|Byelorussian (also Belarussisch)|
|spoken in:||White Russia, Russia, Ukraine, Poland (in the environment of Białystok), Latvia, Litauen, Kasachstan, the USA|
|Office language in:||White Russia (Belarus)|
|ISO 639 -1:|
|ISO 639 -2:||bel||-|
the Byelorussian (newer designation Belarussisch, becomes outdated to Weissruthenisch) becomes from approx. 7,9 million humans as native language spoken. On these a minority livesin Poland with Białystok, the majority however in white Russia, where it is one of the two office languages (the other one is the Russian).
Table of contents
the Byelorussian is together with the Russian one and Ukrainian one of the three ostslawischen languages, which developed in the Middle Ages from a common predecessor language. This is often called “oldRussian”, what is however misleading, becauseit a priority of the Russian one suggests - to prefer the expression is “Altostslawisch “.
Since that 14. Century developed at the yard of the litauischen large prince in Wilna a its own on the Byelorussian which is based Kanzleisprache, which deviated from the moskowitischen easilyand the official traffic language of the large principality Lithuania was. With the expansion of the large principality on the entire west of the former Kiewer Rus it took up also Ukrainian elements. After the litauischen personnel union with Poland it came under very strong influence of the Polish one. (For this in more detail see Rutheni language.) to smashing the Polish litauischen state (1795) this writing language came ever more except use.
19 already developed in the first half. Century the first literary works in one, on the northeast dialects of the Byelorussian one supported itself new Byelorussian writing language (first applies one between 1812 and 1830 anonymous translation of the Aeneis, Eneida developed navyvarat for “Aeneis turned”). But only after the revolution of 1905 legally books could and newspapers to be printed. Of 1903 - 1911 appeared in Warsaw the important work Belorussy. Jazyk belorusskowo naroda (“Belorussy. Jazyk belorusskowo naroda ") of Jauchim Karski, in which the writing language was codified. An important role plays those in this time furthermorestarting from 1906 appearing magazine Nascha niwa (“our corridor”).
1917 failed the first attempt to create its own Byelorussian state afterwards most white Russians in the Soviet republic white Russia, a smaller part in Poland lived. In the Soviet Union itself that could Byelorussian ones to end of the 1920er years unfold free, afterwards it turned out again under clear pressure of the Russian one.1933 forced by a Orthografiereform the approximation to the Russian, also for vocabulary and grammar stood since then under Russian influence. The same fateovertook the Byelorussian in the Polish areas, which were attached 1939 to the Soviet Union.
Only under the Perestroika it came to a revival of the Byelorussian writing language, which was explained in January 1990 as the state language of the Soviet republic white Russia. It gave nowalso efforts to supply the 1933 abolished traditional Orthografie (admits under the name тарашкевіца/Taraschkjewiza) since this time compete actually two systems, i.e. the Taraschkjewiza (preferred by emigrants and active Byelorussian speakers) and the Soviet Narkomauka (наркомаўка, until today alwaysstill official standard).
The present conditions are that that the Byelorussian writing language is spoken only of a small intellectual layer in the cities. On the country Byelorussian dialects are common, the largest part of the urban population speak a transition form between thatByelorussian one and the Russian one, which is called devaluing “Trasjanka “(“Viehfutter”). In the education system the Byelorussian is embodied, in the summer 2003 against strong resistance of the pupils and teacher the only High School with Byelorussian instruction language was closed only weakly. AfterIntroduction of the Byelorussian one as only office language with independence took place short bloom, “Wiedergeburt” (Byelorussian:Adradschenne) mentioned, which ended to further office language however by the introduction of the Russian one as by president Lukaschenka in the year 1994/95 again. The prognosisit is rather dark, many white Russians fears that complete coming up of the Byelorussian one in Russian the nearly no more is not to be prevented.
and Orthografie work on
the today's Byelorussian writing language with cyrillic writing are written, see. the following table:
|Аа||A A||A A|
|Бб||B b||B b|
|Вв||V v||W w|
|Гг||H h||H h|
|Ґґ (at present not part of the official Orthographie)||G g||G g|
|Дд||D D||D D|
|Ее||E e||E e (at the word beginning ever ever)|
|Ёё||Ë ë||Jo jo|
|Жж||Ž ž||Sch sch|
|Зз||Z z||S s|
|Іі||I i||I i|
|Йй||J j||I i (at the word ending й after і one does not show)|
|Кк||K k||K k|
|Лл||L l||L l|
|Мм||M m||M m|
|Нн||N n||N n|
|Оо||O o||O o|
|Пп||P p||P p|
|Рр||R r||R r|
|Сс||S s||S s|
|Уу||U u||U u|
|Ўў||Ŭ ŭ||U u|
|Фф||F f||F f|
|Хх||CH CH||CH CH|
|Цц||C C||Z z|
|Чч||Č č||Tsch tsch|
|Шш||Š š||Sch sch|
|Ыы||Y y||Y y|
|Ьь||''||- (before vowels: j)|
|Ээ||Ė ė||E e|
|Юю||Ju ju||Ju ju|
The letter inventory corresponds about to that of the Russian one and/or. the Ukrainian one. The letter is typically Byelorussian ў, which (except in Dungani in Kirgisistan and in the Yupik of the Tschuktschen peninsula) occurs only in this language, furthermore is the posting ëmandatorily (differently than in the Russian one). The Russian letters are missing to the Byelorussian one и, щ and ъ (but it has additionally і and ў). In the comparison with the Ukrainian one the letters are missing to it ї and є (but it has additionally ы, э, ë and ў).
The orthography of the Byelorussian one is strictly phonetically, i.e. it depends to a large extent on the discussion. This means also that the unbetonte o not only (as in the Russian one) spoken as A, but alsoone writes. From the phonetic orthography a clear difference of the typeface to the Russian one and Ukrainian one results. See. about Byelorussian вада “water” opposite Russian вода, the words are directly spoken, but written differently.
The ligatures дж and дз become sometimesas own units treats, since they designate also only one sound. In these cases they follow in the alphabet as own letters after д.
A problem of the Byelorussian Orthografie consists of the fact that both the sound h as well as the sound gby the letter г to be shown. Until 1933 became for g its own letter ґ used (as in the Ukrainian one), its re-establishment considered.
The posting of the Byelorussian one in latin writing (Lacinka) orients itself to the Polish Orthografie, points howeveralso special character with Diakritika (š, č etc.) up and uses (differently than the Polish) the letter v instead of w. Characteristically also of it a phonetic posting (“water” is then thus called vada).
the grammarthe Byelorussian one differs not substantially from the other slawischer languages. In detail the following can be said:
- The nouns point three Genera to (Maskulina, tool Nina, Neutra), which divide themselves again in animated and dead. There are six Kasus and two Numbers, singular and Plural. It is remarkable that the declination of the nouns is more strongly balanced than for instance in the Russian one or in the Czech one, which is to be explained by the fact that the Byelorussian Standardsprache in 19. Century came out from the people languageand no direct continuity to the oldByelorussian exists.
- The adjectives have out the different slawischen languages admitted prädikativen forms (so-called. Short forms) lost.
- The verb exhibits four tenses, beside present, Präteritum and Futur also the Plusquamperfekt rare in slawischen languages, in addition the category of the aspect characteristic of the slawischen languages. The system of the participles and Adverbialpartizipien is less developed than in other slawischen languages.
the vocabulary of the Byelorussian one consists of different layers.Beside the slawischen hereditary vocabulary and some influences Kirchenslawi above all borrowings from the Polish one are characteristic, which are missing however to the Russian one. See. for instance white soot. дзякаваць “thank” opposite Russian благодарить and Polish dziękować. Byelorussian цікавы “interesting” as Polish ciekawyetc. In intermediate wartime Byelorussian linguists were endeavored, instead of forming Polish (and Russian) leaning words own words on the basis from dialect words to, starting from 1933 the technical term treasure were however purposefully russifiziert.
- Knauf, Holger: Kauderwelsch, Byelorussian (Belarus) wordfor word. 2001. ISBN 3894165529
- conventional, Hermann: The Byelorussian. In: P. Rehder (Hrsg): Introduction to the slavischen languages. Darmstadt 1998, 110-125. ISBN 3534136470
- Hurtig, Claudia: Belarussi grammar in tables and exercises. Hramatyka belaruskai mowy u tablizach i praktykavannjach. Munich 2003.ISBN of 3876908507
Web on the left of
- information page dictionaries in latin writing information about the use
- of the latin writing for
- the Byelorussian Słovnik, English-Byelorussian over the Byelorussian language (English
- ) | Dictionary
- radio Free Europe/radio Liberty
- ЗВЯЗДА | ZVIAZDA... Byelorussian on-line newspaper
- Беларусь | German wave
- Artists in Belarus
- БЕЛАРУСЬТВ | Byelorussian TV
|Wikipedia on Byelorussian|