of these articles is preferably occupied with the viticulture or cultivation of wine in Germany. The two terms, which are often synonymously used, designate the agricultural cultivation from common grape vines to the purpose of the production of wine. The actual wine production, when Winzerei designates, is in practiceso well with the cultivation links always closely; only in rare cases cultivation and wine production lie in completely different hands. The science of viticulture and wine production is the Önologie.
table of contents
common grape vines needing much sun exposure, therefore they are often cultivated on to the south aligned vineyards or Rebbergen. In addition, in the level viticulture in wine gardens becomes (in Rhinehesse and Pfalz as Wingert, in bathing, Württemberg and Franconia as Wengert designation) operated. In particular in the Mediterranean area also the levels supply qualitatively good wines to substantial quantities.
wine in closed areas of cultivation of wine, those is usually cultivated for the viticulture uniform basic conditions,exhibit like certain light and temperature threshold values. Beside the location belongs the Rebsorte and the quality class to the most important factors, which determine the character and taste of a Weines. Depending upon ground condition, sun exposure and tradition different Rebsorten is typical for individual cultivation areas.
See major items: Weinbaugebiete of the world
already 5000 v. Chr. for the first time Sumer ( today southern Iraq ) lets itself be proven the Domestizierung of common grape vines in the frontasiatic landscape. The viticulture spread in entire the Near Eastout, and about 1700 v. Chr. cultivated the Greeks first noble vines. In Italy different educating methods minted themselves : at trees, as Dachspalier at the short trunk or creeping on the soil. With the Romans the viticulture spread to Spain, Gallien and Nordafrika, somewhat latealso after Germanien.
According to newest realizations the viticulture is to be even still older than 9000 years. Finds in China point on it. Tongefässe, which were filled with traces of a fermented beverage from rice, honey and grapes/clusters or Hagedorn, became in the north Chinese province Henandiscovered.
Eisenzeit, Roman time, the Middle Ages
traces of resound-temporal viticulture are in the east of Austria in a hill grave in Zagersdorf (castle country, S. A. History of the castle country) proven. The discovered wine cores (Vitis vinifera) occupy the cultivationof weisswein. Peppered wine played a large role with the iron-temporal drinking customs.
In the Roman realm the wine was produced so in great quantities that it was occasionally cheaper than water. Already under Domitian the import of cheap products of the provinces was stopped to Italy. Under pro bus (emperor)the import restriction was again waived. Starting from the year 100 by the Romans at Rhine, Mosel and Ahr viticulture was operated. The beverage and the viticulture had increased in Germany ever more popularly, around 1500 the cultivated area on more than 300,000 hectars.
In the late Middle Ages andin the early modern times viticulture was operated also in climatically less favorable situations. Therefore the wine had to be made drinkable often with additives ( honey, spices). In the good situations one paid attention however usually to high-quality Rebsorten and produced according to the criteria for thatTime very good wines.
in the areas concerned formed the dreissigjährige war a strong cut. On the one hand the Rebflächen was drastically reduced, because by the population loss both workers were missing as well as to consumers. On the other hand the around-pulling soldiers forced high wine deliveries, so thatnow in the vineyards many “mass carriers” were planted, thus Rebsorten of small quality with high yield.
defined cultivation areas
In 19. Efforts used century for the improvement of the viticulture in many countries. One experimented with new Rebsorten and with improved fermenting methods. Also the treatment of the vines and the wine cellar technology were scientifically examined; instead of the mixed (blended) wines now sort-pure wines becameproduced. It succeeded also to manufacture foam wine in bottle fermentation (Champagner method) as mass product. 1826 created George Christian Kessler in Esslingen at the Neckar the first German sparkling wine wine cellar.
the spacious infestation of the vineyards with the mushroom illness Peronospora meant parasits a heavy setback for the viticulture (Wrong flour ropes) into the 1880er years. The entire viticulture in Central Europe was threatened by this Rebkrankheit.
Only little later, around 1890, the Reblaus from America was brought in after Southern France. The parasit, which sucks at the roots of the vine and leaves these quasi verhungern,spread fast in all European areas of cultivation of wine. Again the Rebflächen decreased/went back, in France came the viticulture partly completely to succumbing. Only grafting European vines on American being subject vines finally saved the European viticulture.
cultivation of wine in figures
|This article or paragraph represents only the situation in Germany . Help to describe the situation in other countries.|
- Mosel Saar Ruwer
- central Rhine
- Rhine gau
- hessian mountain route
- Saale Unstrut
lie here approx. 100,000 hectares that world-wide approximately 8.000.000 hectares of cultivated area (5.000.000 hectares lie in Europe). The average surface yield is for instance with 1 l/m2; the high-quality a wine is removed, the smaller is the yield.
54% of the 77,388 viticulture enterprises in Germany have (1990) a cultivated area of under a half hectare, further 15% to a hectare, further 24% to five hectares. Many enterprisesby supplementary income farmers are managed.
after the Second World War held new wine cellar techniques world-wide for introduction. Vollernter, high-grade steel tank, a temperature-steered fermentation belong today to the standard equipment of each larger wine cellar.
The viticulture became simultaneous the global business. In different countries such as the USA, Australia, Chile, in addition, in Eastern Europe one developed vineyards again or intensified and modernized the viticulture. Thus an international competition developed on the wine market.
From the wine farmer so the “Winemaker “became, which manufactures large quantities of wine frequently during a to a large extent industrialized process.Thus a standardisation of the wine appears, favoured by processing methods such as concentration, colouring, chemical treatment, which are today already in many countries standard.
At the same time the wine consumption in the European countries sinks, constantly particularly in the classical consumer countries France and Italy. This places forthe wine economy, particularly in the middle and lower price segment, a problem which can be taken seriously.
special forms of the viticulture are the ecological cultivation, the quality development as well as the cultivation of wines, which serve as intermediate product. Common characteristic of the first two forms is the clearly smaller yield in relation to the regular viticulture. This is to be led back with the ecological cultivation to the larger losses by parasits and plant diseases due to decreased use of Pestiziden and insecticides. With the quality viticulture worse grapes/clusters are removed before the ripe one, thus the Weinstock more Kraft into thoseremaining to invest can do.
Over 1970 developed first ecologically and/or. Weingüter managed biological-dynamically. To this time obviously the biological processing was the center of attention, and the quality of the wines left to be desired usually.
For this reason bio wines a few years ago often were until in the visorthe wine critic. This changed in the last years substantially. In many countries ever more winegrower and produce high-quality wines with quite also quality convincing for wine critics take the partial very long conversion in purchase. Thus one finds today particularly in Germany,France and in Italy, in addition, in other countries of cultivation of wine, point producer, those according to the methods of an ecological and/or. biological-dynamic cultivation of wine work and perhaps straight wine qualities therefore exzellente to show can.
The steep situation viticulture requires special management techniques such as push pull cable or rail courses, how it is operated particularly in the steep river valleys of the Mosel, the central Rhine and the Ahr. The terrace viticulture is a special form of the steep situation viticulture. To the decrease of the slopeTrockenmauern are established or in-planed terraces in Löss.
bases of the viticulture
Bodenbegrünung in the ecological viticulture
the tasks of the Begrünung in the viticulture changed in the last years fundamentally: the Begrünung was only a surface cover, erosion protection anda measure to improve mechanization, then you come to more tasks today by far, not only under ecological, but also under quality-increasing criteria.
Goals and use of Begrünungen
the principal purposes of a Begrünung can be summarized under three main criteria.
- In highest place thereby the economics stands, therethis directly at function and costs of the practical winegrower affects itself. Cultivation-technical and ecological criteria play in practice regret worth way usually a less important role. A strict allocation of the individual criteria cannot be made however, since reciprocal effects between different Begrünungsmassnamen arise. Leaves itself generalsay that with a Begrünung adapted well to the location a stabilization of the ecological system vineyard accompanies. This is reached particularly by a more balanced relationship between Nützlingen and parasits, by a more harmonious Rebwuchs as well as by the activation of the soil life.
- By increase of the vegetable diversity of species, becomeson the one hand the Monokultur broken, Nützlinge attracted and the soil life strengthened animates. Besides a harmonization of the stature of the cultivated plant adjusts itself, which again influence on susceptibility has composition of the berry juice and the berry contents materials concerning pilzlichen diseases. This is caused mainly by changes in the soil:By the creation one shade-refines, an increase of humus production and thus the humus content as well as a decreased mineral material washing the Pufferwirkung of the soil in relation to pollutant entries is improved and the water absorption and retaining ability increased.
- Requirements at location and Begrünung: Around one „optimal “Begrünung at a location to settle requiresit however some previous knowledge. On the one hand must be determined, which location modalities in to begrünenden wine garden prevail on the other hand must in addition, the workload in the enterprise are considered, since some Begrünungen is extremely labor intensive, and the biology of the Begrünungspflanzen has crucial influence on the Gesamtbegrünung.
the location - modalities can be summarized on three main criteria:
- Climate: Here above all the precipitation plays an important role, since they represent usually the limiting factor for Begrünungen in the viticulture. However not only the total precipitation is crucial, but also the precipitation distributionduring the vegetation period. This is connected with the fact that the total precipitation can be sufficient, but by long dry periods in the summer extreme drying stress to arise can, which would then be strengthened still through a Begrünung.
- Soil: Beside the precipitation also the storage medium for water is, the soil ofcentral meaning. Apart from the soil type, play here above all soil power as well as the humus content of the soil an important role. These three factors determine considerably the water stop and storage capacity and give the vine thus the chance also short term dry periods without considerable stress to get over.
- Situation: Also thoseindividual vineyard situation has large influence on the water regime and thus on the modalities of the location. Here play above all adjustment of the wine garden (direction) as well as the upward gradient (angle of incidence of the sun) an important role. This concerns itself above all the Evapotranpirationskoeffizienten, that from the evaporation of waterfrom the soil, as well as the respiration of water by the plant (cooling) builds up.
wine as intermediate product
a third special form of the cultivation of wine refers to the ranges, within which the wine is not marketed as final product, but further processingone subjects. Wine as intermediate product in particular necessarily for the production of wine fires, foam wines and strengthened wines. One measures out to the development of the Weines less meaning; in all rule the wines planned for subsequent treatment are blended, before the actual refinement to the final productone accomplishes.
training and career profiles
In Germany it gives on the one hand the course of studies for viticulture and Önologiethe conclusion Dipl. - engineer Viticulture at the professional school Wiesbaden with its study place Geisenheim in Rhine gau.
On the other hand the professional school offers a course of studies for wine marketing and management , which to the conclusion Dipl. to Heilbronn - operation manager (FH) leads.
In Switzerland Önologie and Hortikultur (with specialization on viticulture) at that can University Wädenswil and to the Ecole d'Ingénieurs de Changins to be studied. Offered the occupation teachings as winegrowers will by some cantons, at these schools can after some years professional activity also the Meistertitel, in an appropriate training programme, be acquired.
In Austria there is a course of studies in Önologieat the university for soil culture Vienna as well as the training at the higher federal institute for wine and fruit-growing in monastery new castle (1).
the German-language specialized terminology of the viticulture seize the dictionary of the German winegrower language and the word Atlas of the continental-Germanic winegrower terminology.
- Friedrich of Bassermann Jordan: History of the viticulture, reproduction Pfälzi publishing house, Landau 1991, ISBN 387629181X
Web on the left of
- fG. Viticulture of the University of high home (among other things an interesting Rebschnittprogramm)
- viticulture - thoseHistory
- of everything over wine and areas of cultivation of wine
- professional school Wiesbaden, study place Geisenheim
- course of studies wine marketing and management
- technical periodical the German viticulture
- specialized information center: Range library nutrition, environment and agrarian sciences, Bonn
- bibliography for history and culture of the Weines - beautiful ones
- Bavarian national institute for viticulture and horticulture, technical and engineering school