Weintrauben der Rebsorte Blauer Burgunder
Weintrauben of the Rebsorte of blue Burgunder

wine (takes out lat. vinum) an alcoholic beverage from the vergorenen juice of the berries of the common grape vine ( Vitis sylvestris) is or (Vitis vinifera). These two European Rebarten are not reblausresistent and on American documents (roots) Vitis are therefore grafted to the kind riparia or Vitis berlandieri.

Only this beverage may carry the trade name “wine”. The vergorenen juices from other fruits are designated than wine-similar beverages or fruit wineand must the respective names of the vergorenen fruit contained (for example „apple wine “). Wine from honey is called honey wine or Met.

Weinhaltige of beverages are such, those except wine still different materials, z. B. for aromatizing, contain as for instance who courage wine (Vermouth).

Table of contents


it gives approx. 8,000 Rebsorten, and approx. 50 is cultivated in Germany. Frequently the read property originates for this from onethe 13 areas of cultivation of wine determined. On the market also blend wines from the five different Weinbaugebieten are, partly than cheap board wine filled up in the Tetrapak. In the broader sense also the Likörweine ranks or strengthened wines among the wines (for example Sherry, Haven wine or larva Irish Republican Army), the foam wines (z. B. Sparkling wine, Champagner or also Perl wine) and not out-fermented wine (feather-whiter, Sauser, storm). Only with the “development” in a viticulture enterprise or a wine cellar the wine becomes a finishedProduct.

The wine won in the wine production from Weintrauben usually reaches thereby an alcohol content between 8,5 and 14 percent by volume alcohol (ethanol). In addition, there are wines with lower and higher alcohol content. Thus some French, California reachand Hungarian wines up to 16 percent by volume. Over 16,5 percent by volume alcohol the yeasts die .

The “development” of the Weines to a multiplicity of different quality classes usually takes place in a wine cellar.


the cultivation of common grape vinesfor the purpose of the wine production one calls also viticulture. Already since that 6. Millenium before Christ is operated these in Anterior Asia, in order to manufacture wine.


viticulture in the old person Egypt, represented in a grave painting of the new realm

alreadyin antique Egypt wine was cultivated intensively, which was then drunk with celebrations of the social Oberschicht.Beer was brewed also, was considered however as inexpensive everyday life beverage of the simple people.


in the Greek antique one became three sorts ofWine differentiated between: whiter, blacker and more bernsteinfarbener. These could be sweet drying (austeros), half drying (autokratos) or (glykazon). Old wine was regarded for better than younger. The wine had a relatively high content of alcohol (Davidson proceeds from 15 16%). Itin sealed Tonkrügen or hoses from goat skin one stored.

Most wine originated from local cultivation and cost a Obolus for three Kotylen. The best wine, which was far acted, originated from Chios (area from Arios), Thasos, Lesbos and Mende on the peninsula Chalkidike. Transport amphoren differed in the form or carried illustrations, whereby the place of origin showed itself.

Griechisches Symposion ca. 500 vor Christus
Greek Symposion approx. 500 before Christ
Altgriechisches Weinmischgefäß "kratèr"
oldGreek wine mixing vessel “kratèr”

wine in principle with water, that was drunkBenefit of undiluted wine was considered as characteristic of the barbarians. Only with the drink victim (Libation) at the beginning of a Symposions (common Trinkgelage) absolute wine was used. The usual mixture were five parts water on two parts wine, a mixture from sameTo parts was considered already as immoderate and akratos (absolute) one called. Wine and water were mixed in kratér, sometimes the wine also in one psyktér cooled or snow directly into the Trinkschalen done. One drank the wine from flatFlat one on high foot, which exhibited laterally two small handles. To a normal Gelage, in which 14 guests participated, three applied kratér for wine as appropriate.


in Byzanz was peppered wine (conditum) likes. Lavendel, laurel, Zimt, pepper,Carnations, rose sheets, Wermut, anise and Mastix could be added, in order to improve the taste. One attributed peppering wine however also medical effect, as the prescription collection of the pseudo Oreibasios occupies. Geharzter wine (retsina) was far common.

At Rebsorten was Muskatwein, up Samos and Lemnos were cultivated, and monembasiós (of it Malvasierwein) from Crete admits. The wine of Chios, Lesbos, Euböa, Rhodos and Samos as well as from Varna at the black sea was famous. In Bithynien Nikäa and Triglis were well-knownViticulture places, in Thrakien Kuzias and the Ganos mountain. The wine was recommended now more strongly drunk than in the antique one, in the winter in the morning the benefit of a bowl of pure wine, otherwise a part wine with a part water was usually mixed.However the wine the men still still remained reserving.

Byzantine wines were exported also to the west, particularly monembasiós of Crete. In Rhetymnion the wine for the export was cooked to England, probably a gathering mold of the today's Sherry. The wine from Kandia against it was shipped ungekocht to Italy.

Also in Osmani time the Muskateller by Samos and the wine were further exported by Kandia on Crete.

Roman realm

in the Roman realm spread thatViticulture with the conquering putting ions over far parts of Europe out. Also in the northern Africa the viticulture up to Islamic conquest was far common. North the Romans brought the viticulture into the Wachau, the Rhine Valley, to Gallien and evenuntil England. The Romans drank the wine often mixed with water. It represented at the time at that time also not the luxury today, but was a beverage, to which one welfare-ends strengthening and effect awarded, and on which onewith conquests not to do without wanted.

the Middle Ages

not least due to the fact that the wine was because of its alcohol content often germ-free and cleaner than water, still continued to rise its popularity in the Middle Ages. Careless water let itself througheven it disinfect a certain quantity wine - that is the reason, why wine or vinegar consumption (posca) was even expressly prescribed for the Roman Legionären.

In completely Europe the viticulture flowered. Before the dreissigjährigen war the Rebfläche attained the largestExtent of history. Extensive wine gardens were put on also in climatically unfavorable areas, them handed in their northern expansion until king mountain and Thorn in East Prussia or green mountain in Schlesien. Also in Südengland extensively viticulture was operated. By climatic degradations becameBorder situations however soon again given up.

modern times

viticulture to the Mosel
wine garden
Weinflaschen in a wine action
smallest Weinflasche of the world

during the English rule over the Gascogne and Aquitanien in 16. Century began the upswing of the Bordelais,particularly in the Médoc and the adjacent regions around Bergerac and Cahors. In this area already since the Roman time wine is cultivated (Château Ausone in Saint Emilion appoints itself to the poet Ausonius), however died everything onlythis time so correctly in momentum. As also with other wines (z. B. Haven, Sherry, larva Irish Republican Army, etc.) was the global trading nation of the British the stone, which brought everything in rolling. The port small town Pauillac became a center of the building of wines andTrade, and with the time that Chateaus developed in this area, which states today the market concerning quality.

The call of the Burgunders developed at the transition from the Middle Ages to the modern times. During the rule of Philipp the bold one up to Karl the bold one the call of the burgundischen way of life and the pertinent Weines increased. Famous at that time already was in 11. Century of monks vineyard put on Clos de Vougeot, that the early character of a systematic cultivation of attemptfrom common grape vines had. Also different plots were already measured since this time ever more exactly and classified on the basis its suitability to the viticulture. This and the burgundische vomit the allocation under inheriting cause that all these plots except for few exceptions(z. B. Romanée accounts or La Romanée) often many owners have, and the vineyard possession of an owner often in all parts Burgund (2 hectars there, 4 hectars there, 5 hectars here) is. These circumstances make nowadays now those to the consumer more difficultSearch for a good castle and he wine.

first the French

wines attained change to the quality viticulture celebrity. Only since that 16. Century became increasing Portuguese (haven wine) and, as well as the Hungarian Tokajer admits Spanish wines (Sherry ).All other wines had only local meaning and usually close of their respective cultivation area were consumed. The dutchmen had taken over and promoted Aquitanien, but the trade in wine from the Englishmen not there, due to their extended markets now also Cahors in the hinterlandthe Gironde, of where from the “black wine” made for Bordeaux for approximately hundred years serious competition. The Englishmen however, their main supplier robbed, looked for alternatives and found them in the Dourotal in the hinterland of postage. Here developed from thisTrade relation the haven wine.

In Spain the wines from the surrounding countryside of Jerez de la Frontera in Andalusien, which admits to the Englishmen since the raids of Francis Drake was, for the British were interesting. On the one hand they estimated the sweet one of these strengthened wines, on the other hand were these by the high alcohol content after everywhere in the English colonial empire problem-free shipable.

At the end 17. Century emerged a new star in the wine sky. Cathedral Pérignon brought the vesicles in the Champagner, andthis before unconsidered wine became the new export hit of France. The Englishmen looked for new sources somewhat later and became fündig on Sicilies. The Marsala was the first Italian wine of world-wide reputation.

In 19. On the one hand the Frenchmen their supremacy strengthened century.They classified the most expensive plants of the Médoc (or made rather the unofficial valuation of the dealers public) on the occasion of the world exhibition of 1855, on the basis over decades admitted proceeds of sale a Chateaus. The classification does not depend in Bordeaux on the situation, howlater in Burgund. Later divided possession remains in the same class (same Chateau name with attached additive, z. B.Château Grand Puy Ducasse and Château Grand Puy Lacoste, both 5eme Cru Classe), later bought to go with area rises in the quality, if the areas are connected. Thatonly wine in this list, which from the Médoc does not come, is Château skin Brion in the Graves.

The wines of the Libournais and other areas of Bordeaux did not experience any attention. There was also at that time already far organizations as those that Grand Cru Classés, which Crus Bourgeois, which Crus Artisans and further, which had hardly meaning for the trade and also today only zögerlich are however at that time noticed. Also the sweet wines were classified at the same time by Sauternes and Barsac. Thosefrom Loupiac were omitted, because of to small meaning for the trade. Now one imagined the betuchten clientele a guide to the hand to have given. Unfortunately this classification was so far only once changed, as 1973 Château Mouton Rothschild into that1er Cru rank was raised. The classification reflects, particularly in lower ranks, not the present conditions.

Nearly the same time (around 1860) also the Barolo made for the first time from itself talks during the agreement movement of Italy. From thatWine gardens of the piemontesischen king house into and around Serralunga d'Alba the king of the wines, wine of the kings was recognized like piemonteser king houses in completely Italy and to the second world-well-known Italian wine. On the other hand became by the agreement of Italy also that toskanischen trade in wine houses a substantially larger market required, so that the Antinori and the Frescobaldi belonged soon to the largest wine merchants of Italy. Also in the Veneto some trading firms had their seat, which likewise expanded now their activity on completely Italy. South Italies remainsdue to its completely different structure still for a very long time a country for cheap mass wine, and also the quality of the Marsala diminishes continuously.

In the Spanish Rioja the first attempts were also made from France introduced Barriques, however only inlate 20. Century a red wine boom in Spain to release knew. In the new world for some decades wines are manufactured. The vines from America are suitable however clearly less for the viticulture, since the taste of the Fox clay/tone so mentioned is impaired. Thusvines from Europe are shipped into the whole world.

But also American vines are brought to Europe, in order to make investigations and experiments with it. With these vines however a parasit came to Europe, the Reblaus. The American vinesagainst it, the European are tolerant by the root parasit are destroyed. In the course of the Reblauskatastrophe many sorts and clones were irreparably destroyed, and many vineyards had again to be bestockt with being subject vines. That is, that on a root from American Rebmaterialas “Edelreiser” designated branch of a European vine is aufgepropft. There are still so-called “root-genuine” vines in areas, which remained exempted from the Reblaus in Europe only isolated. In all other areas American roots are used. This Aufpropfen of the vinesit leads isolated to the statement that there could never be so extremely good wines after the Reblaus disaster more, how they were harvested before the Reblaus in good years.

After the Reblaus became the European viticulture of the twoWorld wars strongly impairs. Only after the Second World War came a large upswing, which persists into the present. Initially most Weinbaugebiete tried to react with mass to increased wine consumption the restaurant miracle time with exception of the wines in the high price segment, thosein this time some legendary classes to offer could. Into the 1960er years began however in Italy and into the 1970er years also in Spain some manufacturers the quality wine market to supply. Their increasing success led to stricter laws. Onagain measured there were these scandals, particularly to the 1980er years: the so-called “glycol scandal “today still is in some areas of Austria and Germany in bad memory.

Since that time pushed ever more manufacturer from overseas, begun with Australia and California, later also Chile, South Africa and Argentina, on the wine market. Their qualities developed rapidly, so that their offer from the qualitative aspect can often keep up today with Europe. The wine market grew for years, there throughthe prosperity good wine as status symbol and luxuries, generally risen, meanwhile is established. Also the market became global. However regional market shares are subject also to shifts of partly drastic kind, e.g. the export from Bordeaux wines is to Germany from 2004 to 2005around over 30% decreased/gone back, and the being nominal oh question to Bordeaux sank in the same period within France around 12%.

Point plants are because of their prestige now also in boom-end restaurant economics of Asia and the reform states of Eastern Europe very in demand. A property part of the lower tomiddle price segment is in the hand of fewer companies. In Germany the Discounter is now the offerers of wine, leading with far distance.

This leads up-to-date to two developments: on the one hand the prices for premium wines still rise, in demandBottles partly cost over 1.000 euro per piece. On the other hand wines in some Preisklassen will maintain ever more uniformly, because they are vinifiziert after the taste of the mass, or however, as some, after the taste that priority the clay/tone indicating wine criticlike z. B.Robert Parker.


the arising Islam prepared a provisional end for the flourishing viticulture in Palestine, until it blossomed again again in Israel.

wine in mythology and religion

already in the oldEgypt experienced the cultivation of wine a substantial attention and propagation. In the antique mythology there was Osiris (Egypt), Dionysos (Greece), Bacchus (Roman mythology) or Gilgamesch (Babylonien), those the wine and/or. Wine benefit represented.

In the Bible, where Noach is considered to winegrowers as the first Weingeniesser and, the wine experiences a rich symbolic use. In the Psalmen the wine serves for the joy of life, with Salomo is it also medicine for suffering and caution-ordering Rauschmittel. ThatPeople Israel is compared with a vineyard, Jesus describes the connection with its successors as between Weinstock and vines. Working the holy spirit is compared with fermenting new wine. Wine can entice and also - as tumbling cups- the göttlichen anger clarify.

The Bible guesses/advises expressly to constant, but moderate wine benefit; Jesus Sirach 31, verse 25ff is characteristic:

Like life water the wine humans is,/if it it drinks with measure.
Too much wine increases thatAnger gates to its case,/it weakens Kraft and strikes many wounds.

In the Sakrament of the communion (Eucharistie) the wine forms the element for the blood Christi. Baha'u'llah, which founders of the Baha'i - religion, forbidsin its Kitab i Aqdas (1873) the benefit of wine and other alcoholic beverages. In another writing Baha'u'llah explains: “It guards you that you do not exchange the wine of God against your wine, because he will verzehren you the understanding and your facesturn away from the face of God…. “

quality classes

red wine

the quality of a wine becomes equally by the color, which smell and the taste certainly (lat: color, odor, sapor). One can divide the taste roughly according to the remainder sugar content of the Weines (drying orharsh to mild and/or. lovely; see taste degree (wine). Of it a sort-typical character as well as situation and class-typical development can independent be differentiated with the wine. Wine, which grows at dry slopes, tastes better, because it itself with the roots more deeply to the groundwaterto down-work and therefore more taste must get the grapes/clusters.

The quality classes indicated on labels are subject to the national legislation and are therefore to be compared only with difficulty with one another. After German right z can. B. no blend a higher stage than “quality wine certain cultivation areas “reach, since it consists of more than a Rebsorte.

The quality of a Weines can be derived indirectly also from its origin. To board wines and Landweine only small requirements become concerning their alcohol - and Mostgewichtgehalts like alsothe origin posed. However some the premium wines of the respective regions as simple board wines are also defined, if it z. B. because of the cultivated Rebsorte by law only as board wine to be designated may. An example for this is the premium wine property Sassiscaia outItaly.Quality wines of certain cultivation areas (QbA) and quality wines with descriptor may only from one the only certified areas of cultivation of wine originate, may only of the grape/cluster sorts recommended there consist and have to do an official examination exist, after organoleptischen, wine-legal and chemicalCriteria judges. Something similar, if also not always comparable regional organizations are also in other countries, like z. B.France, Italy, Spain and Portugal, to find (S. Tab. 1). Thus apply in France to wines more subregionaler and locally Compulsory health insurance scheme (for instance Margaux) stricter requirements on high-carry and Mostgewicht than for regional compulsory health insurance scheme (z. B. Bordeaux Supérieur). Going beyond this organization some organizations (Appellationen) assign additional descriptors for certain Weingüter and wine situations (z. B. Prime Minister Cru and GrandCru).

Tab. 1: Overview of European quality classes

Germany Italy France Spain Portugal
board wine Vino tavola Vin de table Vino de mesa or Vino
corriente there
Vinho DO mesa
Landwein IGT
(Indicazione Geografica Tipica)
Vin de pays Vino de la tierra Vinho regionally
(quality wine of certain cultivation areas)
(Denominazione di Origine Controllata)
regional compulsory health insurance scheme
(Appellation d'Origine Contrôlée)
and VDQS
(Vin Délimité de Qualité Supérieure)
Denominación de Origen VQPRD
(Vinhos de Qualidade Produzidos em Região Determinada)
quality wine
with descriptor
(Denominazione di Origine Controllata e Garantita)
Subregionale and local compulsory health insurance scheme
(Appellation d'Origine Contrôlée)
(Denominación de Origen Calificada)
(Denominação de Origem Controlada)

the German quality wines with descriptor can beyond that still on the basistheir Mostgewichts - °Öchsle - to be characterized:

Cabinet wines
are after the German wine law the simplest quality wines with descriptor. They exhibit depending upon cultivation zone and cultivation area a Mindestmostgewicht of 75-82°.
Late vintages
consist of riper grapes/clusters. Their Mindestmostgewicht amounts to 76-90°.
with a Mindestmostgewicht of 83-100° by the vintage of overripe grapes/clusters are won.
Berry selection wines
are produced by the vintage and pressing overripe, usually noble-putrid berries. These wines exhibit a Mindestmostgewicht of 110-128°.
calls drying berry selection concentrated, noble-sweet wine, thatfrom raisin-like dried up berries one wins. These wines of highest quality class exhibit a Mindestmostgewicht of 150-154°.
Ice wines
are a characteristic German and Austrian winegrowers. They are harvested with at the most -7°C and GEC ELT ore and to possess a Mindestmostgewicht of 110-128°.
sincethe year 2000 there is this introduced again to Germany and Qualitäts-Bezeichnung for wines from area-typical Rebsorten of elevated quality, protected European Union far. Classic wines correspond to the taste picture “drying” due to the default that the remainder sugar content at the most twice as highly like the acidityto be may remain absolute and under 15 gram per litre must. A further condition for the acquisition of the Signets consists of the fact that it itself around a rebsortenreinen (exception: the württembergische speciality “Trollinger with Lemberger”) class wine to act must. For Classic wines are certifieddepending upon cultivation area between two to nine Rebsorten, which are proven as “gebietsypisch”. Without the label an indication of the vineyard situation one does, so that this apart from the producer, the cultivation area and the class only the Rebsorte as well as the Signet“Classic” proves.
simultaneous with the Signet “Classic” was introduced to Germany also the designation still with high order “Selection”. SELECT ion wines are always class wines from a area-typical, classical Rebsorte (D. h., it are less Rebsorten than complete with Classic certified) and must from an officially particularly registered SELECT ion single situation originate. To these single situations strict limits of productiveness (60 hl/ha) apply, and only the best single situations to it are selected. The natural alcohol content must be with mindesten 12.2 vol%, the remainder sugar content under 9 gram per litre (exception:Riesling: up to 12 gram/litres). The label of a Selection Weines leads the Rebsorte, the Erntejahr, the exact situation designation as well as the Signet “Selection” apart from the producer and the cultivation area still.

other ones of wines

of wines with higher alcohol content, so mentioned strengthened wines, are z. B.:

for this is usually a reinforcement and/or a Aufspritung with Weinbrand necessary, since the yeasts die with 17,5 Vol% ethanol. With some sweet wines with high ethanol content those becomesFermentation by the addition of ethanol - Weinbrand - stopped.

Weinhaltige of beverages are:

a special status have wines, which are made of other fruits than Weintrauben, the fruit wines (for example to Erdbeerwein, see fruit wine).

occupations of wine

wine brother shanks and wine conventions

in many countries wine lovers have themselves and - connoisseurs to associations united, in order to cultivate the wine benefit together. In the German language area these clubs call themselves usually wine brother shanks or Wine conventions. These look partly on a centuries-old tradition back.

wine celebrations in Germany

in the wine areas of Germany have wine celebrations frequently a people fixed character. Detailed these are to be found in the article over wine celebrations, while only a short overview stands here.

The largest wine celebration of the world is the Dürkheimer sausage market, the largest winegrower procession takes place during the German wine read reading .

In the Weinbaugebiet Pfalz annually a calendar given change with information about times and places of all pfälzischen wine celebrations. Also for the Weinbaugebiet Franconiathere is such a calendar.

In the southernmost Weinbaugebieten of Germany, in bathing, at the emperor chair and Tuniberg, in the Markgräflerland, and also in the neighbouring Elsass annually numerous wine celebrations take place. To the largest and most well-known the celebrations make a depositthe crying race of Baden, z. B. in the warmest place of Germany the Ihringer wine days (always on weekend after Fronleichnam) as well as the wine celebration Kaiserstuhl Tuniberg in mash oh on the Rhine (always on the last weekend in August). At its „wine village “many take to thatmore than 70 regional and supraregional winegrowers' co-operatives part, which are attached the winegrower cellar of Baden, one of the largest wine wine cellars of Europe.

see also

to literature

  • William Flitsch: Wine. Understand and enjoy.Springer publishing house, Berlin1994, 1999 (2. Aufl.).ISBN 3-540-66273-1 (chemical process with D. Production understandably dargest., Tipps for trying)
  • Dagmar Ehrlich: Wine encyclopedia. 400 highly transparent answers to the most important questions. Gräfe and Unzer, Munich 1998. ISBN 3-7742-4111-2
  • Gottfried worthy: Chemistry of the Weines. Ulmer,Stuttgart 1998.ISBN 3-8001-5815-9
  • André Dominé (Hrsg.): Wine. Könemann, Cologne 2000. ISBN 3-8290-2765-6
  • Jens Priewe: Wine, the new large school. Zabert sand man, Munich 2000. ISBN 3-89883-009-8 (descriptive, for beginners suitably)
  • Jancis Robinson: The Oxford Weinlexikon. Resound-dare, Munich 2003. ISBN 3-7742-0914-6
  • Hugh Johnson: The large Johnson. Encyclopedia of the wines, areas of cultivation of wine and wine producers. Resound-dare, Munich 2004 (17. Aufl.). ISBN 3-7742-5151-7
  • Manfred Düker, Ursula I. Meyer: How did the truth into the wine come? single publishing house, Aachen 2005. - ISBN 3-928089-39-0
  • Dieter count: Wine knowledge for each day. A Weinkalendarium of the special kind. Scripta, THEN city shower home 2005. ISBN 3-00-016190-2
  • Stuart Pigott: Beautiful new wine world. Of the effects of the globalization on the culture of the Weines.Fischer paperbacks. Bd 16041. Fischer, Frankfurt/Main2005.ISBN of 3-59616041-3


  • Mondovino, USA/France 2004. Direction: Jonathan Nossiter
  • Sideways, the USA 2004. Direction: Alexander Payne

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