Werner von Siemens

Ernst Werner von Siemens (birth name: Ernst Werner Siemens, since 1888 of Siemens, * 13. December 1816 in Lenthe with Hanover; † 6. December 1892 in Berlin) was a German inventor, founder that Electro-technology and Industrieller.

To Werner von Siemens

table of contents

Life

childhood and training

Ernst Werner became 1816 as a fourth child of the property tenant Christian Ferdinand Siemens and its wife Eleonore, geb. Dyke man, born. After the removal in the year 1823 in the Lübecker area, where its father those Domain Menzendorf took over, remained for its parents economic success malfunctioned. Werner Siemens was informed at first by the grandmother and the father, visited one year the citizen school in beautiful mountain, got three years instruction of a house teacher and visited finally forthree years the Katharineum in Luebeck. It left the High School 1834 however prematurely without formal conclusion. It wanted to seize gladly a practical-scientific occupation, but permitted the economic situation of parents no study. After the death of the nut/mother in July1839 and the father in January 1840 Werner had as an oldest son the father place for its brothers and sisters to take over.

Werner Siemens als Seconde-Lieutnant der preußischen Artellerie 1842
Werner Siemens as Seconde Lieutnant of the Prussian Artellerie 1842

on the advice of a teacher it applied with the Ingenieurcorps of the Prussian army inBerlin, was however rejected; thereupon it applied with the artillery in Magdeburg and took care of. In the autumn 1835 Werner Siemens was kommandiert as an officer candidate for three years to the citizens of Berlin school of engineering and artillery. Here he got comprehensive trainingon scientific areas, like mathematics, physics, chemistry and ballistics and heard beside lectures at the citizens of Berlin university. This training terminated it 1838 as an artillery second lieutenant.

Second lieutenant Werner Siemens did service in Magdeburg and afterwards in the garrison joke mountain,where he was condemned because of the participation as a second with a duel to five years fortress detention. It is to have transformed its cell in the citadel Magdeburg to the laboratory. It was however soon begnadigt and shifted 1842 to the artillery workshop in Berlin.

citizen of Berlin time

Grab von Werner von Siemens
grave of Werner von Siemens

it remained with the military until 1849 and tried beside with inventions additionally money to make, whereby his work was directed toward practical and fast usable things first. Thus it developeda new automatic controller for steam engines, a press for the production of cast stone and a compression matter. The idea of a run flying machine, about what it corresponded with his brother William, was however not tackled.

As rising entrepreneurs married he at the 1. October 1852Mathilde Duman, daughter of a university professor, with whom it had two daughters and two sons. Mathilde deceased at the 1. July 1865. To 13. July 1869 he married distant relatives, Antonie Siemens, Tochter von Karl Siemens, professor at the agricultural academywith Stuttgart. From this marriage a further son, Carl Friedrich followed .

To 17. February 1887 acquires Werner Siemens that approx. and it transfers 600 hectars large property Berlin Biesdorf inclusive lock 1889 his son William. This leaves the lock parkbetween 1891 and 1898 on 14 hectars extend and by the gardener Albert Brodersen as landscape park extend.

To 6. December 1892 succumbed to Werner von Siemens in Berlin of a pneumonia.

working

electro-technology

in the year 1842it succeeded to Werner Siemens alternatively to provide a Teelöffel from german silver with the help of the direct current originating from batteries with a coat from silver or gold with which it became the founder of the galvanotechnics. For this procedure he received a patent, thatit to a Juwelier sold. With proceeds from this business it sent 18jährigen brother William at that time to its to England, which had continued to progress much at this time in the technology and industrialization as Germany splintered into many partial states.

At the end of of 1846 it developed the electrical pointer telegraph with Selbstunterbrechung. In the year after it invented a procedure around wires with a smooth casing from gutta-percha to provide. This procedure forms to today the basis for the production of isolated lines and electrical cables.

1866 he discovered the direct current generator-electrical principle and built a first dynamo. Siemens believed firmly at the triumphant advances of the electricity, which appeared possible with the dynamo. But there were still too little practicable applications around the new technologyto help to the break-through.

the entrepreneur Werner von Siemens

at the 1. It - still in the main profession officer - created October 1847 with the mechanic Johann George Halske in Berlin the institute for building of telegraphs of Siemens & Halske.The necessary capital for foundation of a firm came from Siemens' cousin Johann George Siemens, the wealthy senior counsel and later joint founders of the German bank. It invested more as 6000 valleys than starting capital against a 20-per cent profit-sharing over six years.

The connectiona rare stroke of luck probably was by Siemens and Halske in technology history, because they complemented each other in almost ideal way. Siemens had the knowledge, the ideas and experimented gladly, Halske designed those infinitely many little things those necessarily was overto make from ideas practically usable devices.

1848 received the recent enterprise a politically important order - the telegraph line from Berlin to Frankfurt/Main, because the German national assembly met there. The line became still in the winter 1848/49 with devices and cables built by Siemens & Halske. That the national assembly king Friedrich William IV. from Prussia to offer wanted, already knew these one hour after the tuning, one week before the emperor deputation at Berlin arrived.

Thusbecame Siemens & Halske at one blow admit and further orders to the building of Telegraphenverbindungen in Prussia and the German states followed. Siemens tried to gain early also on except-German markets a foothold, particularly it with the Prussian telegraph administration soon inControversy turned out and of this over many years no more orders received. It entrusted his brother William with the line of a first foreign address in London. Also in Russia he strove for orders. A first success was 1852 thatOrder for the establishment of Telegraphenverbindungen from Warsaw to pc. Petersburg and of pc. Petersburg to Moscow. 1853 sent his brother Carl to Siemens after pc. Petersburg, in order to supervise the building. Carl worked fast as capable entrepreneurs andfurther orders for the Russian telegraph network followed. 1855 were converted the Russian business under line of Carl into a branch and were established as important support of Siemens & Halske. Orders came also from England, where its own cable factory was established.

There were also setbacks, for example failed to 1864 the transfer of a submarine cable from Cartagena to Oran, which gave sensitive losses to the enterprise. Halske, which hated risky enterprises, required itself to separate from the involving heavy losses address into London. Siemens wanted thatThe address from Siemens & Halske and based 1865 with William and Carl in London the Siemens Brothers & CO abandon, separated brother not. But the diversities of opinion between Halske and the Siemens brothers remained existing and ledAt the end of of 1867 after twenty years to the retreat of Halske from the company. The brothers William and Carl became after separating Halskes the only partners of its brother Werner: Siemens & Halske became the exempt private company of the Siemens brothers.

1870 went to three-yearConstruction period the Indo European telegraph line of London over Teheran to Calcutta with a length of over 11,000 kilometers in enterprise.

Electric locomotive on the industrial show in Berlin 1879
  • 1879 the first electric train and the first electrical road lighting (in Berlin)
  • 1880 thatfirst electrical elevator
  • 1881 the first electrical streetcar (in light field)

social commitment

Siemens thought already early about the fate of its people. The normal remuneration appeared to it not sufficiently: Me the money became like glowingIron in the hand burn, if I did not give the faithful assistant the expected portion. Pure humanitarian attitude was not however, as it wrote in a letter to his brother Carl: It would not be intelligent also from us, itempty to leave in instants of large new enterprises go out. Leading coworkers had already since center of the 1850er years of contracts, which assured success-dependent percentages of profits to them, struggle-lower coworkers got - not contractually specified - premiums. Starting from center of the 1860er Siemens paid& Halske a stocktaking premium in such a way specified at all workers and employees, an early form of the achievement-oriented benefit and a forerunner of the today's profit sharing. All of this were measures around qualified coworkers at Siemens & Halske to be bound and a firm worker trunk tooform.

1872 created Siemens the pension, widow and Waisenkasse, in which also Halske, which did not belong to the enterprise already any longer, took part. A further sozialpolitsche measure was the 1873 effected introduction of the 9-Stunden-Arbeitstags.

honours

1860 Werner becameSiemens of the University of Berlin those was lent an honour doctor. On the world exhibition in Paris 1867, where Siemens issued its generator working according to the direct current generator-electrical principle, it was distinguished with the medal of the French Ehrenlegion. In acknowledgment of his achievements becameWerner Siemens 1874 as a member taken up to the Prussian Academy of Sciences. 1880 he was appointed the secret government advice and 1886 were lent to him the medal Pour le Mérite for art and sciences.

In acknowledgment of its earnings/services around science andSociety became Siemens by emperors Friedrich III. 1888 into the nobility raised. SI - Unit of the electrical conductance was designated after it. During its lifetimes however a certain electrical resistance was called “1 Siemens” or “Siemens unit (SE)”, i.e. thatResisted a mercury column of certain dimensions with 0 °C; this resistance-normally had developed Siemens. 1 SE = 0.944 ohms.

literature

  • Werner von Siemens: Life memories beep he publishing house, Munich 2004, 19. revised and extended edition of the expenditure for original Berlin, Springer, 1892
  • Werner von Siemens:Life memories archives publishing house, Braunschweig 2005 (?), Reprint of the expenditure for original Berlin, Springer, 1895, 4. Aufl.
  • Wilfried field churches: Werner von Siemens. Inventor and international entrepreneur beep he publishing house, Munich 1996
  • Wilfried field churches, Almuth Bartels: Werner von Siemens Ullstein, Munich 2000, ISBN 3-548-35948-5
  • ConradWandrey: Werner Siemens.History of its life and working, first volumes, Munich 1942
  • Wolfgang Ribbe, Wolfgang chess: The Siemens city history and architecture of an industrial site " only to publishing house, Berlin 1985 ISBN 3-433-01023-4

see also

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