of these articles is concerned with the film category, for the literary category sees game west novel.

The Western is a cinema - category, in its center the American myth absolutely, the conquest of the middle one (of the wild) west of the United States instands for nineteenth century.

Justus D. Barnes, from The Great Train Robbery
John Ford's POINT, popular turning place for Western

corresponding works of the literature are usually rated as trivial literature. Substantial characteristics are action place and time: The western part of the North American continentduring its settlement by the settlers coming from the east.

The classical Western is strongly fixed in its acting figures, narrativen elements, places and style means. In the center are usually located the good, occasionally naively working, but militaryful cowboy and/or. Sheriff andits countering part, the criminal, scruplesless rogue. Between the main participants frequently a woman stands, around whom the fight is delivered mostly with guns or fists. The away or the small city, the Saloon with Whiskey and pack of cards, horses, car, which widensLandscape, which is caught in enormous total ones, and which Indian village are typical places of the action. Important elements are frequently also a bank robbery or a Postkutschenraub. Dissolved the conflict at the end is out by a Shoot or Showdown on the main street.Delightful one, because unusual contrasts place the intelligent-modest appearances of actors to the common Einerlei of the category such as Glenn Ford, James Stewart and James Garner (Westernkomödie: Also a Sheriff needs times assistance).

Two central of motives determine the category, on the one hand(self) experience to border, to which „Frontier country dances “, exemplarily in with the wolf, in which the soldier John Dunbar after a failed and misunderstood attempted suicide during a battle in the civil war the army leaves, „around the Frontier toosee, as long as there are it “, as well as the renewal a society by force, the re-establishment of a new, more vital order, after the old order was before already destroyed by force. The four phases of the history of the conquest of the west, earlyIf colonization of the west by covered wagons - Trecks and small settlers, transition penetrate to the civilized society and finally completion of the development by building of railways, Indian wars and civil war into the forests of the east during the English-French crew by means of pathfinders and Indianerscouts, strike themselvesin the individual films accordingly down.

1903 came with the large railway robbery the first Western into the cinema, at a time thus, when there was the wild west nearly still actually. From then on each week new, mostly simple productions ranin styles of Bronco the Bill in the cinemas on, which concentrated on act-ion and force-loaded confrontation between the main figures and concerned themselves few with psychology, complex characters and actions. From then on into the seventies inside can one call the Western the most important category of the film production of the USA, whereby and the fünziger forties may be considered as the high point of the development. Within only three Western it succeeded to change John Ford the category in principle. Is his actor John Wayne first still another an immaculate hero or paternal officer, remains at the end of the black falcon, for one the most complex and vielschichtigsten Western, only a rachsüchtiger loner, who is just as lost and homeless, as by itembitters hunted enemy. From now on there could not be a simple black-and-white design of the Protagonisten more. Due to the Unverrückbarkeit of its elements the Western takes increasingly a development inward, into the depth. This is often done via nearly imperceptible shifts. The Showdown in play the song of death one always still stands for me however the scene exactly, determines one that the anachronistische duel between Henry Fonda and Charles Bronson does not take place on the main street of the city, there in the center of the film, examinesthe straight railway is built, symbol for the recent time, but on a Nebenschauplatz: the backyard of a farm.

Without touching places, figures and course of action, the epische, the psychological Western and finally, for end of the 1960er and at the beginning of the 1970er develop smoothlytying to the end of the classical Westerns the late Western and Italo Western, which deal substantially relentlessly, more zynischer and also occasionally more realistically with their Sujet. Since then pitying lot, DEAD one followed and with the films with the wolf dances , The mission in regular intervals a Revival of this again and again dead-said category.

Table of contents

of the Western the settlement

of the so-called stands for 8 variants 9 literature [work on] more frontier (frontier countries). With this more frontier however only the border of the falling plates, shifting to the west, Trapper is not constant,Goldsucher, settler and cattle breeder meant, actually go it around the confrontation with the own I - around a border experience in double sense thus, on an actual, geographical and, on a metaphysical, individual level takes place.

The Westernheld (cowboy, Trapper or pathfinder), whose Urtypus Davy Crockett and Daniel Boone represent and to which always in the center of the action is located, is, a deeply romantic figure derived in its moral values of the medieval knight. Howthe knight of rider is derived, and the Chevalier of Cheval, is inconceivable the west man without its horse. Thus and with its fray-decorated leather suit he is closer to nature as the civil society, itself in the time that Industrialization and the settlement of the west by white ones krakenartig spread. Even if it explores for it and precedes it, their covered wagons - Trecks states, it thereby inevitably behind itself pulled, then he rejects her nevertheless in the heart and findssich im gleichen Maße auf der Flucht vor ihr. It does not refer the laws, which he follows, from the law books of the cities, it derives it apparently directly from God and from nature . The term Outlaw, someonethus to the colouring positive outside of the laws, has not only due to the preference for law crushers and gangsters, embodied deeply in American consciousness, also the positive hero of the Western places himself is always on its kind a Outlaw -and thus it must come inevitably into conflict with the society. Thus the “good” Outlaw becomes the age Ego of the “bad” Westernhelden. In many Western like the black falcon, The one Who of SHOT Liberty Valance and High Noon becomesthis close relationship between the opponents consciously made the topic of the film. In the man from the west meets Gary Cooper even his former pulling father, in order to come with it into existenzielle conflicts.

This liberty, in the confrontation alsothe own I beyond all the regulating civilization to triumphieren, is the actual core of the settlement of the west made a sea protest for the establishment myth of the United States in the Western. In the Spätwestern the loss of this liberty is brought up for discussion again and again: The last piece countrysettled, the last wild horse is imprisoned, automobiles and machine guns holds introduction. Soon one will have to shift the action to the last uncivilized place, which there is still, space. So neither the designation space cowboy is a coincidence, stillthe impression that the Science Fiction - film the Western in the cinema replaces.

Into SAM Peckinpahs The game Bunch, which plays likewise not coincidentally in Mexico, goes it around a gang apparently gewissenloser Outlaws, those aforementioned by Pike ( William Holden)by its old friend Thornton (Robert Ryan), a former member the game Bunch, to be hunted. In each scene however one marks Thornton that he would rather ride at Pikes side, instead of a horde/hurdle on the side of theTo state law more standing, but zutiefs immoral head money hunter. Thornton, Pike and its game Bunch are aged dinosaurs (in a scene Pike falls even from the horse) by the modern time were survived. They are ugly, dirtily, scruplesless and unsympatisch, but ona place of their heart they possess somewhat that in crucial situations their acting determines. In the central moment, the trick and pivot of the film, they select safe death in one instant of personal liberty with a short „let' s go “, instead of moneyand surviving. Instead of away-riding return they, which have never more a future, to the fortress of the Mexican general Mapache, in order to free their friend „fishing rod “and to find safe death.

fiction andReality

cowboy and Westernheld are art creations of the popular culture, which were invented not later, but in the same moment, when its models in the west explored the country. The Stenograf of the gun hero Duke OF Death in pitying lot is historical reality. The famous Kit Carson was developed from such companion for the groschen booklets the east coast to the novel figure. A material figure named Deadwood thick did not give it, but when increasingly readers of Deadwood thick stories began after Deadwood too pilgern, one took those thereProduction of postcards with the alleged counter-protect the Westerners up.

An almost unique role in the history of the development of the American popular culture takes Buffalo Bill with its circus. Before public it plays there accurately the adventures after, which itshortly thereafter, after it is out-galloped hutschwenkend from the manege into the far prairie, actually in the reality - and in reverse - a congruence of fiction and reality, never returning, experiences. With its legendary Rough Rider Congress is this Verquickungnot to untangle likewise no more. Did the cowboys practice their gun, leaving - and do horse-cheat only, in order to arise in Buffalo Bills show, or were actual this to a component of their daily life in the wild west? Buffalo Bills game west show gastierte alsotheir program also in Europe and thereby for a long time and nickel Novels of the east coast from the house Beadle & Adam provided as a forerunner of the Western film before the film for a far spreading of the game west myth, and can thereby, together with the Dimeare regarded.

mythologies of the state becoming

in the sociology and the culture science the category Western is examined also under the aspect of the national myths and legend formation. The classical, not sow-Irish Western can be described on an essential structure:“in such a way they always tell, like a continent become “civilized” by the courage and Kraft of a man. And at the end the production or re-establishment always stands of national order and/or. Nationalness. “(Rudolf roll ago)

Martin Weidinger describes this circumstances in itsStudy “national myths - male heroes. Politics and sex in the American Western ". The heroes of the Western are “icons of the Machismo” and fight against all resistances for a new order or wanted an old to recover. Alexandra cellar describes this order as:“non-womanlike, non-like a Christian, non-white and non-heterosexually”.

Sex, religion, skin color and sexual orientation are strictly hierarchically arranged and fixed in the classical Western. In addition Weidingers writes roll ago in a FR-review to the study: “Into the sixties 20. Century inside this hasstereotyped Hierarchisierung the USA crucially coined/shaped. The end of the Western falls together with arising student, citizen right, woman and anti-war movement. “

important directors

acquaintance actor

acquaintance Western film composer

acquaintance Western TV serials

  • Bonanza (Bonanza)
  • Deadwood (Deadwood)
  • at the foot of the blue mountains (Laramie)
  • smoking Colts (Gunsmoke)
  • High Chapparal (The High Chapparal)
  • Johnny Hilling, Boor and Billy - the pursued ones (on the trail OF Johnny Hilling, Boor and Billy)
  • the people of the Shiloh Ranch (The Virginian)
  • to the west of Santa Fe (The Rifleman)
  • our small farm (Little House on the Prairie)
  • Dr. Quinn - lady doctor from passion (Dr. To Quinn, Medicine Woman)
  • bend Valley (The bend Valley)

important Western of film history

Year title Direction leading actor
1903 The Great Train Robbery - the large railway robbery Edwin S. Porter George Barnes, franc Hanaway, max of Aronson, Marie Murray
1913 The Battle RK Elderbush Gulch - the orphans of the settlement D. W. Griffith Mae march, Lillian Gish, Lionel Barrymore
1924 The Iron Horse - the iron horse John Ford George O'Brien, Madge Beilamy, Francis Powers, James soft
1929 The Virginian - Trampas - the cattle thief Victor Fleming Gary Cooper, walter Huston
1930 Cimarron - pioneers of the wild west Wesley Ruggles smelling pool of broadcasting corporations DIX, Irene thinness, Estelle Taylor, Wllliam collier
1930 The bend Trail - the large Treck Raoul Walsh John Wayne
1935 call OF theWildly - the call of the wilderness William A. Wellman Clark Gable, Loretta Young
1936 The Plainsman - hero of the prairie Cecil B. DeMille Gary Cooper, Loretta Young
1937 Wells fargo - Frisco express franc Lloyd Joel Mc Crea, Frances DTE
1939 Drums Along the Mohawk - drums to Mohawk John Ford Henry Fonda, Claudette Colbert, Edna May olive, John Carradine
1939 Stagecoach - hell travel after Santa Fe John Ford Claire Trevor, John Wayne, Andy Devlne, JohnCarradine
1939 Destry Rides Again - the large one bluff George marshal James Stewart, Marlene Dietrich
1939 union Pacific - union Pacific Cecil B. DeMille Barbara Stanwyck, Joel McCrea, Akim Tamiroff
1939 Jesse James - Jesse James, man without law Henry King Tyrone power, Henry Fonda, Nancy Kelly, Randolph Scott, John Carradine
1940 The Westerner - the Westerner William Wyler Gary Cooper, walter Brennan, Dana Andrew
1940 The Return OF franc James - revenge for Jesse James William Wyler Henry Fonda of genes Tierney, John Carradine
1943 The Outlaw - outlawed Howard Hughes/(Howard Hawks) Jane trunk, walter Huston, Thomas Mitchell
1943 The Ox-Bow Incident - ride to the Ox-Bow William A.Wellman Henry Fonda, Dana Andrew, AnthonyQuinn, Jane Darwell
1946 Duel into the Sun - duel in the sun King Vidor Jennifer Jones, Gregory Peck, Joseph Cotten, Lionel Barrymore
1946 My Darling Clementine - law of the jungle of the prairie John Ford Henry Fonda, Linda Darnell, Victor Mature, walter Brennan
1948 away Apache - up to the last man John Ford John Wayne, Henry Fonda, Shirley Temple, Pedro Armendariz
1948 talk River - panic at the red river Howard Hawks John Wayne, Montgomery Clift, Colleen Gray, walter Brennan, Joanne Dru
1948 Three Godfathers - traces in the sand John Ford John Wayne, Pedro Armendáriz, Harry Carey jr., Mae march, Ward bond
1949 She Wore A Yellow Ribbon - the devil captain John Ford JohnWayne, Joanne Dru, Ben Johnson, Harry Carey jr., Victor Mc Laglen, John agar
1949 Yellow Sky - lady of the dead city Wiiliam A. Wellman Gregory Peck, smelling pool of broadcasting corporations Widmark, Anne Baxter
1949 Colorado Territory - bird free Raoul Walsh JoelMcCrea, Virginia Mayo, Dorothy Malone
1950 Winchester' 73 - Winchester 73 Anthony man James Stewart, Shelley of winter, Dan Duryea, Stephen McNally
1950 Rio Grande John Ford John Wayne, Maureen O' Hara, Ben Johnson, Harry Carey jr., VictorMcLaglen
1950 The Gunfighter - the sniper Henry King Gregory Peck, Helen Westcolt, Millard Mitchell, Jean Parker
1950 Devil' s Doorway - curse of the blood Anthony man Robert Taylor, Louis Calhern
1950 Wagonmaster - western pc. Louis John Ford Ben Johnson, Joanne Dru, Harry Carey jr., Ward bond
1950 Broken Arrow - the broken arrow Delmer Daves James Stewart, Debra Paget, Jeff Chandler
1951 distance Drums - the devil brigade Raoul Walsh Gary Cooper, Mari Aldon
1951 Across the Wide Misouri - Colorado William A. Wellman Clark Gable, Ricardo Montalban, Adolphe Menjou, Maria Elena Marques
1951 Westward the Women - caravan of the Mrs. William A. Wellman Robert Taylor, Denise Darcel, Hope Emerson, Julie Bishop, John MCI animals
1952 High Noon - twelve o'clock at noon Fred tin man Gary Cooper, Grace Kelly, Thomas Mitchell, Lloyd Bridges
1952 Bend OF the River - Meuterei at the queue river Anthony man James Stewart, Arthur Kennedy, Julia Adam, Rock Hudson
1952 Viva Zapata! - Viva Zapata Elia Kazan Marlon Brando, Jean Peters, Anthony Quinn, Joseph Wiseman
1952 The bend Sky - to the width sky Howard Hawks Kirk Douglas Dewey Martin, Elizabeth Threatt, Arthur Hunnicutt
1953 beautiful ones - my large friend beautiful George of Stevens Alan Ladd, Jean Arthur, Van Heflin, Brandon De Wilde
1953 The Naked trace - naked force Anthony man James Stewart, Janet Leigh, Robert Ryan
1954 Vera Cruz Robert Aldrich Gary Cooper, Burt Lancaster, Denise Darcel, Cesar Romero
1954 Johnny Guitar - if women hate Nicholas Ray Joan Crawford, Mercedes McCambridge, Sterling Hayden
1954 Drum Beat - the lonely eagle of load the River Delmer Daves Alan Ladd, Audrey Dalton, Robert Keith, Marisa Pavan
1954 The far Country - over the death passport Anthony man James Stewart, Ruth novel, walter Brennan, Jay C. Flippen, Corinne Calvet
1954 River OF NO Return- River without return Otto Preminger Marilyn Monroe, Robert Mitchum, Rory Calhoun
1955 The one from Laramie - the man from Laramie Anthony man James Stewart, Arthur Kennedy, Donald Crisp, Cathy O'Donnell
1955 The load Frontier - outsidedeath Anthony man Victor Mature, James Whitmore, Guy Madison, Anne Bancroft, 1956
The Searchers - the black falcon John Ford John Wayne, waits Jeffrey Hunter, Vera Miles, Ward bond
1956 Jubal - the manwithout fear Delmer Daves Glenn Ford, Ernest Borgnine, Rod riser
1956 The load Wagon - the last car Delmer Daves smelling pool of broadcasting corporations Widmark, Felicia Farr, Susan Kohner
1956 The load Hunt - the last hunt smelling pool of broadcasting corporations Brooks smelling pool of broadcasting corporations Widmark, Felicia Farr, Susan Kohner
1957 Gunfight RK the o.k. Corral - two count starting from John Sturges Burt Lancaster, Kirk Douglas, Rhonda Fleming, Jo van Fleet
1957 3:10 ton Yuma - count to three and pray Delmer Daves GlennFord, Van Heflin
1957 Forty Guns - forty rifles Samuel filler Barbara Stanwyck, Barry Sullivan
1957 The Tin star - the star of the law Anthony man Henry Fonda, Anthony Perkins, Betsy Palmer, Lee Van Cleef, John MCI animals
1958 The bend Country - far country William Wyler Gregory Peck, Jean Simmons, Carroll Baker, Charlton Heston
1958 The Left Handed Gun - to one must to believe Arthur Penn Paul Newman, Lita Milan, John Dehner, Hurd Hatfield
1958 one OF the west - the man from the west Anthony man Gary Cooper, Julie London, Lee J. Cobb
1958 The Law and Jake calf - treasure of the Gehenkten John Sturges smelling pool of broadcasting corporations Widmark,Robert Taylor
1958 The Bravados - Bravados Henry King Gregory Peck, Joan Collins, Stephen Boyd
1959 load Train from Gun Hill - the last course of Gun Hill John Sturges Kirk Douglas, Anthony Quinn, Carolyn Jones, Earl Holliman
1959 The Hanging Tree - the Galgenbaum Delmer Daves Gary Cooper, Maria Schell, Karl Malden, George C. Scott
1959 Rio Bravo Howard Hawks John Wayne, Dean Martin, Ricky Nelson, Angie Dickinson, walter Brennan
1959 TheHorse Soldiers - the last instruction John Ford John Wayne, William Holden, Constance Towers
1960 The Magnificent Seven - glorious filters John Sturges Yul Brynner, Steve McQueen, refuge book wood, Eli barrier oh
1960 The Alamo - Alamo John Wayne John Wayne, Laurence Harvey, smelling pool of broadcasting corporations Widmark, smelling pool of broadcasting corporations Boone
1960 Cimarron Anthony man Maria Schell, Glenn Ford, Anne Baxter, Mercedes Mc Cambridge
1960 The Unforgiven - to which one does not assign John Huston Burt Lancaster, Audrey Hepburn, Audie Murphy, Lillian Gish
1960 One Eyed Jacks - the possessed Marlon Brando Marlon Brando, Karl Malden, Katy Jurado, Pina Pellicer
1960 Flamimg star - flaming star Don seal Elvis Presley, Steve Forrest, Dolores Del Rio, Barbara Eden
1962 The one Who of SHOT Liberty Valance - the man, the Liberty Valance shot John Ford James Stewart, John Wayne, Vera Miles, Lee Marvin
1962 the treasure in the silver lake Harald Reinl Lex Barker, Pierre Brice, harsh ore Lom
1962 Ride the High Country - Sacramento SAM Peckinpah Randolph Scott, Joel McCrea
1962 Lonely of acres the good ones - lonely are the courageous David Miller Kirk Douglas, Gena Rowlands, walter matte-strike
1962 The civil were - the civil war (episode in How the west which Won - that was the wild west) John Ford (Henry Hathaway, George marshal, smelling pool of broadcasting corporations Thorpe) John Wayne (Gregory Peck, Henry Fonda, James Stewart, smelling pool of broadcasting corporations Widmark)
1963 Winnetou Harald Reinl Lex Barker, Pierre Brice, Mario Adorf
1963 Hud - the wildest one under thousand Martin ride Paul Newman, Melvyn Douglas, Patricia Neal
1964 by un pugno dollari - for a handful dollar Sergio Leone Clint Eastwood, Gian Maria Volonte
1964 Cheyenne Autumn - Cheyenne John Ford smelling pool of broadcasting corporations Widmark, Caroll Baker, James Stewart, Edward G. Robinson, Karl Malden,
1965 by qualche dollaro in più - for a few dollar of more Sergio Leone Clint Eastwood, Lee van Cleef
1965 major Dundee - Sierra Chariba SAM Peckinpah Charlton Heston, smelling pool of broadcasting corporations Harris, James Coburn
1966 IL Buono, IL gross, IL cattivo - two glorious Halunken Sergio Leone Clint Eastwood, Lee van Cleef, Eli barrier oh
1966 Django Sergio Corbucci Franco Nero, Jose Bodalo, Loredana Nusciak
1966 El Dorado Howard Hawks John Wayne, Robert Mitchum, James Caan
1966 Hombre - one called it Hombre Martin ride Paul Newman, Fredric March, smelling pool of broadcasting corporations Boone, DIANE Ciiento
1968 C' era una volta IL west - playme the song of death Sergio Leone Claudia Cardinale, Henry Fonda, Charles Bronson, Jason Robards
1968 IL Grande Silenzio - corpses pave its way Sergio Corbucci Jean Louis Trintignant, Klaus Kinski
1969 Soldier Blue - the cradle song of the homicide Ralph Nelson Candice mountains, Peter Strauss, Donald Pleasence, Bob Carraway
1969 The game Bunch - The game Bunch - you did not know a law SAM Peckinpah Ernest Borgnine, William Holden, smelling pool of broadcasting corporations O'Brian, Robert Ryan, To Edmond O'Brian
1969 Butch Cassidy and the Sundance Kid - two bandits George Roy Hill Paul Newman, Robert Redford, Katharine Ross, Strother Martin
1971 Little bend one Arthur Penn Dustin Hoffman, Martin balsam, Faye Dunaway, Chief Dan George
1971 … continuavano A chiamarlo Trinità - four fists for a Halleluja E. B. Clucher Terence Hill, Bud Spencer, Yanti Somer
1971 Giù la testa - death melody Sergio Leone James Coburn, Rod riser, Maria Monti, Rik Battaglia
1971 McCabe & Mrs. Miller Robert Altman Warren Beatty, Julie Christie
1973 Pat save to and Billy the Kid - Pat Garret hunts the Kid SAM Peckinpah Kris Kristofferson, James Coburn, Bob Dylan for Billy, Jason Robards
1976 The Outlaw Josey Wales - the Texaner Clint Eastwood Clint Eastwood, Chief Dan George, Sondra curl
1976 The Shootist - the last sniper Don seal John Wayne, Lauren Bacall, Ron Howard, James Stewart, JohnCarradine
1980 Heaven' s gate - Heaven' s gate - the gate to the sky Michael Cimino Kris Kristofferson, Christopher milling, SAM Waterston, Isabelle Huppert, Joseph Cotten
1990 of thanks With Wolves - with the wolf Kevin Costner dances Kevin Costner, Mary McDonnell, Graham Greene, Rodney A. Grant
1992 Unforgiven - pitying lot Clint Eastwood Clint Eastwood, genes Hackman, Morgan Freeman, smelling pool of broadcasting corporations Harris
1995 DEAD one Jim Jarmusch Johnny Depp, Robert Mitchum, Gabriel Byrne
1995 The Quick and the DEAD - fast as death SAM Raimi Sharon Stone, genes Hackman, Russell Crowe, Leonardo DiCaprio, Tobin Bell
2003 open rank - open rank - far country Kevin Costner Robert Duvall, Kevin Costner, Annette Bening



  • Joe Hembus: The Western encyclopedia: 1567 films from 1894 to today. Heyne, Munich 1995
  • Thomas Jeier: The Westernfilm. Heyne, Munich1987, ISBN 3-453-86104-3
  • Martin Weidinger: National myths - male heroes. Politics and sex in the American Western. Campus publishing house, Frankfurt 2006.
  • Rudolf roll ago, war without names. Frankfurter Rundschau v. 29.3.2006

  > German to English > de.wikipedia.org (Machine translated into English)