of materials are media of purely material nature, which are continued to process in production processes as work articles and into the respective final products to be received. Usually it concerns thereby solids. The quality and the characteristics of the final products or semi-finished materialby the choice of more or less suitable materials are crucially affected.
Table of contents
with respect to the today's materials technology differentiates one generally five groups of materials:
- Metals (z. B. Iron)
- of nonmetals (z. B. Graphite)
- organic materials (z. B. Wood, plastic)
- inorganic non-metallicMaterials (z. B.Ceramic(s), glass)
- of semiconductors (z. B. Silicon)
in addition the composite materials represent a combination of materials of several groups of materials.
A further organization possibility differentiates after:
history of the materials
In 8. Millenium v. Chr. the technical use of metals began. Firstwith gediegenen (elementarily occurring) metals such as gold, silver and copper one worked. The value in use of these materials was however still too small, which led to the discovery and production of the first alloy, i.e. the bronze. The Erschmelzung ofBronze already presupposes a perfected mining industry for copper - and Zinnerze . In addition smelting techniques were necessary. Those ever better control of these technologies led finally to the fact that also iron could be smelted. After the three-periodic system after the respective periods become thatmost progressive assigned materials designation (see also major item Archäometallurgie).
Parallel to it the need according to materials for the building industry ( stone, wood), blow and pass weapons, coins (metals) and household effects with the emergence of settlements and cities (z grew. B. Ceramic(s) containers, Glass art).
technological material properties
- Federal Ministry for education and research (Hrsg.): Material worlds. Discoveries in the cosmos of the materials (on-line)