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Werner Heisenberg 1901 in peppering castle in a professor family one bore. Its father was the Byzantinist August Heisenberg. Heisenberg was new pathfinder. It visitedresidents of Munich the Maximiliansgymnasium. Its study of physics in Munich under Arnold Sommerfeld it locked in the minimum study time of three years, attained a doctorate “over stability and turbulence of flow directions”, became 1924 assistant of max fount in Goettingen and cooperated Niels bore in Copenhagen. In the following years it justified quantum mechanics with max fount and Pascual Jordan. With only 26 years Heisenberg was appointed 1927 as a professor to the University of Leipzig; to 1932 it received the Nobelpreis forPhysics. From 1942 to 1945 Heisenberg led the institute for emperor William for physics in Dahlem and taught besides as a professor at the citizens of Berlin university, where he was involved in the uranium project of the office for army weapon.
Was from 1945 to 1946 Heisenberg with the other prominentResearchers of the uranium project of the national socialists in England interns. In postwar Germany he became a director of the institute for Max-Planck for physics in Goettingen from 1946 to 1958, from 1958 to 1970 was he a director of the institute for Max-Planck for physics and terrestrial physics in Munich. Heisenbergwas besides president of the Alexander of Humboldt donation.
With his Mrs. Elisabeth (geb. Schumacher), which he married 1936, had Heisenberg sieves children, under it genetics professor Martin Heisenberg. Its daughter Christine Heisenberg is since 1966 with of Thomas's man grandchild Frido man marries.
for Heisenberg and the policy
political Heisenberg conservative ideas stood close, without supporting however the ideology of the national socialists. It nevertheless remained after 1933 in Germany, during famous physicist colleagues such as Albert Einstein and Erwin Schroedingerinto the emigration were forced. This circumstances were often accused to him later. Between 1933 and 1945 Heisenberg however attacks of the National Socialist oriented German physics had to erwehren himself, which wanted to keep the physics of allegedly Jewish infiltrated quantum physics free.
In the post-war period Heisenberg was close personally to Konrad Adenauer , used themselves for strengthened nuclear research, rejected a military use of the nuclear energy however at the same time. Together with seventeen further physicists it turned in the Göttinger communist manifesto against an atomic rearmament. At the same time it attacked the left student movement sharply, from which it stated, it the errors of the national socialists would repeat.
By it measurable sizes as not-exchangeable operators, carried out he described a crucial break with classical physics and put the basis for a consistent formulation of quantum mechanics. With the uncertainty relation it gave a descriptive, although often misunderstood interpretation to its realizations.
It made further important contributions to Nuclear physics (introduction of the isospin) and to elementary particle physics. In the post-war period it did not succeed to it despite respectable individual performances no more to find the connection to the international research happening; in particular its attempt of a uniform field theory had not been up to to the experimental factsand must be considered as on the whole line failed.
For its work to quantum mechanics, in particular for the quantitative explanation of the hydrogen spectrum, he was distinguished 1932 with the Nobelpreis for physics. 1933 were lent to it the Max-Planck medal.
At the beginning of the The Second World War became it and other physicists (e.g. Otto cock and Carl Friedrich of Weizsäcker) into the office for army weapon appoint. Their task in the context of the uranium project in such a way specified should be to find application type of the nuclear fission.
Heisenberg turned out during the NS timewith its opinion to the quantum theory in conflict with the so-called. „arischen physicists “, everything in front Johannes strong. They rejected its theories with the reference, it are a theoretical formalist and „the spirit of Einstein's spirit “. Strongly 1937 in that publishedSS-newspaper „the black corps “an article „white Jews in the science “, in whom it attacked above all Heisenberg.
1941 traveled Heisenberg with Carl Friedrich from Weizsäcker to Copenhagen, around Niels bore for the building of a German atom bombto win, which rejected these however for moral reasons. After the war placed Heisenberg its meeting with bores as attempt to prevent the development of the atom bomb quasi on global level. The discovery one of Niels bore written letter madethe science only very late the true motives of Heisenberg accessible.
This discussion was dramatisiert of Michael Frayn under the title Copenhagen (1998) as play. Different speculations to discussion contents are discussed from the aspect of the involved ones (Heisenberg, bore, Bohrs woman) andpossible motives analyzes.
Heisenberg and several of its colleagues were arrestiert after the war and spent some months in war shank in England.
Later he was appointed the director of the Max-Planck company for physics and atomic physics and was very actively than advisors thatScience politics of the government of the Federal Republic of Germany.
In April 1957 Heisenberg spoke himself with seventeen core physicists in Germany against the equipment of the German Federal Armed Forces with nuclear weapons out (Göttinger eighteen).
Under its not-specializedscientific writings its autobiography protrudes: „The part and the whole. Discussions in the periphery of atomic physics “(1969). Out over four decades distance reconstructs Heisenberg dialogues, which illustrate, as its contributions to quantum mechanics in close exchange with friendlyMitforschern (Arnold Sommerfeld, Niels bore, Wolfgang Pauli u.v.a.) were compiled.
Well-known pupils of Heisenberg are among other things the physicist and philosopher Carl Friedrich of Weizsäcker, the so-called. „Father of the hydrogen bomb “ Eduard plate, the later Nobelpreisträger Felix Bloch, the today's ödp - Federal leader Klaus Buchner, the carrier alternatives of the Nobelpreises, Hans Peter dry and the physical chemist Friedrich dog.
- David C. Cassidy: Werner Heisenberg. Life and work. Spectrum more academicallyPublishing house, Heidelberg 1995, ISBN 3-86025-315-8
- Werner Heisenberg: The part and the whole. Piper publishing house, 2001, ISBN 3492222978
- Werner Heisenberg: Order of the reality. Piper publishing house, 1989, ISBN 3492109454
- Werner Heisenberg: Physics and philosophy. S. Hirzel publishing house, 6. Up.2000, ISBN 3-7776-1024-0
- Werner Heisenberg: Transformations in the bases of the natural science. S. Hirzel publishing house, 12. Edition 2005, ISBN 3-7776-1366-5
- Paul Lawrence rose: Heisenberg and the Nazi Atomic Bomb Project, 1939-1945: A Study in German Culture. University OF CaliforniaPress, 1998, ISBN 0520210778
- Marks of Walker, German national Socialism and the Quest for Nuclear power 1939-49, Cambridge UP 1989
- Michael Schaaf: Heisenberg, Hitler and the bomb. Discussions with time witnesses. GNT publishing house, Berlin 2001
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|ALTERNATIVE NAME||Heisenberg, Werner Karl|
|SHORT DESCRIPTION||physicist, Nobelpreisträger|
|DATE OF BIRTH||5. December 1901|
|PLACE OF BIRTH||peppering castle|
|DYING DATE||1. February 1976|