the Einberufbarkeitsgrenze of in this case 23 years not announced persons can to be further militaryrequiring and call upable, but remain unknown the German Federal Armed Forces. Logging out of the actual domicilehowever an irregularity represents .

The seized persons are informed and requested to communicate possible corrections to their data to the responsible circle military spare office.

fulfilment of the military service

the military service becomes by the military service or in case of § the 1 of the Conscientious objection law of 28. February 1983 by the civil service fulfills. The duration of the basic military service and the civil service amounts to today nine months.

<time LINE>
  1. Time border of the military service duration in the FRG from 1957 to today
  2. sources:
  3. http://www.bundeswehr.de/forces/grundlagen/wehrpflicht/wd_geschichte.php
  4. http://www.bmfsfj.de/Politikbereiche/zivildienst,did=11656,render=renderPrint.html

ImageSize = width: 600 height: 70 PlotArea =width: 460 height: 50 left: 140 bottom: 20 AlignBars = justify

DATE format = yyyy Period = from: 1957 till: 2005 TimeAxis = orientation: horizontal ScaleMajor = unit: year increment: 10 start: 1960 ScaleMinor = unit: year increment: 2 start: 1958

PlotData=

 textcolor: white bar: Basic military service color: green Marks: (LINE, white) SHIFTs: (0, - 4) width: 20 align: center
 from: start till: 1962 text: 12 from: 1962 till: 1973text: 18 from: 1973 till: 1990 text: 15 from: 1990 till: 1996 text: 12 from: 1996 till: 2002 text: 10 from: 2002 till: end to text: 9
 bar: Spare/civil service color: talk SHIFTs: (0, - 4) Marks: (LINE, white) width: 20 align: center
 from: 1961 till: 1962 text: 15 from: 1962 till: 1973 text: 18 from: 1973 till: 1984 text: 16 from: 1984 till: 1990 text: 20 from: 1990 till: 1996 text: 15 from: 1996 till: 2000 text: 13 from: 2000 till: 2002 text: 11from: 2002 till: 2004 text: 10 from: 2004 till: end to text: 9

< /timeline>

Military service duration in the Federal Republic of Germany from 1957 to today. (in months)


basic training

the general one basic training (AGA) takes three months. It contains the topics drill, engagements service, ABC service, theory, Sanitätsdienst of all troops,Life in the field etc. Besides numerous exercises (marches, bivouac, obstacle course) are accomplished. To limited extent also sport is driven. Against center of the AGA the vow is put down. The AGA ends to an examination of several days with the recruit inspection, in that thoseRecruits the proven abilities to prove must. The graduates the general activity proof (ATN /ATB) is awarded to safeguard soldier (awake training).

Depending upon use special training follows the end of the AGA. The soldier becomes at the end of this training a furtherATN (Erstverwendungs ATN) lent, z. B. Armored infantryman, paratrooper, staff duty soldier etc.

end of military service and calling up barness

the military service ends to 45 with expiration of the yearly, in that the person liable for military service. Lebensjahr (with officers and NCOs 60. Lebensjahr) completes. InTo tension and case of defense ends the military service with expiration of the yearly, in that the person liable for military service 60. Lebensjahr completes.

Of it to differentiate however the calling up barness Ungedienter regulated in § 5 WPflG is, those in times of peace (incomplete excerpt):

  • usually toto 23. Birthday persists
  • up to 25. Birthday persists among other things with
    • subject to approval, but not approved foreign stays
    • postponements, the one summoning up to 23. 30 prevents
  • birthday up to. Lebensjahr, if because of an obligation in the disaster control a summoning before completion of the23. Lebensjahres was not possible
  • up to for 32. Birthday persists with persons, who are predominantly military-technically used due to their professional training during the basic military service (z. B. Physicians).

which means “fulfilment of the military service”?

The obligation for service covers

  • thatBasic military service (§ 5 WPflG)
  • active duty trainings (§ 6 WPflG)
    • single active duty trainings
    • special foreign uses
  • in the case of defense the unlimited military service

having also Ungediente in the case of defense military service to carry out?

People liable for military service also ungediente belong to the spare reserve. People liable for military service, who served in the German Federal Armed Forces,belong to the reserve. The remaining served people liable for military service belong to the reserve, as soon as on their consulting for the military service is decided due to the military service.

draft fairness

the political discussion to convert the German Federal Armed Forces into a pure regular army places the military servicein question. Since less and less young men of a class are actually drawn in to the military service, critics deplore the draft fairness lacking with the selection of the recruits.

summoning practice

with the civil service law of change the regulations were changed for summoning:

  • Sinking of the consulting borderfor the basic military service of 25. on 23.Lebensjahr.
  • No consulting of married or in registered life partnerships living men or people liable for military service with the custody for at least one child.
  • The fitness degree of T3 was void. “T3er” are considered now as superseded.
  • Militaryand civil service-requiring, which took up an operational or official training after reaching the general university or specialized university-level graduation, are reset on request.
  • Resistance and civil service-requiring can be able to be released from the Dienstpflicht, if at least two brothers a civilian or a militaryService year carried out.

In the anticipation on the new regulation this became already since that 1. July 2003 practices in such a way. The obligation for service in the case of defense remains of the regulations 1 and. 2 unaffected.

In practice have from the 440000 seized men of the class 1980 (starting from 2004 the no more to be drawn in cannot) 137,500 (31.25%) the military service carried out, civil service or another alternative service carried out for 152,000 (34.54%) and at all no service carried out for 150,500 (34.2%) for different reasons.These numbers originate from the report of the militaryassigned in the year 2004, which prognosticates there that in the future still fewer men at all will carry the service out.

ethical and legal differentiates between arguments for

and against the military service the discussionArguments. While the arguments which are based on ethical reason models lead to the justification problem of the ethics, the legal arguments must national at least at the first four articles Basic Law to be measured be able and internationally at the general declaration of the human rights by those United Nations. The man military service in Germany offends in principle against the equal treatment principle of the Basic Law, however by the Federal Constitutional Court it was decided that this does not lead to the invalidity of the military service, since the legislator later took up the “man military service” to the Basic Law. Thusone was created “lex specialis” concerning the military service opposite “lex generalis” the equal treatment principle.

The discussion over the military service is not equivalent to the discussion over the for and against an army, is connected however with it.

general inspector excavators 1996 to the compulsory military service

to 16. July 1996 published the general inspector at that time Hartmut excavator in the general inspector letter 1/96 its position to the discussion over the compulsory military service. “For many the strongest argument for a regular army seems therebyto be connected Professionalisierung. Military service and professionalism are not mutually exclusive. The military service creates beyond that the possibility, the entire potential at intelligence of using abilities and vocational training of our young citizens. We do not profit from this potentialonly with the people liable for military service, we win from him also half of our leader oh stature at officers and NCOs. Quality and culture of the guidance in the German Federal Armed Forces, in addition, professionalism will depend substantially on the military service. With an armyarmy armyfrequently connected renouncement of Pluralität can lead to a loss to mental Vitalität. “Excavator saw therefore also no doubt that the military service army was not only under the aspect of the quality of their personnel, but also from socio-political view “the more intelligent army”.Besides make it the defense from right and liberty to the thing of all citizens and bend for the tendency forwards to measure-understand armed forces as “service agency for defense”.

the military service

young men prevents economical arguments from economical view during its military serviceto it, the occupation, for which they are best qualified, to exercise. Straight young men, who terminated straight their school career, could form however with their knowledge the national economy. While the military service, which constitutes a not insignificant part of the life work time, haveit in addition no opportunity. Potenzielle career soldiers are pushed into other occupations, their potenzielle vocational quality than soldier go to the national economy thus lost. Critics fear even, people liable for military service would know their abilities acquired at school to a part during the office hours againforget. Thus the military service is in double regard a location disadvantage.

Opponents of the employment from civil service-carrying out are the opinion the fact that these often received a far smaller remuneration than on the free market would be possible by minimum salaries. Although the law forbids it,if civil service-carrying out would often take over work, which was settled otherwise by employees, which do not work under obligation. They blocked in such a way jobs and weakened the negotiating position of the employees.

ethical arguments

military service opponents can be both for and against an army,while military service proponents are also simultaneous therefore for an army.

When one could bring in ethical argument for the military service that the restraining threshold is many lower to lead wars at the regular army. The USA led for example after from the American populationto a large extent rejected Viet Nam war a regular army.

One finds ethical arguments for the military service also in Immanuel Kant writing “to the eternal peace”: Here the philosopher, standing armies (thus regular armies) argued only to arms races and in further consequence to wars would lead.In contrast to it stand the defensive character of the person liable for military service army. Kant regards it even as ethical obligation to replace regular armies by freiwillige periodic active duty trainings of the citizens (see. “To the eternal peace”, BA 8f.).

In addition one argues, the military service is important, therebyeach man at least once in the life somewhat directly for the state and the society to carry out must to pay except taxes. However the question arises whether the achievement of men for state and society - of the military service onceforeseen - really only in tax numbers exists. Proponents of this thesis can besides not plausibly explain, why women - particularly, if they remain childless - not to such a service are obligated.

There are ethical arguments against the military service also: Nobodythe right has to force humans to certain work, because this would equal hard labour. And if one must defend absolutely without motivation and not from free pieces the country, this is neither ethicalally justifiable nor particularly efficient.

Legal arguments

the discussion over the draft fairness is derived from article 3 of the Basic Law .

German ones Democratic Republic

by the condition addition prepared from 1955 and the defense legislation from the year 1961, taken place with the law from 24. January 1962 the introduction of the compulsory military service in the GDR. It concerned all male citizens of the republic between that 18. and completed 50. Lebensjahr. On arrangement of the national defence council of the GDR 7 became starting from that. September 1964 religiouslybound citizen the possibility of a unarmed military service in the NVA given. These as building soldiers or also a spade soldier designated member of the NVA had usually the task to furnish works in the military and public building industry. They were not trained at weapons andneeded instead of a oath of allegiance only one vow to put down.

Liechtenstein

since 1868 does not have the Principality of own military more.

Austria

in Austria applies the compulsory military service to all male citizens of 18. up to 50.Lebensjahr, for officers and NCOs up to 65. Lebensjahr. Up to 35. Lebensjahr can be drawn in people liable for military service to the basic military service. The duration of the basic military service amounts to 6 months, whereby at least 6 months without temporal interruption must be carried out. The missing monthsduring the period by several years by weapon exercises are supplemented. Until every 6 months are done, the person liable for military service is in the Milizstand.

In place of the military service also a military alternative service or a civil service is possible. This takes 9 months and can different organizations to be done. Alternatively to the civil service, also a 12-monatiger civilian sentence service can be done abroad (foreign service).

Women are subject not in principle to the military service, can do however the military service voluntarily.

Switzerland

in Switzerland applies tomale citizens in accordance with kind. 59 Federal Constitution the general Dienstpflicht. For Swiss the military service is voluntary. The military service lasts in accordance with kind. 13 military law usually of 20. to 34. Age year. The requiring ones become annual refresher courses quantities until onerank-referred number of days to be taken into account is reached. For the crew ranks this number amounts to at the most 260 days (see Swiss army).

Italy

the Italian army exists 1 since that. July 2005 only from Freiwilligen and career soldiers. WithSuspension of the military service (and the civilian alternative service) was introduced a freiwilliger one year's military service, which is however a condition for reenlistments at the army and for applications at police - , Carabinieri -, and other security authorities. The “national office for the civil service “offers beside it a freiwilligen to one year's civil service, which can be accomplished in the range of development assistance also abroad.

Israel

to the few states of the world, which expanded the military service since both sexes, counts Israel. Herewomen are obligated to do 2 years service in there armed forces men must 3 years complete. However there is a set of exceptions: Like that are released orthodox Jews, Israeli Arabs as well as all not-Jewish, pregnant women or married women from the military service.Only women is it in principle permitted to follow the military service out for conscience reasons not and carry an alternative service. With men the Verweigerung of the military service is connected with social proscription and pretty often also with a criminal procedure.

united kingdom

To the united kingdom the military service was introduced during the two world wars. In the first two war years of the 1. World war still relied one on Freiwillige, to one her 1916 in England, Scotland and Wales, as well as in August 1918to Ireland introduced. After it had been again abolished with end of war 1918, led the outbreak 2. World war 1939 for re-establishment. This time the military service was maintained after end of war, but 1949 to national the service ungeformt, which was abolished 1960.

Work on []

See also

to literature

  • Florian Birkenfeld: The military service in Germany. Costs, comparison, perspectives, Saarbruecken (VDM publishing house Dr. Mueller) 2006, ISBN 3865501818
  • Roland G. Foerster (Hrsg.): The military service: Emergence, manifestations and political-military effect,Munich, 1994 ISBN 3-486-56042-5
  • Ute Frevert: The kasernierte nation, publishing house C.H.Beck 2001, ISBN 3406479790
  • Andres test ore (Hrsg.): Does the compulsory military service in Germany have a future? To the debate around the future military structure, Baden-Baden (Nomos) 2003. ISBN 3832903119
  • Matthias Sehmsdorf: Military service versus armyarmy army, publishing house Dr. Kovac 1996 ISBN 3860646982
  • human right, citizen liberty, constitution, publishing house Ferdinand Kamp, Bochum 1964 ISBN 3-592-87010-6

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