Klassische Zeitungswerbung um 1930
classical newspaper advertising around 1930

advertisement generally serves the purposeful and conscious influence of humans. The recruiting partly addresses needs by emotional, partly informing advertising messages for the purpose of the action motivation . Advertisement appealed, compares, makes concerned or curious.

ThisArticle is concerned with the advertisement regarding any economic property. A goal is here the purchase of a product (or service), the production of an important supplier, co-operation partner and/or. Investor or the support of further kommunikativer instruments in marketing.

Enterprises invest enormous means in advertising activities, in the year 2004 in Germany about 29 billion euro (source: Federal association of German indicator sheets (BDVA)).

Table of contents



it gives numerous definitions of the advertisement.

Karl Christian Behrens understands an intentional by advertisement “andforce-free form of the influence, which is to cause humans to the fulfilment of the advertising goals ".

Otto advertisement sees walter Haseloff as “public, purposeful and planned communication of the information, the motivation, the conviction and the manipulation of a defined circle of Umworbenen in favor ofthe market chances of a product or the image of an enterprise ".

Heribert Meffert quotes Schweiger/Schrattenecker (1995): “A kommunikativer influence process by (measurement) means of communication in different media, which has the goal, with the addressees market-relevant attitudes and behaviors in the sense of the company targets to change”.

Etymologie/word origin

Etymologisch concerns it here the substantivierte form of the verb recruits itself. This stands in close relationship with eddies. The fundamental meaning can turn therefore also as much as mine. Likewise toofind are:back and forth go, to look out, endeavor, something to operate, align, to turn or change.

Those historically first modern definition of the term “advertisement” exclusively referred to soldier recruitment (Brockhaus 1848). For the today's understanding of the term one used inGermany still into the 1930er years of the last century the term advertisement, of French réclame (frz.: more réclamer: proclaim, anpreisen) derived.


in the closer economical sense becomes advertisement than one of several function the so-called. Market communication in marketing understood.

It is concerned with the transport of advertising messages to a target group in the context of an enterprise - if necessary. with the help of the advertising psychology - to the reaching of a certain result: Purchase of a product, production of an important supplier, requirement oneCatalog, agreement of a representative's visit.

Advertisement in the public surrounding field for the reaching of a good reputation (Good wants) is called public relation (opinion care) (see. Publicly Awareness).

For political advertisement see propaganda, for religious advertisement see mission, toTo recruitment of soldiers see advertisement (military).

Within the private sector would who-bleach influence less used, is however an elementary component of human communication, e.g. to excite with the partner choice or social interaction around individual attention to win favour and to introduce social exchange procedures to affect or around partners recruit decisions (see bride advertisement, flirt and to partner choice).

historical roots

first finds of commercial advertising boards are well-known from the ruins of Pompeji.

Marktschreier, those from place to, Offered goods and services drew place.

Modern advertisement took its beginning to 1850. The industrielle revolution led to the mass company and mass production.

With the Pressefreiheit 1849 business announcements rose. The press was gradually dependent on these incomes. 1855 ledthis for the opening of first „institutes for switching “, which organized the indicator market. They became the first advertising agencies in the German-speaking countries.

Advert for the hectograph IE equipment “AUTOMATIC Cyclostyle” of the British company Gestetner (typical for the time around 1900)

around 1870 won the change to the liberal Free-market economy and to the mass company in the western world at meaning.

Numerous products were offered, which went beyond the covering of the existence-necessary need. First luxury goods were available. Now also first advertising criticism found its beginning: Humans weighted over „dirt and swindle “in the indicator nature.

Starting from the turn of the century consumption became a ever more important component of the environment. Consumers could express and by first branded articles try thereby their position in the society in the new mass company against others to stand out.

Here is also a Professionalisierungsschubto locate the advertisement - diagrams and so far uncommon large shop windows zierten the townscape (Reinhardt 1993). Also the progressive electrification brought first Lichtreklamen like the today still existing Bavarian cross in Leverkusen.

Around 1930 a paradigm change began (more profoundCirculation process): of the seller's market, in which the offerer specified conditions to a large extent owing to scarce goods offered, to the inquire-dominated buyer's market, in which now more and more could select the customer from a rich multiplicity of competitive offers.

Goods did not only cover the original, Took off apart from the pure use fulfilment further emotional aspects separate need. Branded articles became ever more important with the time.

The beginning of the first mark strategies in Germany with introduction of the baking powder of Dr. Oetker is considered today as a birth hour to European marketing,as also as classical example of a Werbestrategie put on on a long-term basis. Similarly also Odol, Persil as classical, in great quantities manufactured branded articles.

Since 1950/1960 a change began with the introduction of the self-service shops. The product had to stand out against others. Previous knowledge throughBecame more important to advertisement, since one had to know more as a customer about goods answer, in order to decide at the shelf without salesman consultation correctly.

For the modern form of applied psychology in the advertisement see the article psychology of selling.

scientific treatment

interdisciplinary view

different sciences are occupied with different beginnings of the advertisement:

  • The psychology is the basic stick of the “advertising psychology”, which concerns itself with advertising effect. It supplies the beginnings, how an advertisement is to be arranged, around the highest possible measureto reach at attention (see below). It concerns itself thus with the consumer behavior - as, why and when a potential customer can be achieved.
  • The sociology sees the advertisement on the one hand as Sozialisationsinstanz and is particularly important for the rangethe social influences on the consumer behaviour, thus on it, like family, friends, opinion leaders and the remaining social surrounding field affect the purchase behavior of particulars. Advertisement is further also a social sanction, those by social sanctions (positive: Product purchase, negative: Mockery, preventive measures) answersbecomes (see Clausen 1964). See. also the class model after angel, Blackwell and Kollat).
  • The management economics attach above all importance to the difficulties of the publicity expenses calculation and Werbeerfolgskontrolle. It differentiates “advertisement” from the “recruiting effect” for instance the product design and marketing strategies generally (Erich good mountain). Here is also the marketing science to position - it is jointly responsible for the optimization of sale.
  • The political economy refers to the advertisement as restaurant economics.
  • The political science is occupied particularly with would background to Propaganda and agitation.
  • The communication science is disputed in its position for advertisement and sees themselves rather as Persuasionsforschung and/or. primarily as advertising medium research. It is relevant for the imbedding of the advertisement into the editorial part of a mass medium.
  • A further,however not scientific part is idea identification and the organization of the advertisement (creation, conception), which is made by commercial artists , ADs , CDs , photographers and other advertising-creative (“creative one”).

advertisement in marketing-mix the marketing and management

advertisement is an instrumentin the communication politics, a subrange marketing-mix. Here it stands beside the Sponsoring as well as the sales promotion, the public work (shortened from the English also PR for publicly relation) and the Product Placement that itself with bringing infrom branded articles in film and television concerns.

Although to almost all communication instruments of an enterprise central of aspects and rules of the advertisement apply like e.g. the adequate speech of the target group, fitting in into a superordinate Design (Corporate Design) orthe measurability on the basis return numbers (so-called.Response), developed for the further instruments of market communication own in each case regularities and operational areas.

Thus e.g. follows. also the panel discussion about location planning within the public work of an enterprise the laws of the perceptionby attraction words, cannot be measured however with same short term yardsticks for success, as a multi-level indicator campaign.

Advertisement can be regarded on this basis neither isolated from other instruments marketing, nor the increasing mutual interaction may alsothe remaining capacity ranges of a modern customer-oriented enterprise to be neglected.

Apart from the various reciprocal effects with the functions marketing-mix are here in particular the linkage with the reliable speech from investors and backers to the Unternehmensfinanzierung (financial communication), handling alsoto call the own coworkers (marketing inward) or with supplier (procurement marketing).

advertisement in the jurisprudence

competition right

advertisement in the broadcast and in Tele and medium services becomes in Germany mainly throughthe law against the mean competition (UWG), the broadcast state contract, and the Teledienstgesetz regulated. The law begins in § 1 UWG with the definition of the legal protection purpose.

Afterwards are to be protected competitors, consumers and other market participants against mean competition andthe interest of the public in genuine competition calculation to be carried.

That closes in § 2 UWG a catalog of definitions, of those those the competition action as “each action with the goal of the promotion of the own or strange paragraphor purchase of goods or services " special emphasis earns.

In § 3 UWG is the general clause, which does not turn no more off to the good customs in the competition, but simply each competition mean competition forbids. After § 5 UWG e.g. are. Loss leaders exactly regulated, while the earlier addition regulation, with which added strictly were reglementiert, was void spareless.

See in addition independent article Gesetz_gegen_den_unlauteren_Wettbewerb.

comparative advertisement

Plakatwerbung, die auf das Geschäft gegenüber eingeht (Bhf. Berlin- Alexanderplatz 2004)
poster advertising, which deals with the business opposite (Bhf. Berlin Alexanderplatz 2004)

Comparative advertisement means that the achievement one is compared or several competitors with the own offer.

The attention of the recipient is increased by a shift of primary message with a competition valuation. In Germany the comparative advertisement is since that 14. July 2000 due to an European Union guideline under certain defaults permits and in the law against the mean competition (UWG) regulated.

For example the met statements must be also objectively verifiable and correspond the truth. In addition (comparative) advertisement may not misleadingits and competitors not “revile” or “lower”.

protection of children and young people

in the reference to the protection of children and young people is limited the advertisement by the youth medium protectorate contract. Under assumption applies for the regulation in the EEC television guideline to all offers of Telemedien (Teledienste and medium services) andbeyond that it may not do the entire broadcast that advertisement children and young people add neither physical nor mental damage “may:

  1. direct purchase appeals to children or young people contained, who use their inexperience and Leichtgläubigkeit,
  2. children and young people directly request,to induce their parents or third to the purchase of the applied goods or services,
  3. which use special confidence, which children or young people have to parents, teachers and other men of confidence, or
  4. children or persons under age without entitled reason to dangerous situations to point.

Advertisementfor alcoholic beverages neither to children or young people nor by kind of the representation may address themselves children and young person particularly respond or her with consumption of alcohol represent. Same applies to tobacco advertisement in Telemedien.

Other program contents, which address children or young people,must be separate from advertisement. In the surrounding field one otherwise for children or young people of aligned program may not be spread advertisement, “… their contents are suitable to impair the development from children or young people to their own and communityable personality".

Advertisement, which addresses itself to children or young people or is used with the children or young people as actors, may “… not the interests of children or young people harm or their inexperience use “.

Further see:

tobacco advertisement

Also in the area must be transferred of the advertisement your-genuinly into national right. But periods are agreed upon in each case. If these are not kept, the national right continues to apply first.

Becomes visiblefor example at the prohibition of the tobacco advertisement, which was not converted despite agreement within the European Union in Germany and in Luxembourg yet into national right. Otherwise Germany and Luxembourg risk a complaint before the European Court of Justice.

The tobacco advertisement is afterGuideline 2003/33/EG of 26. May 2003 ua. to limit to publications, which are intended for persons active in the tobacco trade exclusively. All forms of the radio advertising for Tabakerzeugnisse are forbidden. Sponsoring i.w.S. transnational meetings is likewise forbidden.

advertising effect research

those Learning psychology confirms empirically that a topic, thus also a product name, remembers better into the memory, if it is become acquainted with in an emotional exciting context. Such an emotional excitation can be caused both by sexual allusions, and by fear, Disgust or rage.

The brain research identifies by functional picture-giving procedures (e.g. functional magnet resonance tomography, fMRI) the brain areas, which are involved in the memory facilitated by emotions (with positive emotions under others the Hippocampus and with negative emotionsthe almond core).

The appropriate Aufmerksamkeitsstrategieen investigates the advertising psychology in connection with the psychology of selling.

the so-called clarify

functions of the advertisement

[work on]

to representation of the communication process the representation of the communication process. Communication formula of Harold D. Let-leave (1948):

Who says which in which channel to whom with which effect.
(Who says what effect in which channel tons whom with what.)

  • who says → transmitters → Kommunikatorforschung (enterprise, Kommunikator)
  • which → contents → statement research / Contents contents of (message)
  • in which channel → medium → media research (advertising medium, salesman)
  • to whom → receiver, listener → recipient research / public research (goal person, target group)
  • with which effect → effect → impact research (communication success, image, attitude)


has meaning meanings smelling pool of broadcasting corporations 1988the different goal levels of the advertising function represented

  • economic advertising goals
    • profit
    • amount covered
    • conversion
    • Abverkäufe
    • market share
  • economic advertising goals
    • Unterbewusstsein
      • emotions
      • of needs do not wake
      • motivation
      • of desires wake
    • consciousness-shaping
      • attention
      • interest
      • admittingness
      • image
      • attitudes change
      • creation of utilizable value conception
      • convincing
    • behavior activation
      • purchase
      • use
      • recommendation
work on []

Advertisement after different dimensions

a goal of the advertisement

  • Einführungswerbung
  • expansion advertisement
  • preservation advertisement
  • advertisement for industries (“Good wants” advertisement)

number of the Umworbenen

  • single advertisement
  • mass advertisement

number of the recruiting

  • however-recruiting
  • collective advertisement

contents of the advertisement

sales development

  • cyclic advertisement
  • anticyclical advertisement

articlethe advertisement

  • product advertising
  • image marketing
  • industry advertisement

addressed circle of acquaintances


advertising medium, means of publicity

of the advertising media is the medium, which carries the actual message by organization (means of publicity) to the consumer. The quality of an advertising mediumwith the help of thousand-he contact price (TKP), the price for 1,000 reached potential prospective customers each is measured.

Advertising medium:

A course of the Rhine Haardtbahn with full surface complete advertisement
Flyer on the road

strange advertising medialike rockets or the international space station EAT, the human skin or food extend the pallet apparently boundlessly.

A new advertising medium is the Couponing used since 2003, which is in the reason the electronic form of the earlier trading stamps. Increase thatAt the beginning of the past century already led customer connection from view of the enterprises and the request of the customers for discounts in times of the recession to high acceptance and spreading of such programs.

Most well-known modern example is company co-operation “Payback “. Such discount programsare disputed with data-security commissioners. Enterprises can unite all transacted purchases with the time to a purchase profile, and so individual customers with individualized offers purposefully to address.

Means of publicity:

expenditures for advertising after advertising media in Germany

annually, 2001 - 2004

Advertising medium 2001 per cent 2002 per cent 2003 per cent 2004 per cent
of daily papers
5 642.16
- 14.0
4 936.70
- 12.5
4 454.90
- 9.8
4 500.50
+ 1.0
4 469.03
- 5.1
3 956.41
- 11.5
3 811.27
- 3.7
3 860.38
+ 1.3
advertisement by post office
3 255.78
- 3.7
3 334.67
+ 2.4
3 303.87
- 1.0
3 398.43
+ 2.9
public magazines
2 092.45
- 6,9
1 934.79
- 7.5
1 861.50
- 3.8
1 839.20
- 1.2
indicator sheets
1 751.00
- 2.3
1 702.00
- 2.8
1 746.00
+ 2.6
1 836.40
+ 5.2
listing media
1 269.40
+ 0.1
1 249.90
- 1.5
1 219,51
- 2.4
1 195.73
- 2.0
technical periodicals
1 074.00
- 15.2
- 10.1
- 9.2
- 1.4
external advertisement
+ 1.8
- 6.1
- 0.5
+ 1.4
sound broadcasting
- 7.5
- 12,2
- 2.7
+ 6.9
on-line offers
+ 20.6
+ 22.7
+ 8.4
+ 10.2
weekly papers
+ 3,3*
- 6.6
- **
+ 9.2
- 2.8
- 5.7
+ 0.1
- 8.7
89.50 ***
+ 8.2
+ 5.3
entire 21 722.96 - 7.1 20 141.16 - 7.3 19 280.54 - 4.3 19 588.71 + 1.6

net data in million-euro after departure of quantityand mark discounts as well as intermediary commissions, before discount payments, without production costs.
* Because of different representative office in the group of collections only causes comparably.
** Comparison with the previous year not possible: A participating publishing house defined 2002 inadvertently conversions of the expenditure for weekday uch as conversions of the Sunday newspaper. Because of anonymity thatTurnover collection is not possible a retroactive correction.
*** Zeitungssupplements: Starting from 2001 the selling and indicator proceeds are charged with one another and represented only as total result.
Source: Central association of the German advertising economy (ZAW)

current: Enterprises have 2005 approximately 19.1 billion euro forAdvertisement spent. The stock exchange sheet news type character stock exchange sheet new type character of 13. January 2006 quotes Marktforschungsinstitut Nielsen Media Research: Expenditures by approximately 961 million euro increased, a plus of 5,3 per cent - advertising market for the third time in consequence grown. The television booked alsoapproximately eight billion euro (plus 4,2 per cent) the largest gross proceeds of all media.

The increase of the expenditures for gross advertising is to be due to a large extent to self-advertisement of the media. Those would have increased their expenditures by 350 million euro. Auxiliary business such as book and CD editions for examplewere strongly applied. Also because of the football WM the market will grow 2006 by seven to eight per cent.

On-line advertising market grew 2005 by 60 per cent opposite 2004 [1].

conception and conversion

advertising concept

that Advertising concept sets the general frameworks, on which all organization measures of a Werbekampagne have to depend. In the rough one the concept gives the points to Consumer Benefit, Reason Why and Tonality (e.g. the use of attraction words) forwards.

The requirements of onesuccessful advertisement are:

  • Attention strength
  • relevance
  • reliability
  • memory
  • continuity

the more the advertisement these criteria fairly, the more largely is their chance that it causes, what it will cause is. With the conception CoPy - one knows strategy (text strategy) an efficientAdvertisement in the sense of these requirements develop. Starting point is thereby the CoPy analysis.

As example of the advertising concept of a consumer goods offerer can the Geiz is geil Kampange be considered:

  • Consumer Benefit:
    Here you get electronics, Entertainment and housewares of all kinds.
  • Reason Why:
    “Geizis geil " and we are the cheapest.
  • Tonality:
    Remarkably, erotism of favourable prices, decay.

The process of the Werbeplanung and - execution can after Hans's Christian points to be as follows outlined:

  1. Marketing goals
  2. of advertising goals
  3. advertising budget
  4. definition of the advertising objects
  5. definition of the advertising subjects
  6. definition thatAdvertising message
  7. selection of means of publicity
  8. Pretest
  9. selection of the advertising media
  10. selection of the time and region
  11. advertising execution
  12. Werbekontrolle

attention process

Erinnerungswerte bei zeitlich unterschiedlicher Verteilung der Kontakte nach Zielske (1959,1980) bei massiver (Kurve I) und verteilter (Kurve II) Schaltung von Werbung. Quelle: Aufsatz "The remembering and forgetting of advertising" / Hubert A. Zielske. - 1969 In: "Measuring advertising effectiveness." - Homewood, Ill. [u.a.] : Irwin, (1969), S. 175-181
of reminder values with temporally different distribution of the contacts after Zielske (1959,1980) with more substantially (curve I) and more distributed (curve II) circuit of advertisement.Source: Essay “The remembering and forgetting OF advertising”/stroke ore A. Zielske. - 1969 in: “Measuring advertising effectiveness.” - Homewood, Ill. [among other things]: Irwin, (1969), S. 175-181

stroke ore A. Zielske examined the development of reminder values from a publicity campaign, overone period of 13 weeks ran (curve I accompanying) and with that the goal persons a contact per week had, with whom, which over 52 weeks (curve II) once in the month a contact was manufactured. The action spectra do not only have different ones Peak values with 63% (curve I) and 48% (curve II), but them occupy also between the number of contacts and the Werbeerfolg a clear correlation.

attention strategies

  • repetition: A part of the advertisement concentrates on it, a markto apply by repetition. After on the average 7 perception procedures a message consciously remembers.
  • Reference on prominent users (“volume daring on argument”): As advertisement suggest, which product generally used in a higher social layer, is the inducement is increased.
  • Testimonies: Often triesthe advertisement, the better quality of their product by the certification of the ordinary consumer to promote the experts or the two. “three from four dentists recommend…”. This refers frequently a resemblance to the authority also. (spin doctors)
  • artificial shortage: Itis tried to let select humans fast without long consideration and, then the advertisement hopes to encourage to fast purchase: “, You slam sellout shut now! ”
  • Association: Often tries the advertisement, its product visually or auditiv with desirable circumstances tooconnect, in order to let it appear just as desirable. The use of attractive models, pictorial landscapes and similar representations is common.
  • Werbefigur the gestresste housewife gets a large strong man for problem solution supplied, (masters prop. by or the general) and/ attractive Verwendungseingschaft is projected on such a figure (HB males or Mr. emperor).

Such concepts in the range of the B-ton-C - do not leave themselves advertisement so easily on the B-ton-b - market transfer. Here the sales promotion or the public work takes over and/or. the Sponsoring appropriate functions opposite the institutionalized customers.


the Personifizierung (humanizing) abstract terms, for example impurities leans against the concept of the positively occupied Werbefigur and turns around the emotional association.

Grey veils or marks becomein the advertising spot to small, haarigen or slimy natures, all the the natural disgust of humans before such disease carriers (z. B. Insects, worms, to wake mites).

Often scientificness is suggested by the representation; Microscopy photographs, white smocks, diagrams.

Shock advertisement

a high attention obtained “taboo or shock advertisement” with negative occupies motives. Shocking advertisement, those by Benetton was particularly coined/shaped (oiled duck, dead children) has explicitly not the interest of product to the goal: “We do not make a High carouse product. Therefore it is important,that humans, who do not buy our sweaters and skirts speak about Benetton. “.

Ulrike Wünnenberg defines 1996 this way of the advertisement as follows: It is “recruiting with “a posed” or realistic picture recording, the emergency, wrong and misery, but, no or only insufficient special purchase has also religious or politically most sensitive topics to contents to the product or enterprise which can be applied exhibits and only and/or. nevertheless with the Logo of a company or a product connected is, however due totheir unexpected motive is suitable to cause reactions of various kind of most violent intensity ".

Since these acceptance can be very different, the effect of shocking advertisement depends always on social, cultural and individual factors. In order provoke to be able to do, requires it on sidesrecruit-rubbing enterprises therefore a founded knowledge more socially like cultural circumstances and collectively accepted habits and their borders.

Also the human Sexualität is suitable, in order to attain by the excess socially more accepted (Seh) habits in the public area the attention of the recipient.Around the turn of the century 1890 to 1905 the Anheuser shrubs showed for the first time at all photographic illustrations in the beer advertisement.

Into the fifties 20. Century one recruited then in the USA isolated again and again also easily erotisch seeming motives. Butonly in the late summer 1953 the first Playboy came - magazine in the USA on the market. A woman was illustrated for the first time perfectly naked (erotisch) in a regular magazine, which was intended for the broad public.

With that at that timestill young Marilyn Monroe as pin UP Girl and the accordingly switched adverts of the Playboy the Slogan was coined/shaped “sex sells “as such and the appropriate advertising surrounding field was generally accepted and used.

The Mainzer coffee manufacturer Nescafe brought 2005 in the summer forthe product “K-fee” a high-shocking advertisement raus. During e.g. a car peacefully drives, shoots high a halfdrunk man, and walks hysterisch. However Nescafe had to reset the advertisement, because humans with weak heart at heart lawns died. K-fee-Slogan: Coffee inhigh doses

current: The Federal High Court loosened its iurisdiction to “feeling-stressed advertisement” in a judgement of 22. September 2005, I ZR 55/02. It is new that an advertisement is not unfair alone therefore, because it interest to buy -- without material connection with thatapplied commodity -- considerably by speech of social feelingfeeling feeling wakes (Auslobung of a donation at environmental protection organization).

meaning of the attention threshold


classical advertisement looks for a high portion of attention (awareness) for the applied thing into manufacture their specific target group.

Dangerous it is however if a product name is so far accepted that it develops in the course of the time as Gattungsbezeichnung generally linguistic usage, and then as registered registered trade mark loses the mark-legal protection.

Examples for this are “Tesa film “(and/or. “Tixo” in Austria), the filter bag of Melitta, “Walkman “or the” gap tablet “, also Leukoplast; likewise jeep, EAGLE OWL and hair dryer (see also list of the term monopolies).

Speed for example can itself asown handkerchief emphasize. However, because it reached a Mind share with the consumers, it is used frequently as equivalent word for each possible handkerchief, even if it itself around completely different mark or even around a “white mark”acts.

Unterschwellige advertisement

Unterschwellige advertisement (English subliminal advertising, sub threshold advertising) designates the form of the advertisement, which cannot be noticed also with strained attention (about, because she consists of very short, tenth of a second-long tachistoskopischen optical messages),it is however subordinated to those that they worked nontheless.

Into the 1950er years this form of the advertisement in the USA, was discussed Great Britain and Germany partially on the basis methodically not perfect test evaluations.

Unterschwellige advertisement became thereafter however as optical and acousticevidently ineffectively fall calmly, however never to completely forget.

The attempt to completely offer effective optical or acoustic advertisement below the attention threshold applies after perception-psychological investigation as ineffective.

The olfaktorische perception, i.e. advertisement opens possible applications over the sense of smell, toExample in the development of the “smell pressure”. (see for this sale).


advertisement, which is noticed, is not identified however as such (Schleichwerbung and/or. product placement) a strong effect can have to minimum costs.

Current articlesinto the film or TV programs are built: the Coca Cola in the hand of the actor, the packing Corn Flakes on the Frühstückstisch.

After the valid guidelines of the public broadcasting stations Schleichwerbung is forbidden in the German television.

consumer goods andCapital goods advertisement

Investititionsgüter such as machine tools, power stations or commercial motor vehicles are differently sold than consumer products.

Klaus baking house (capital goods marketing 2003) explains that itself in the purchase to all ranges marketing and the management for consumer goods offerers and offerers of long-lived goods and services in principle differentStrategies developed.

Capital goods here achievements are called, which are procured by organizations such as enterprises or public administrations, in order to provide further achievements, which do not exist in the distribution at final customer (private households).

Within the range of market communication, esp. thatDifferentiate between themselves advertisement thus Werbestrategie, tonality and CoPy as well as the utilizable value orientation of the advertising message substantially.

In the consumer goods market relevant advertising measures take place rather in the context of the classical advertisement (TV, radio, printed media).

Capital goods advertisement reaches the decision makers however rather by direct marketing.

Those in terms of figuressmaller goal persons (Entscheider of institutionalized Nachfrager) are interested consciously by far more strongly in the material information content of the advertisement, reacted however just as intuitively to confidence-building effect elements and means of publicity as other consumers.

Usually are both on the customer side and on sidesthe offerer of capital goods takes part several persons at the purchase process, whereby the appropriate organizations as Buying center on the customer side and/or. Selling center on the offerer side to be designated.

The advertisement becomes thus primarily in the interaction between these organizationscarried out and not at an anonymous, passive market as with consumer goods marketing platziert. Therefore a certain stability of the relations between manufacturers and customers is characteristic (see. Zentes: Fundamental ideas marketing, 1996, S. 182)

Smaller switching frequency with higher packing density of pertinent utilizable value information more appropriateAdvertising measures lead to the creation of a positive climate for the personal sales talk and to the stimulation of the demand on followers of the paragraph processes (e.g. Support, common research and development as well as training). The advertising measures of the consumer goods market aim however rather at affektive purchase decisions and image formation.

CROSSes graduation and mouth propaganda

if enterprises of different capacity ranges same or similar target groups have and common advertisement to develop, as in the case BMW Z3 and MGM, of CROSS graduation are spoken. Here both parties profit from congruencean image message and at the same time the switching costs lower and/or. Procurement costs of the equipment, e.g. for a motion picture film. Such goals also pursued with showcase exchange in the retail trade, CROSS Selling actions in the field service or common poster advertising of NGO ´s and karitativen enterprises.

Also are personal recommendations (mouth-to-mouth ones) and the solidarity of the target group for “their” marks and the generally positive image of some marks for example been suitable with children or good breadwinners to direct durably the attention on pertinent offers. The recommendation of a sympathetic mark ora satisfying offerer in the circle of acquaintances is one of the sources of main turnover for the so-called.Network marketing (also multi-level marketing), with which independent commercial agents recruit almost exclusively over recommendations. Both CROSS graduation and the so-called. Recommendation marketing uses this congruence of the Meinungsbidlung for the generation of additional prospective customer contactsin the selling.

to direct advertising

S-Kurve als typischer Leseverlauf eines Mailing
reverse curve as typical read process of a Mailing
see also for this the scientific paper direct advertising.

During the direct advertising it concerns a simplified form direct marketing without dialogue element. It differs thus from direct marketingby the absence of Responseverstärkern. In contrast to the general mass advertisement the direct advertising has however a much higher target group security, because it in contrast z. B. to the radio or television commercial personifiziert one uses.

A goal of the direct and individual speech is it that the Umworbene apart from information about products and services is induced, also to the conclusion of a contract in form of an order. The most important element of the direct advertising is the Mailing. It is to be differentiated that the information is the center of attention here andnot the possible answer of the Umworbenen. The organization of such a letter usually follows in the structure the AIDA (marketing) - pattern and realizations from the Usabilityforschung.


still below the by far more complex Controlling - automatic control loop of an enterprisethe simple, linear Werbeerfolgskontrolle stands on the basis the comparative figure before and after an advertising measure. To this result one comes also over the consideration that a Werbeerfolg can be only measured, if the advertising goals are operational. The conversion and the profit oneEnterprise do not fulfill these requirements (charcoal burners/Hörschgen). Both possibilities for the economic progress control result, and kommunikativen success.

economic progress control

on the basis of a calculation of amount covered can be computed the BREAK Even POINT for the employment of the advertisement.As soon as the target group-referred amounts covered exceed special and administrative costs of the measure, the advertisement is worthwhile itself.

One asks the customers directly or evaluates the Response of direct marketing - actions, around a direct connection between the advertising measures and directly backactionable purchase decisionsto manufacture the customer. It is advisable, different Headlines (headlines, keywords), indicator motives and. A. to test against each other, in order to find out, which work best.

This method was developed into the 1920er years in the USA for perfection: Over announcements with Response element,which one switched target-group-specific into different newspapers and magazines, z became. B. tested, which produced Headlines in the anvisierten target group the highest return. Internet and particularly E-Shops offer numerous new possibilities for this procedure.

controlkommunikativen success

the Recognition procedure (also as recognizing procedures it admits) tries to determine, to what extent an advertising contact took place, which the goal persons within a defined time framework remind. The aforementioned saw tooth curve after Zielske was determined in such a way. With that so-called. Star CH test is for example determined,whether announcements to be totally or partly recognized. The problem here is however that an interest in an advertising message does not have to lead yet under any circumstances to purchase intentions. With the similarly oriented Recall procedure the memory of certain advertising message is queried and either

  • the unsupportedMemory (unaided recall) and/or.
  • the supported memory (aided recall) examines.


the entrance to the Werbeberuf is not uniformly regulated. Apart from manigfaltigen possibilities for specialists from beyond here four main training are to be outlined short:

advertising buyer/Mrs.

Werbekaufleute becomesin three-year binary training in accordance with.Vocational training law (BBiG) for an consultingintensive and fastidious activity prepares. They develop Werbestrategien for different media and convert them commercially, by them e.g. Orders plan, accomplish and control as well as the exchange supervise. Possibilities of employment finditself in the advertising industry, e.g. in publicity departments of larger enterprises, with advertising agencies, measurement and exhibition companies or advertising professional associations. The mono occupation becomes without specialization after fields or emphasis in enterprises of the advertising economy and/or. Advertising/marketing departments trained by enterprises, federations and other institutions.

Work on []

Ad writer

the training as the ad writer is not regulated. The entrance into this occupation can run therefore very differently. Usually an employment is as trainee or a trainee the first step into the occupation. In this time, betweenthree months and one year to last, learns the future ad writer knows the bases of writing the text, also “training on the job” mentioned. If one could prove its talent in this time, one is also employed little luck as junior Texter.

MostAd writers are side A RISERs, i.e. before their activity as ad writers had them hardly contact with the industry. Many Texter completed linguistic study before their entrance spirit or. An academic background can be quite helpful for the entrance, is howevergenerally no compelling condition. Crucially alone the creative talent, i.e. the ability, is many, to be able to develop surprising ideas under very close defaults.

Most larger agencies examine this ability on the basis a CoPy test in such a way specified, in that a rowfrom close-to-reality tasks from advertising practice to be solved are. After this test it is then decided whether an applicant is invited to an interview and finally a trainee place receives.

In Germany there are two private training centres, those country widely a very goodCall enjoy: the Texterschmiede and Miami Ad School Europe, both in Hamburg.

advertising commercial artist

of the diagram designers works today nearly completely on computers of based organization. The training is not uniformly, gives it to diagram Design at different professional schools and universities as course of studies(Conclusion diploma), but the term “designer” is not protected.

So developed in the last years, many of it offer a multiplicity of public and private schools the one “designer training” also within the graphic range, why these graduates itself partly also than commercial artistsunderstand.

To the daily work of the diagram designer (today: Communication designer) the production of print products, layout, Drucksatz, illustration, conception and draft, Typografie, photography, drawing, Desktop Publishing, animation, pressure preliminary stage, Web Design, model construction, packing, scanning systems essentially belongs.

Frequently commercial artists Zugangsberufe within the EDP range or an art study have. The university education to the Dipl. - commercial artist is likewise possible and e.g. offers a specialization. in the industrial design, the Gebrauchsgrafik or computer game Design.

advertising photographer

advertising photographer and - fotografinnen manufacture advertising photographs for ranges such as mode photography,Special photography and would style-run. After default of the customers and clients they stress thereby the characteristics or advantages, which are to be emphasized in the advertisement for the respective product.

They photograph the respective arrangement, usually from different points of view. By digital camerasand picture working on technology is to be counted on the fact that in few years over 90 per cent of the advertising photographs on digital way come. The dispatch dealer Neckermann photographs for years exclusively digitally.

For advertising photographers and advertising photographer inside means this new possibilities in the recording technology andPicture design and the necessity, with the new technology trust themselves to make.

Apart from knowledge of the digital photography and the branchenüblichen hard and software one needs creativity, quality loyalty and date reliability in this occupation. In addition advertising photographers Reisebereitschaft should show, itself ina team to insert can and English knowledge have.

In order to be able to work as Werbefotograf/in, training is necessary as Fotograf/in. In addition, specialists from beyond/inside with appropriate professional experience work in agencies or independently.


advertising agency

one Advertising agency is a service enterprise, which takes over for companies and other clients the consultation, conception, planning, organization and realization of advertising and other communication measures. An advertising agency can offer the following achievements:

  • Analysis and prognosis: Market study, consumer research, Mediaforschung
  • development ofCommunication strategies (strategic planning)
  • conception, organization and production of advertising measure name
  • analysis and control of the advertising effect

Design agency

a Design agency is a Dienstleister, that on the development of Corporate Design (uniform appearance in the long term), Branding (mark development)and information Design is specialized. In detail that is the definition of Design constants -- Coloredness, Typografie, figuration and picture language.

Internet agency

Internet agencies are specialized Design offices/advertising agencies, which take over conception, organization and programming of web pages and Internet portals.

Internet agencies convert either totalresponsible on-line the part of integrated marketing concepts or take over only subtasks, like search machine marketing and Webcontrolling.

Thus Internet agencies on-line of marketing concepts compile organization over the pure web pages - outside. Thus an integrated solution develops. In addition the agency arranges Content management systems (CMS Redaktionssyteme), new type character - distribution systems, Webcontrollingsoftware and provides for integration of external volume of data, product data bases, member/customer data banks.

federations and organizations

German advertising advice

of the 1972 created German advertising advice is self-discipline acres the organ of the communication economy and worksas conflict automatic controllers between complaint leaders from the population and advertisement-driving enterprises. Four central of yardsticks form the basis for its decision:

  1. the general laws,
  2. the advertising-legal regulations, which forbid the unfairness and deception in the advertisement,
  3. the behavior rules of the German advertising advice:for the advertisement with and before children in the television and sound broadcasting, for the application of alcoholic beverages,
  4. the up-to-date dominant view over custom, behaviour and moral in the society.

The advertising advice publishes annually in the spring and autumn so-called. GWA monitors, branch reports to central topics of interest. The GWA belonging advertising agencies 200 agencies of Germany represent approximately 82 per cent of the sales volume of the Top; thus the GWA has industry relevance.

central association of the German advertising economy

different than in all other industrial nations are in Germany unites all groups in a controlling body, ranking among the advertising economy.

That 1949 created central association of the German advertising economy ZAW registered association. (ZAW) predominantly federations belong, whose members operate restaurant economics, prepare, accomplish, arrange and mediate.

At present 41 organizations are in the ZAWunited, arranged into the four ranges:

  • advertisement-driving economy (14)
  • advertisement-accomplishing and means of publicity manufacturer (22)
  • advertising agencies (1)
  • Werbeberufe and market and social research (4)

the ZAW represents the advertising economy in its fundamental positions outward and forms the “round table” for the formulationthe common policy and in the advertising business took part the reconciliation of interests of all. This is noticed by the committees of the ZAW.

The protection of interests of the ZAW outward takes place primarily in the form of expressions of opinion and statements in relation to legislation and executive - begunof the Bundestag, Bundesrat and Bundesregierung over land parliaments and land governments up to the municipalities as well as the institutions of the European union.


the IVW (information community for the statement of the spreading of advertising media e. V.) 1949 became asSubsidiary organization of the central association of the German advertising economy (ZAW), constituted short before, based and 1955 as registered non-profit association with seat in Bonn legally verselbständigt.

As neutral checking device the IVW pursues the purpose according to statute, for the promotion of the truth and clarity thatTo procure and make available advertisement and thus to the safety device of a genuine competition comparable and objectively determined documents over the spreading from advertising media to.

Originally as mechanism to edition control of printed media production, the field of activity of the IVW in the course of the decades became upfurther media expanded, i.e. since poster advertising and means of transport advertisement, Filmtheater, radio media, periodic electronic data media and on-line media, to which special in each case guidelines apply.

Überflutung mit Werbung (Brooklyn, New York City)
Flooding with advertisement (Brooklyn, New York town center)

see also


  • Clausen, Lars: Elements of oneSociology of the restaurant advertisement. Opladen: West German publishing house, 1964
  • Felser, George: Advertising and consumer psychology, spectrum academic publishing house, 2001. - ISBN 3-82741-105-X
  • Hopkins, Claude C.: My would run in Advertising & Scientific Advertising. Reprint, Lincolnwood, Ill. /USA 1966
  • Ogilvy, David: Ogilvy over advertisement. Dt. Expenditure., Duesseldorf: Econ, 1984
  • Pflaum, Dieter/Bäuerle, Ferdinand/Laubach, Karen (Hg.): Encyclopedia of the advertisement. - 7. updated edition. Munich: Publishing house modern trend industry, 2002. - ISBN 3-47821-287-1
  • Reinhardt, Dirk: From the advertisement to marketing. Münster, 1993.
  • Schweiger, G./Schrattenecker,G.:Advertisement. An introduction. Unit ash books M, volume 1370. 6. revised Aufl., 2001. - ISBN 3-82521-370-6 (popular text book for introduction to the topic)

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