Christmas (also Christian celebration or holy Christian) is the Christian celebration of the birth Jesu and thus the people becoming of God. Main holiday is the 25. December, since the reformation to 24. December with the Christmas eve (also holy night, Christian night) begins. It is in many states a legal holiday and a prelude of the Weihnachtsferien; in Germany, Austria and Switzerland comes the 26. December as the second national holiday in addition.
Christmas is with Easter and Whitsuntide onethe three main celebrations (catholic:High-strength one) of the church yearly, which begins with the Adventszeit. The Christmas season is enough to the celebration of the feature of the Mr. (holy one from the first Vesper the birth of the gentleman to inclusively to Sunday after Epiphanias,Three kings).
As church holiday is the 25. December since 336 in Rome occupies; its origin is disputed. Often the Roman celebration of the Sonnengotts is accepted as origin; the Germanic July celebration is occupied only later.
Christians and Nichtchristen celebrateChristmas today usually as family celebration with mutual presenting; this custom is since that 16. Century within the Evangelist range admits. In catholic families the child giving at the Nikolaustag took place . In addition old and new customs of different origin came, e.g. Crib plays since that 11. Century, besides the Adventskranz (1839), the decorated Christmas tree and Santa Claus since that 19. Century. This made increasing as Gabenbringer for the children in some regions competition for the Christian child and the Nikolaus. ManyCountries connect further own customs with Christmas.
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the earliest voucher for the expression Weihnacht comes from 1170: „diu gnâde diuanegengete see to dirre approaches: of diu heat SI diu wîhe approaches.“(Over.: The grace (God) came to us in this night: therefore this is called now Weihnacht.) (Lit.: J. Spoon 1858). Already early the assumption was expressed,that the name of pre-Christian origin is: „the this heydnisch nam [Easter] and standt not of Petro, separate from the heyden in christenthumb is come, as also fasznacht, wine night etc.“(Lit.: Franck 1538). FirstWord part weih is derived from softly = holy, gothical weihs, old-high-German wîh, medium high-German wîch. Some language researchers place * yield A z as participle passively to the root wîq (yield), so that it itself around a Opfertier seperate of the herdact and refer to latin victima and its kinship (Lit.: Grimm 1984, Bd. 28 frames. 473 f.). Luther thought on weighs and formed Wygenachten, „we child flax weighs there “(Lit.: Luther Bd.2, 531 and 37, 48). In addition, the second word part is unusual for a holiday and refers to high age.Tacitus wrote in Germania chapter. 11: nec dierum numerum, ut nos, sed noctium computant (not the number of the days,as we, but the nights count them).Theodor Storm formed then in addition the verb Christmas: „It weihnachtet much “(Lit.: Storm Bd. 1 S. 187).
date of birthJesu is not called in the new will and was already unknown to the Urchristen. But already in 2. Century can be recognized an increasing interest in it. The spring equinox played to 25. March a special role. For this one took firstCreation day and the day of cross death Christi on. Before 221 writing Julius the Africanus designated the 25. March as date of his passion and its receipt-sneeze, which with a pregnancy accurately of nine months Marias to a birthday to 25. Decembers leadbecame.
In Egypt however already gave Clemens of Alexandria (Stromata I 145, 6) at the beginning of the 3. Century one day between Easter and Whitsuntide as birth date on. In the oldest Christian calendars, e.g. in the Osterkanon of the Hippolyt of Rome (De pascha computus) from the year 222, became Jesu birth and its death on the 14. Nisan put (Lit.: Strobel 1962, S. 183 FF.). The origin of this date lies after Strobel in a Jewish Haggada, those Isaak, the model Christi in the early church, likewise to 14. Nisan to be born leaves. Hippolyt knew thus the date 25. December as birthday Jesu surely not yet. An appropriate place in its Danielkommentar is as the later interpolation proven.
In the morgenländischen church was for Tuesday, Wednesday and Thursday of the 3. Week after Easter the same read order prescribed as to wine respecting - with the Armenians of 5. /6. January, in the Georgian church of 25. /26. December.There was thus in the old-Palestinian church a time, in which the birthday Jesu in the middle of was celebrated May. The nun Aetheria described a special celebration in the birth church with nocturnal service in a report on a journey for this time to Bethlehem.A Reliquienkapsel (Enkolpion) in the museum of Konstantinopel, carried on the chest , represents a crib and refers in the Beischrift on the 25. May (Pachoni). A copy of a altpalästinensichen Liturgie leads the Weihnachtsliturgie for the 16. to 28. May up(Lit.: Intelligent one).
Becomes first the 25. December expressly mentioned by Furius Dionysius Filocalus in its Chronograph of 354, on Roman sources from the year the 336 is based. A listing of the Roman consuls contains the entry: „Christ is during the Consulats of C. Augustus and L. Aemilianus Paulus to 25. December, one Friday, that 15. Day of the moon age born “. In these Roman sources the date is to be understood also as liturgical holiday. As be enough before it the 25.December as holiday was committed, is unknown.
In Rome, where the birthday Jesu first to 25. December, after the Weihnachtshomilie of the Hieronymus from the outset, was celebrated, played a computation, like it Africanus employed, no role. Instead givesit several speculative assumptions over the there origin of the fixed date:
- He is as thank prayer of the church for the victory emperor Konstantins (so Hans Lietzmann (Lit.: Lietzmann 1932)) arisen. Then the holiday would have developed after 313. Opposes that,that the 25. December in Konstantinopel, which was only accepted city constant in, around 380.
- It is as reaction to the birthday of the Sol Invictus ordered of emperor Aurelian for the winter sun turn of the Julian calendar to 25. Decembers developed, at thatalso the birth of the Mithras to have been celebrated is. That would lead to an introduction around 300 (Lit.: Young man 1955, S. 299).
The opinion, Christmas stepped to the place of an older celebration over the birth of the sun,became for the first time in a marginal note of the Syrian church writer Dionysius without Salibi from that 12. Century represent. Apart from the antique derivations there are today further hypotheses:
- the computation hypothesis of Duchesne, Strobel, Engberding and Fendt. Afterwards old Jewish writings represented the conception,that large Patriarchen was born on the same day and died. Because God cheap only the perfect, lets its outstanding Verkünder on ground connection live thus only full Lebensjahre. That applied in particular to Isaak, which became for Christians Jesu model. Also forJesus would therefore have been put at the beginning and end of its terrestrial life on the same date, i.e. to the 14.Nisan of the yearly 30, that that 25. March would have corresponded. One however its life beginning with Marias would have receipt-sneezes equates. That would havethe 25. Decembers as birth date result in. The heidnische Sol Invictus was only a secondary reason and not the primary impact (Lit.: Duchesne 1925, S. 271 FF. ; Strobel 1962; Engberding, 1952, S. 25 FF. ; Fendt 1953, S. 1 FF.).
To the thought of the true „Sol invictus “, the winner over death, still the world harmony came as göttliche order: Afterwards the sun year was in such a way arranged that at present the autumn equinox to 24. September the Verkündigung and receipt-sneeze Johannes of the Täufers,to the summer solstice to 24. June its birth, to the spring equinox receipt-sneeze Jesu and to the winter sun turn his birth took place.
Both the computation hypothesis and the hypothesis coupled to the Sol invictus leave questions open: e.g., with which authorization the usually relevantBirth date on the date receipt-sneeze to be set back should. The hypothesis of the celebration for the Sol invictus grants a larger influence on the church to the cultural environment of the early Christianity, than the contemporaries would probably have admitted it.
Also thoseAfrican church celebrated from the beginning only the 25. December.Augustinus accused the Donatisten to deviate with the celebration of the Epiphanie which lets some assume from one argumentum to e silentio that the 25. December already before the donatistischen Schisma 311 inAfrica of the Weihnachtstermin was. Oldest certification is a delivered lecture of the Optatus of Mileve from the time around 360 over the Bethlehemiti child murder. For upper Italy is the date for the end 4. Jh. among other things by Filastrius ofBrescia, Diuersarum hereseon rather, chapters. 140, occupies. The Synode of Saragossa testified in CAN. 4 the date for the year 380 in Spain. For Gallien there is no voucher for this time still. Only in 5. Century callsit Gregor of route (Frankish history 10, 31). In the German-speaking countries - so far evidently - Christmas is mentioned for the first time in the Synodalbeschlüssen of the Bairi Synode, whose dating did not succeed however. After the style of the publication thatResolutions becomes the center 8. Century accepted. There a chamfering time is arranged for the time before Christmas.Gregor of Nazianz celebrated the celebration 380 in Konstantinopel. Its lectures to Christmas and Epiphanie were directed against arianische and apollinaristische teachingsand stressed the trinitarische confession of Nicäa. In Egypt it is imported starting from 432 proven, probably in the argument with Nestorius. In Jerusalem it became only in 6. Century under Justinian II.celebrated. During all other churches Christmas taken overhave, has the Armenian church until today only the 6. January as birth celebration Jesu.
the church dogma of the virgin birth linked with Jesu birth is religion-historically very old: Already the old-Egyptian Mysterienkult around the goddess Isisand this motive lets its son Osiris suspect. Similarly in the birth description of the gräko Egyptian Helios Aion the God son is born by an unaffected woman. Its birthday became in Alexandrien to 25. December and at the night of 5. on the 6.January committed (Lit.: The north 1924, S. 8, 33 FF. ; H. Rahner 1945, S. 1 f, 145 FF.).
Whether Christian Christmas is to be interpreted as assumption of such older or however competition-conditioned displacement from parallel Mysterienkulten to, is disputed. Thoseantique representations of Isis and Osiris affected anyhow the early Christian iconography.
The derivation of the Christmas daily of a Germanic or Scandinavian July celebration is untenable against it. A pre-Christian July celebration cannot be proven surely; a distant connection with Germanic celebrationsin order in addition, the sun turn of the memo winter is to be excluded not completely. Later Weihnachtsbräuche like the Christian child and the evergreen Christmas tree is often attributed to such Germanic roots.
the Christmas season into the church year
the Christmas season is divided a before-ChristmasPaying for and chamfering time (Adventszeit) as well as a Christmas joy time. The Adventszeit begins 1 with that. Advent, which is usually celebrated on fourth Sunday before Christmas. The Christmas season ends on Sunday after Epiphanias (celebration of the holy three kings);this Sunday is liturgically coined/shaped by the memory at Jesu baptism.
Deviating from this custom valid in all western churches the diocese Milan could do its ambrosianischen regulations despite Roman-catholic Liturgiereformen maintained; there the Adventszeit begins, with that 11. November, a Quatember, whereby six result instead of four Adventssonntage, and the Christmas season it ends to 2. February with „the celebration of the representation of the gentleman in the temple “ (light measuring). Thus the tradition retained itself there that paying forand chamfering time such as joy time around Christmas as around Easter following Jesu retreat into the desert (40 days; Mt 4.2), the Sintflut (40 days; Towards 7,4.12), Noahs control rooms in the ark on the era advice (40 days; Towards 8,6), IsraelExodus (40 years; Ex 16.35) and other one in each case 40 days last.
At light measuring the Christmas season resounds. The reason for it lies among other things in the God-official Perikopen of the daily, which is in the western churches equal. In the alttestamentlichen reading Maleachi 3.1-4 resounds the Adventszeit, the Epistel Hebräer 2.14-18 looks already on Karfreitag, the gospel Lukas gospel 2.22-24 attaches directly to the Weihnachtsevangelium.
already Gregor D. Gr.could do the threeFairs of Christmas. The title churches of Rome knew against it at the beginning of only two fairs, the Vigil and the fixed service on the following day. Already the Capitulare lectionum from the center 6. Jh. the classical succession of the readings contains with all three Weihnachtsmessenfrom that RK (Jesaja), from the Paulusbriefen and the gospel. This order was until far in the Middle Ages usually, locally to in 18. Jh.
The second fair was probably one from Jerusalem taken over midnight fair (into nocte, popularly „Christmette “ , there mentioned it with that Mette collapsed), their station church the Marienbasilika on the Esquilin was (S. Maria Maggiore). There became in the 11. Jh. also the daily fair shifts; because it accommodated a reproduction of the Geburtsgrotte in the crypt.
As the third independent fair came intoMorning-grey (mane in aurora, popularly due to the gospel of the Anbetung of the Hirten „Hirtenamt “ mentioned) in the Byzantine yard church Santa Anastasia on the Palatin in addition. There became to 25. December the celebration of its title-holy Anastasia of Sirmiacelebrated.
This papal Stationsliturgie led to the unique and remaining unique situation that three different fairs with different measuring forms were celebrated on the same day. The text equipment comes from Pope Gregor D. Gr.Thus the Weihnachtsliturgie came as a whole into thatthe gallisch Frankish north.Karl D. Gr. she explained then for obligatory. In the 11. Jh. emerge in France for the first time szenische representations in the service, so-called Weihnachtsspiele. Franz of Assisi placed in Umbrien a crib with a living ox and donkey to Greccioup, the gospel read out and held a lecture in the fair. Emperor Joseph II. forbade the crib plays in the service, which changed therefore into the domestic range and became the customs.
To these Messliturgie has the Liturgiereform Paul VI.essentiallyheld. Thus this very day the somewhat unromantische clear dogma tables statement is the center of attention to the divinity Christi from the time of origin. The Christmas season begins today with the first Vesper of Christi birth in the late afternoon 24. December up to the celebration that Christi baptizes on first Sunday after Epiphanie (Lit.: Secretariat of the bishop conference 1996, S. 122 FF.). There are also still the three measuring forms, even if today is permitted to exchange the texts.
The reading texts progress in the fairs.In the previous evening fair to 24. December stands still expectation in the foreground (Jes 62, 1-5; Apg 13, 16-26 and Mt1, 1-25). In the Christmette the joy is expressed (Jes 9, 1-6; Tit 2.11-14 and process card2, 1-14). The Hirtenmesse in the morning acts of hope for release by the Inkarnation (Jes 62, 11-12, Tit 3, 4-7 and process card 2.15-20). The office for high and/or. the daily fair has God welfare plan to the article, like itin the pro log of the Johannesevangeliums (Joh 1, 1-18) to the expression comes; preceding readings are Jes 52.7-10 and lift 1, 1-6. Within the Weihnachtsoktav no other holy celebrations may be celebrated with exception of the three of comites Christi, i.e. Stephanus, Johannes of the EH gelists and the innocent children.
in the German Evangelist churches begins Christmas to 24. December with the Christvesper. The liturgical texts consist of the pointing saying of the old person of will (Micha 5,1-3; Jesaia 9,5-6aand Jesaia 11.1-2) and the childhood history of the Lukasevangeliums. Between them the municipality Christmas carols sings.
In order to prevent „nocturnal mischief “, one shifted the Christmette, which is located in the center of Christmas, into which earliest mornings of the holiday (often at 4 o'clock) or replacedit by the first-finite Vesper. The official reserves against the service around midnight led to in 18. Century to conflicts. The municipalities, in which today the night service is held, increase again. The Evangelist service book of 1999 has for it inown form taken up. A characteristic of Evangelist Christmas, which goes back into the reformation time, is it, to expand Christmas also on the second (in former times third) Weihnachtstag. Many church orders regulated that also at the second holiday over the birth Jesuto preach is. The Evangelist service book offers for it two forms, „to Christian celebration I “and „Christian celebration II “, which is however exchangeable. The celebration of the ore martyr Stefanus can be considered in an evening service.
The reformed churches rejected Christmas throughout. Therefore givesit no liturgical characteristics. The development of Christmas is treated in this regard therefore under the title „customs “.
American Lutheraner, Episkopalisten and Methodist use the Common Lectionary, which was provided by the Consultation on Common of text. Afterwards becomethe following texts uses: Jesaias 9, letter at Titus 2, Lukasevangelium 2.1-20 or: Jesaias 52, letter to the Hebräer 1 and Johannesevangelium 1, 1 - 14 or: Jesaias 62, letter at Titus 3 and from the Lukasevangelium 2,1-20.
With the activeThe coming union forms for municipality members of the Anglikaner into the mitternächtlichen you air low eggs the high point. While the earlier Book OF Common Prayer in the holy evening referred only in some prayers to Christmas, becomes in the today common agendas, like the Common Worshipfrom the year 2000, the Weihnachtsereignis in the center of the writing reading and the prayers moved.
the eastern churches placed since more jeher the Theophanie (today Epiphanias) to 6. January into the center. It is olderas Christmas. The lectures of Gregor of Nazianz from the years 380 and 381 mark the transition of the total celebration Epiphanie to the two celebrations Christmas with the emphasis of the birth and Epiphanie, that on the baptism Jesu in Jordanone refers. Antiochien took over short time later Christmas, as lecture of the Johannes Chrysostomos occupies from the year 386. The Jerusalemer church leaned Christmas to in 6. Jh. off. The Armenian church did not take over it until today,separates holds at the comprehensive fixed date of 6. January firmly.
Today all orthodox churches with exception of the churches of Jerusalem, Russia and Serbia took over the Gregorian calendar - with exception of the computation of the Osterdatums. They hold Christmas by 25. December.The churches, which hold to the Julian calendar, register it to 7. January of Gregorian calculation.
, Which is less strict, as chamfered before Easter, begin with the orthodox ones already 40 days before Christmas chamfered the before-Christmas. Starting from that 13. December becomesit more strictly and reaches its high point to 24. December. It does not concern thereby however a liturgical Adventszeit. During this time the Liturgie is enriched step by step with Christmas motives. Two last Sundays before Christmas are thatAncestor Christi dedicated.
To 24. December is held a Vesper with 8 writing readings, which refer all to Jesus as fulfilment of the prophecies. After the Vesper the Taufliturgie of the Basilius , a reference to the sentence follows: You are my son,today I witnessed you. The readings consist of the letter to the Hebräer 1.1-12 and the Lukasevangelium 2,1-20. The large Komplet changes into the early service. Both together are considered as „night watch “, in that the birth Christi to matte house1,18-25 one announces. To the Matutin the entire canon Christ is sung born, and the Gläubigen prays before the icon of the birth Jesu.
The Liturgie of the Weihnachtstages is concerned with the attendance of the Magier and emphasized the rule Christi.But the Chrysostomus Anaphora is used. The matte house gospel 2.1-12 dedicates itself to the attendance of the Magier.
With the second Weihnachtsfeiertag begins the six-day Nachfeier with the Synaxis of the Theotokos (synopsis of the Gottesgebärerin), a celebration of the Marienverehrung. (Lit.: Onasch 1958)
customsin northern latitudes followed the customs of the winter to Christmas. This begins already with the dead customs at the beginning of the Advents and reaches up to Maria light measuring. The customs became in the Weihnachtsspielen as specialreligious of plays Christian light and since that 16. Jh. into the Weihnachtskrippen represented. The szenischen representations are first in the 11. Jh. in France understandably.
Two candle-decorated fir trees stand since 1621 in with the Augustinern in new pin on the right of and on the left of the crib. Origin of the fir tree might the Paradiesbaum of the wide-spreadParadiesspiele to 24. December and medieval Mysterienspiele been its. For approximately 1800 the decorated Christmas tree in the elevated community centres of Zurich, Munich, was to find Vienna and filter defiency guarantee. It was considered first as Protestant, to it also from the catholics gradualone took over.Henriette Alexandrine of wet outer because castle introduced it 1816 to Vienna. The war 1870/71 popularized the Christmas tree also in France. 1912 were located the first „public “tree in New York.
Luther has before also in his house the usual Giving at the Nikolaustag (gives household calculations from the house Luther over gifts for the Gesinde and the children to pc. Nikolaus from the year 1535 and 1536) on the Christmas eve shifts, since the Evangelist church does not know holy admiration. Evangelist Gabenbringerwas now no more pc. Nikolaus, but „the holy Christian “, as Luther called the Jesuskind. From this abstraction immediately already the angel-same Christian child in Thuringia, in addition, in another place, who one introduced oneself womanlike now, became. After 1800 became out Farmhand Ruprecht, originally the punishing companion of Nikolaus and Christian child, gradually Santa Claus.
The reformed churches believed, Christmas rise heidnischem custom and are connected with the Roman church and rejected it therefore in principle. 1550 became in Genevaall not-Biblical celebrations forbade, about what it came to heavy conflicts.Calvin was there less strict. John Knox forbade all church celebrations, so also Christmas in Scotland to 1560. To it the Scottish Presbyterianer in 20 adhered. Century inside.Also the Quäker and the Puritaner 17. Jahrhunderts lehnten Weihnachten als Feiertag ab und gingen wie auch sonst ihren Geschäften nach. English Christmas covered the service, but also Gelage, Besäufnis, dance and luck play in that time not only.1647 issued the parliament a prohibition of such celebrations. That led to road riots between proponents and opponents of Christmas (Lit.: Durston/Eales 1996 S. 210 FF.). After 1660 the fixed prohibition was not any longer used. Only in most recent time they haveitself the behavior patterns of their cultural surrounding field adapted. But only in 19. Century took Christmas in England an important upswing, under the influence of the prince Albert from Germany, the queen Viktoria had possibly married. Also in the USA those ranDevelopment similarly. In areas, in which predominantly Presbyterianer, Mennoniten, Quäker and Puritaner live (new England, Pennsylvanien), gave it to in 19. Century inside no Christmas. In the south the English settlers continued to keep 17 since that. Jh. their anglikanischen customs.The Netherlands settlers had bring along its Sinterklaas (Nikolaus) to New York. From it the Santa Claus became later.
Christmas in the family with Christmas tree, Christmas carols, crib, gifts and a service attendance, today common in Germany, is a cultural forming outthe citizen family 19. Century (Lit.: Weber cellar man 1975 S. 223). The volkskundliche and Germanistic research, among other things the brothers Grimm, assumed 20 up to the first half. Century, this tradition must be already very old, and tried, a continuityto design into the Germanic antiquity. Thus the world ash of the Germanic myth or the memo winter tree was regarded as direct forerunners of the Christmas tree. This was also on the line of the national socialism, which tried to re-design Christmas to the Germanic July celebration. Thatapplies also to the persons taken part in the Weihnachtsbrauchtum. Thus farmhand Ruprecht of the God father Oðinn was derived (Lit.: Riemerschmidt 1962, S. 27).
The light tree decorated with candles is today central element of the family Weihnachtsfeier. To in 18. Century insideif he was to be found only at courts, then in the civil Oberschicht. At the small middle class it became not least popular by the fact that that let set up the Prussian king in the war 1870/71 against France Christmas trees in the shelters and military hospitals. Afterwards spreadthe Christmas tree further and kept those today as naturally felt central role in the ceremony of the domestic family celebration (children stand before the locked door, tree one ignites, the door one opens, common singing, common opening of the gifts, common meal).
Thiscentral function of the Christmas tree takes it off in principle from the earlier evergreen branches and Buchsbäumchen, which were a decorative element under many. 1930 brought the German Atlas according to the Volkskunde Santa Claus (predominant in the Evangelist north and northeast) and thatChristian child (predominant in the west and the south and in Schlesien) the gifts. The border ran between Westphalia and Friesland, Hessen and Lower Saxony and Thuringia and between Bavaria and Thuringia, went through south Thuringia, southern Saxonia until Schlesien. In 18. Century was it still completely differently been: The Nikolaus had brought the gifts in catholic areas, the Christian child in Evangelist. With increasing popularity of Christmas and the Christian child that was shifted giving min also in the catholic areas by the Nikolaustag on Christmas eve, thatChristian child taken over.
In the antiquity gifts already admitted to New Year lived until far in 20. Century inside away, locally even until today, as money bonuses at postman, newspaper woman, garbage disposal etc. The distribution of Christmas presents decreases/goes back however to the Nikolausbescherung. „Lüttenweihnachten “callsone decorating a Christmas tree for animals in the forest with fodder.The Christian child give-bringing developed from the Evangelist holy Christian of Luther. It appears since that 17. Century in the Christmas removal customs, in those Maria, Joseph and the Jesuskind by thoseRoads pulled (like today in many places the Sternsinger), accompanied aforementioned of white dressed girls with open hair as angels, from the masked „Christian child “.
Santa Claus is a synkretistische shape, which from Nikolaus and farmhand Ruprecht and the roughPercht in a entdämonisierten form was built up. A design of Moritz of shrink in the resident of Munich picture fig. No. „Mr. Winter “is considered to 5 of 1848 under the title as early representation, however it is not the only one. The clothes, those in Germanyonly after 1945, took over he is predominantly red explained from farmhand Ruprecht, barrier-ends beard of usual God father conceptions.
With the customs it may not be surveyed that most of it developed in one climatically from cold, dark winter marked zone. ThoseLonging after the sun, which comes at the time the selected sun turn to the expression, is hardly comprehensible for humans in the desert belts of the earth. In the Southern Hemisphere Christmas falls into the summer. That must lead inevitably to other customs. Thatevergreen fir tree has there no relevant symbol strength.
the Weihnachtsfeiertage are legal holidays in December or January. Depending upon country the definition of the number of holidays is different. The German definition on the two holidays to25. and 26. December decreases/goes back historically on Martin Luther . As third Weihnachtsfeiertag Epiphanias can and/or. the holy three-king celebration to 6. Apply for January in addition; also this is in some German Lands of the Federal Republic legal holiday.
in the pastoralen literaturealso criticism is practiced on Christmas in today's shape. It can be essentially concentrated on three key words: 1. Profanisierung, 2. Commercialization 3. Hecticness and stress (Lit.: Roll S. 463 FF. ; Weber cellar man 1975 S. 223)
Under thatKey word Profanisierung is above all spoken that Christmas became entchristlicht and a family celebration for everyone. The theological content is lost thereby over far distances. Instead Kitsch and Sentimentalität would increase. In contrast to this it is to be stressed that Christmassince was more jeher double-railed, once church sakral, on the other hand as people celebration with Gelagen and Besäufnissen, which led again and again to intervening the authority. The training as family celebration, essentially since that 19. Century strengthened to observe, shows that itanyhow in the northern latitudes a need gives, a celebration for the stimulation and stabilization of Binnenbeziehungen, particularly in the family to celebrate. The fact that such a celebration follows a church celebration does not profaniert the church celebration inevitably. Howeveralso a Ausgrenzung of edge-constant groups accompanies with the reduction on family. Therefore many organizations operate an addition by Weihnachtsfeiern for unmarried ones and nothing shank.
- Play goods: 32,1%.
- Clocks and decoration: 28.7%
- books, magazinesand newspapers: 23%
- department stores: 22.3%
- antiques: 22.2%
- textiles: 21.5%
- entertainment electronics and household appliances: 21.2%
are only surveyed thereby the substantial difference to the advertisement in the rest of year: Normally the advertisement aims at the fact off that the applying fulfills itself own desires. In the Christmas businessit concerns to buy gifts for the intimate fellow men. The gift, the gift is since oldest time of mankind a substantial means for the stabilization of relations. Everywhere in the world there are any celebrations, the one gift exchange to contentshave.
Under the key word hecticness is criticized that humans do not come into the Adventszeit to the peace, because he is working at full capacity completely with the fixed preparations and looking for for the suitable gift. It is not noticed also here that itFirmly without preparation does not give - it is, one has sufficient service personnel, who relieves the work of. The problem lies rather in the fact that the local society forgot a celebrating, so that humans are not any more in the conditions left,to prepare briskly and rationally a celebration.
Church Christmas is not affected thereby, and church and religious-mirror-image-ritually gesinnten humans remain for everyone possible to celebrate this in accordance with his needs. The fact that other humans use the celebration for other one does not need itto disturb.
a special Weihnachtsmusik can be already proven in the Middle Ages. It has its origin in the musical organization of the three fixed fairs and the Gloria of the angels with the Hirten on thatField, of which the Lukasevangelium 2, 14 reports. Luther enriched the song treasure substantially. From it come:
- Gelobet are you Jesus Christian (Strophe 2 to 7)
- of the sky highly, there come I ( text and melody) from
- the sky came ago thatNow angel crowd (text and melody
- ) come the heaths welfare and (Adventslied; Text and melody taken over and change after the “Veni, redemptor gentium “(hymn. VIII: Intende to emphasize qui regis Israel) of the Ambrosius of Milan
) are also thatChoralwerk J. S. Brook Weihnachtsoratorium and the parts of the Messiah of trade, referred to Christmas. Also Carl Heinrich Graun, J. G. Reinberger, Engelbert Humperdinck, L. H. Berlioz, C. Saint Saëns, E. Martin and Giselher stick in different centuries Weihnachtsmusik wrote.World-wide these and also O you spread merry ones. For the English-language area Jingle are bells and incoming goods wipe you A merry christmas to emphasize. The song treasure was continued to spread always and has its place in the church and internal-family arealong abandoned and is in the radio to hear with road musi edges and in department stores. There are not special instruments. In some organs there is the special register „Zimbelstern “. Also in the modern time there are still again new Christmas carols, howfor example „Let it snow “from Frank Sinatra or the song of Wham, liked annually! „Load Christmas “.
the earliest well-known representation of the birth Jesu originates from the time around 320 (Lit.: Dyke man 1967, No.772). There the crib is adapted to an altar.
symbolism, picture contents and purchases
the Christian art developed its motives first from the narrations of the matte house and Lukasevangelium as well as from the apokryphen childhood gospels. Many legend texts of different origin were added. Sincethe representations in the Katakomben in the 3. Century until far into the Renaissance was connected the birth scene with the Verkündigung to the Hirten and the Anbetung of the Magier. The stable comes into 4. Century in addition. Very early already are thosespecial relationship Jesu with Maria Thema of the pictures, e.g. the first bath or the Jesuskind satisfying nut/mother, whereby over Maria a star stands (Domitilla and Priscilla Katakomben, late 3. Century). To a new topic the discovery of the Geburtsgrotte accomplishedFlavia Iulia Helena and building the birth church by emperors Konstantin. Already since early 4. Century are Ochs and donkeys in the pictures, which refer 1, 3 to Isaias:The Ochs knows its owner, the donkey its crib. They and the Magier in the same picture mean that both the highest and the lowest organisms the child anbeten. Also the Ochs symbolized the Jewish people, who is bound to the law, as a pure animal the donkeyas an impure animal the heidnischen peoples under the load of the Heidentums. In the Byzantine representations also the two midwives Zelomi and Salome are explained, which are to stress the real human birth Jesu in the christologischen argument of the time at that time. Thoseat the virgin birth Jesu doubting Salome wants to examine this circumstance with their hand, which dries up then to the punishment. The contact of the Jesusknaben heals it again (apokryphes Protoevangelium of the Jakobus 19, 3). This topic is in 5. and 6. Centurya popular motive of the eastern art and is represented on the left front Ciboriumssäule (Ciborium is a canopy) of San Marco in Venice, which is robbed from Konstantinopel, (Lit.: Weigel 1997).
The kind of the Biblia pauperum [arm Bible] pointsin its purchases a whole set of allusions up: The root Jesse, Daniel 2, 45: Maria is the unbehauene mountain, the birth cave their lap.Without effort of humans a stone broke loosely…. Christmas becomes with Easter in relationshipset. The cave is also symbol of its grave. Irish from the people becoming compared Christi with its hell travel between death and Auferstehung. (Lit.: Onasch 1958, S. 177 FF.). As Präfigurationen are considered to the virginity Mariens above all: The burning thorn shrubs. Solike the flame the thorn shrubs verzehrte, then receipt-sneezes not the virginity (Lit injured.: Schiller 1966, fig. 171). Felizetti describes an icon in the Sinaikloster from that 14. Jh., posed on which Maria into the burning thorn shrubsis (Lit.: Felicetti 1956, S. 53). Then the becoming green Aaronsstab (book numbers 17, 23), since Aarons carried staff blooms, without to have been planted. Then Gideon with the fleece (book of the judges 6, 37 f.), because this was the indication of the appointment Gideons to rescue of its people and symbolized the Beschattung Mariens by the holy spirit. Then Ezechiel before the locked gate (Ezechiel 44, 2) likewise for the virginity Mariens. These four Präfigurationen became already in 9. Centuryin the Byzantine art develops and came later also into the evening country. They are in board pictures 15. Century, where they are grouped around the representation of the birth Christi around, so e.g. on the central board of the wing altar in the monastery Sams(Lit.: Cornell 1924, fig. 46).
Also the antique iconography of the Mysterienkulte, which likewise knew the birth of a God, had also influence on the early Christian representations, like certain parallels to antique representations to the birth Alexanders or the Dionysosshow (Lit.: Forge 1890 S. 94; Weitzmann 1951, S. 38 FF.). On an ivory relief around 550 the midwife Salome Maria shows her hand dried up. The attitude Mariens, lying, half put up with the left hand at the chin is muchsimilarly the half lying and half sitting Semele with the birth of the Dionysos on ivory pyxis in Bologna.
at the beginning is missing in many picturesMaria, more frequently still Josef. It became only the second emphasis, when Maria 431 on the council was recognized to Ephesus as „Gottesgebärerin “. In the Byzantine iconography a special meaning comes to the two birth aids, those the child bathes (Abb.1) andthe uniqueness virgin birth Marias testify. Usually Maria lies exhausted on a couch (κλίνη), which is to stress the human birth procedure. The child is wound into a cloth in analogy into the later corpse cloth. The scene usually becomes in a Grotterepresented, whereby also cave-equalsneeze Platons in connection with Jesus as the light of the world a role have played may. Joseph is represented regularly substantially older, is located in the background and guards the scene. EarlyChristian and Byzantine pictures of the birthare substantially rarer than with Magiern and Hirten, thus the Epiphanie. For the Byzantine influence in Italy the picture of Duccio the Buoninsegna (Abb.2) is typical. The difference to the purely Byzantine representation lies in the representation of the personal relationsthe persons in the picture among themselves. The increasing Marienfrömmigkeit, the franziskanische Spiritualität and the human led later to the fact that already in the high gothic earlier something yielded the reserved representation between Maria and the Jesuskind of a more intimate connection between both andplace for a more natural representation made. Thus changed also the role of Josephs, which got a more active role assigned. For the new representation method the Anbetungsszene of Giotto the Bondone is typical.
in 14. Representations, in which Maria and Josef sit on both sides the child on the soil, accumulate themselves century up possibly an allusion on the humility. At the end 14. Century flow motives for category into the pictorial material. Josef prepares for nut/motherand child a meal, or it warms itself the hands at a furnace. In the late gothic no more is the representation of childhood history than such goal of the representation, but the meditative view of the people becoming. A tendency forms toDevotion picture out. The Anbetungstypus develops up to 16. Century to the prevailing motive. A special high point is the theological-speculatively out-arranged birth picture of Matthias's Green forest on the second looking side of the Isenheimer of altar (Abb.3) and the Anbetung of the Magier of Albrecht of old villages (Abb.4).
Christmas in the literature
to it see to Weihnachtsgeschichte
- OSCAR Cullmann: The emergence of Christmas and the origin of the Christmas tree; Stuttgart: Source publishing house, 1994 4; ISBN 3-79182326-4 (a very solid and generally comprehensible explanationChristmas from Christian view)
- Alexander Demandt: The origin of Christmas, now in: ders.: Filters seals. Essay to culture history; Cologne Weimar vienna: Böhlau publishing house, 2005; S. 1-18 (scientifically fastidious and at the same time generally understandable study to the old-eastern-Jewish, antik--Christian and Germanic GermansRoots of Christmas)
- Henrik Cornell: The Iconography OF the Nativity OF Christian; Uppsala 1924
- Franz Joseph Dölger: Natalis Solis Invicti and Christian Christmas; in: Antique one and Christianity 6.1976, 23 FF.
- Hieronymus Engberding: The 25. Dec. asDay of the celebration of the birth of the gentleman; in: Archives for literature science 2, 1952
- Leonhard Fendt: The today's conditions of the research over the birth celebration Jesu to 25. XII. and over Epiphanias; in: Theological literature newspaper 78 (1953)
- Hans Förster Christmas - a tracing; Berlin: Kadmos publishing house, 2005 2; ISBN 3-93165-947-X
- Konrad Onasch: Christmas in the orthodox church year; Berlin: Evangelist publishing house, 1958
- Susan K. Roll: Christmas/Christmas/Weihnachtspredigt; in: TRE 35, S. 453-468; Berlin - New York: deTo Gruyter, 2003
- Inge-borrow weber cellar man: Christmas. A culture and a social history of the Christmas season; Luzern Frankfurt/M.: Books, 1978; ISBN 3-7658-0273-5
- see portal: Christmas as signposts/guides to articles approximately around Christmas
- Christmas eve
- silence night, holy night
- customs tooChristmas
- Christmas world-wide
- Christmas tree
Web on the left of
with web pages is to be noted that they usually represent the probable origins of Christmas usually in such a way, as if it concerned proven connections!
|Commons: Christmas - pictures, videos and/or audio files|
|Wikiquote: Christmas - quotations|
|Wiktionary: Christmas - word origin, synonyms and translations|
- EKHN Christmas - worth knowing over the Christian celebration and Santa Claus; References to services and meetings
- Christmas of the catholic church inGermany explains
- MDR, transmission „to Lexi TV “, keyword: Christmas/Weihnachtsbräuche
- WDR, transmission „planet knowledge “, keyword: Christmas
- Weihnachtslinks thematically arranged
- Weihnachtsbräuche national and internationally
- of the Weihnachtsgruss „glad Christmas! “ in over 350 languages
- with children RusslandJournal.de over
- Christmas in Russia celebrate Christmas
- Icons of the birth Christi
- silence night, lie night - critical analysis for the emergence of the Weihnachtsmythos of the Göttinger theologian Gerd loading man