Wheat

of the titles of this article is ambiguous. For further meanings see wheat (term clarifying).
Wheat
Unbegrannter Weizen
Unbegrannter wheat
systematics
Department: Bloom plants (Magnoliophyta)
class: Einkeimblättrige (Liliopsida)
subclass: Commelinaähnliche (Commelinidae)
order: Sweet-grass-well-behaved (Poales)
family: Sweet grasses (Poaceae)
kind: Wheat
scientific name
Triticum
L.

With wheat a set of kinds of the sweet grasses ( Poaceae) in the kind becomes Triticum L. designated. It becomes approx. 0,5 to 1 m highly, the stem is roundish. From the entire seeming it works dark-green andthe ear compact. Morphologic distinguisher are the short bewimperten Blattöhrchen, those, contrary to the Gersten, the stem do not enclose. The Blatthäutchen is medium sized and toothed. The fruits are called botanisch „einsamige closing fruits “(Karyopsen). Etymologisch leads itself wheat of „the white “the product of this grain, the white flour, off.

Table of contents

cultivation

wheat employs Climate, soil and water supply higher requirements than other varieties of grain.

Winterweizen is sown in the autumn. The grains germinate fast and develop the first sheets. The small plants train Nebensprosse (Bestockung) and winter. Although wheat to approx. - 20° C frost-resistantis, it prefers altogether a moderate climate. In the spring aspect ratio growth uses and the sheets develops. At the end of the aspect ratio phase already a complete ear with spikelets and blooms is present. The ears push outward and alsothe bloom is final the plant development. After (self) fertilization the grains develop. For each 2 to 3 ears carrying stems are formed plant, which corresponds to about 350 to 700 stems for each m ². In each ear about 25 formsto 40 grains out. They consist of 60% strength, 12% protein, 2% fat and 13% water. Against weeds and mushrooms in the conventional cultivation several applications of plant protection are accomplished. For an optimal yield wheat becomesin three small gifts with nitrogen fertilized. The harvest takes place in the autumn, whereby the average proceeds are appropriate for hectar between 60 and 70 dt /. As peak values become Yields of over 110 dt/hectar reaches. Is by these high yields thatWinterweizen all other varieties of grain consider. The straw remains as fertilizer on the field or as if intersperse for the animals driven off.

One sows summer wheat in the spring; it does not need the vegetation dwell phase by frost. Its yields are subject however clearlythose of Winterweizen. The grains have a glasigere structure as Winterweizen and them are more protein-rich. In Germany are over 90% of the sowing winter wheat places.


Bloom conditions

to meaning

the different kinds wheat place the secondaryusually-cultivated grain of the world(after corn and followed of the rice). He is cultivated on all continents; important cultivation countries are the United States of America, Canada, Russia, Australia and Argentina. Wheat is for humans in many countries in Basic food (bread grain) and has a great importance in the animal mast. Hartweizen is particularly suitable for the production of Teigwaren (hard wheat semolina) - however in Germany as well as one does not cultivate.

Wheat is to dry and warm summersadapted. A modern crossing from wheat and rye, Triticale, permits the cultivation in cooler climate zones.

The entire harvest quantity world-wide 2004 amounted to 624 millions t.

Weizenkörner
Weizenkörner

the ten largest producers:

Production (in millions t)
China 91.3
India the 72.0
USA 58.8
Russia 42.2
France 39.6
Germany 25.3
Canada 24.5
Australia 22.5
Turkey 21.0
Ukraine 20,2


(Source: FAO, FAO act, 2005)

gekeimte Weizenkörner
germinated Weizenkörner

kinds (selection)

! Kinds |- |

  • T. aestivum L. (Weichweizen)
  • T. aestivum subsp.spelta (L.) Thell. (Dinkel)
  • T. anti-quorum army
  • T. baeoticum Boiss.
  • T. compactum host (dwarf wheat)
  • T. compositum L.
  • T. dicoccum Schübler (Emmer)
  • T. durum Desf. (Hartweizen)
  • T. ispahanicum Heslot
  • T. jakubzineri (Udacz. & Schachm.) Udacz.& Schachm.)
  • T. karamyschevii Nevski
  • T. militinae Zhuk. & Migush.
  • T. monococcum L. (A grain)
  • T. parvicoccum
  • T. petropavlovskyi Udacz. & Migush.
  • T. polonicum L.
  • T. sinskajae Filat. & Kurk.
  • T. tetraurartu Gandil.
  • T. timonovum Heslot & Ferrary
  • T. timopheevii (Zhuk.) Zhuk.
  • T. turanicum Jakubz.
  • T. turgidum L. (Rauweizen)
  • T. urartu Thumanyan ex Gandilyan
  • T. vavilovii (Tum.) Jakubc. in Zhuk.
  • T. zhukovskyi Menabe & Ericzjan

field-structurally important kinds of wheat

Weizenanbaugebiete
of areas of cultivation of wheat
  • Weichweizen (Triticum aestivum L.) are a hexaploide kind of wheat and most common the cultivated. There is a multiplicity of sorts, which are adapted to different climates.
  • Spelt or Dinkel (Triticum aestivum subsp. spelta (L.) Thell.), hexaploid, is likewise cultivated as special bread grain limited. Thatinto the milk-ripe harvested and roasted grain, green core mentioned, is mineral material-rich and strongly aromatic.
  • Emmer (Triticum dicoccum Schübler) is a tetraploide kind of wheat, which was historically cultivated, today however no more economic meaning has.
  • Hartweizen (Triticum durum Desf.) is the only tetraploide kind of wheat, which is still common cultivated today.
  • Kamut (Triticum turgidum subsp. polonicum (L.) Thell.) is a breed form of the Emmer, those in small quantities, often in the biological agriculture, when “healthy” grain is marketed. Kamut is inregistered registered trade mark (Kamut®).
  • A grain (Triticum monococcum L.) is the oldest wheat places. She is only cultivated today for scientific reasons or for illustration purposes.

The office for federal sort divides for soft wheat places with its permission in five groups of baking quality so mentioned: (Outstanding feature thatOrganization is the volume yield in the RWS ID mix test, a baking attempt)

  • E-group: Elite wheat - with outstanding characteristics. For Aufmi weaker wheat is mostly used or exported.
  • A-group: Quality wheat - high protein quality. Can deficits of other sorts adjust.
  • B-group: Bread wheat - all sorts, forthe pastry production are well suitable.
  • C-group: other wheat - main for fodder purposes.
  • Cookie wheat: (until 2004 as “K-group” led) to have, thus a weaker protein quality suitable for the intended purpose.

history of the Domestizierung/Anbaugebiete

Ausschnitt eines Weizen-Feldes
cutout of a wheat field

today's seed wheatcame out from the crossing of several grain and game grass species. First kinds of wheat cultivated by humans were a grain (Triticum monococcum) and Emmer (Triticum dicoccum). Their origin area is the front Orient. The oldest naked wheat finds originate from the time between 7800-5200 v. Chr.Thus wheat is after barley the secondaryoldest variety of grain. With its propagation to Europe, North Africa and Asia wheat won a fundamental meaning for many cultures. But long time remained the cultivation behind that of the main varieties of grain a grain, Emmer and barleyfar back. Only by the weissbrot, starting from that the 11. Century in mode came, was established wheat. Today wheat is the most frequently cultivated variety of grain and takes the largest portion of the grain cultivated areas.

A grain (T. monococcum) is the ursprünglichste form of cultivated wheat; one finds also today still to game forms a grain, so that the Domestizierung appears relatively clear by means of human selection.

From the a grain developed by formation of an addition hybrid with another game grass (possibly. T. speltoides or Aegilops of speltoides) in before-historical time the tetraploide Emmer (T. dicoccum), from late by breed kinds such as Hartweizen and Kamut developed.

By a further admission of the entire gene set game grass of the T. tauschii (or Aegilops squarrose)in the Emmer then modern hexaploide seed wheat developed.

composition (Weichweizen)

Weizenpflanze
wheat plant
of components
water 10.42%
protein 10.69%
fat of 2.0%
coal hydrates 75.36%
ballast materials (part of coal hydrates) 12.7%
mineral materials 1.5%
mineral materials
calcium 34 mg
iron 5.4 mg
magnesium 90 mg
phosphorus 402 mg
potassium 435 mg
sodium 2 mg
zinc 3.5 mg
copper 0.43 mg
manganese 3.40 mg
of Vitamine
Thiamin 0.41 mg
Riboflavin 0.11 mg
Niacin 4.77 mg
Pantothensäure 0.85 mg
Vitamin B6 0.38 mg
Folsäure 0.04 mg
Vitamin E 1.44 mg


the calorific value amounts to 1425 kJ per 100 g.

literature

  • Friedrich J. Zeller, Sai L.K. Hsam: Wheat: Raw material for the human nutrition and for industrielle of products. Scientific ones round-look 57 (8), S. 413 -421 (2004), ISSN 0028-1050
  • Elizabeth ski man; Wheat, rye, barley. Systematics, history and use. 1948
  • i.m.a registered association. (Hrsg.): Plants in the agriculture, 2004

other

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